378 relations: Adam Ulam, Adevărul, Afanasi Matushenko, Agrarianism, Alecu Donici, Alexander Herzen, Alexander Pushkin, Alexandru Hâjdeu, Allies of World War I, Anarchism, Anarchism and Marxism, Anarchism in Russia, Anarchism in Spain, Anarchist communism, Anarchist St. Imier International, Ancient Egypt, Anti-communism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-Masonry, Anti-Russian sentiment, Antisemitism, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Asociația Transilvană pentru Literatura Română și Cultura Poporului Român, Aurel Popovici, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Empire, Élie Reclus, Élisée Reclus, Babeș-Bolyai University, Barbara Jelavich, Basarabia (newspaper), Bern, Bessarabia, Bessarabia Governorate, Bex, Black Hundreds, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Bolsheviks, Boris Nicolaevsky, Boris Savinkov, Boyar, Brill Publishers, Broadview Press, Bucharest, Budjak, Bukovina, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian Navy, Bulgarians, C. A. Rosetti, ..., California Digital Library, Cambridge University Press, Camille Flammarion, Canada, Carlo Cafiero, Carol I of Romania, Censorship in Communist Romania, Censorship in the Soviet Union, Central Powers, Centralized government, Chernivtsi, Chișinău, Children's literature, Christian Rakovsky, Collaborationism, Collectivist anarchism, Comic book, Commercial code (law), Communism, Communist International, Congress Poland, Conservatism, Conservative Party (Romania, 1880–1918), Conspiracy theory, Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, Constantin Mille, Constantin Stamati, Constantin Stere, Constitutional Democratic Party, Contraband, Contrafort, Convorbiri Literare, Cuvântul (magazine), Danube Delta, Demons (Dostoyevsky novel), Dimitrie Sturdza, Dobruja, Dolna, Strășeni, Don Quixote, Dowry, E-book, Eastern Europe, Eastern Front (World War I), Ecaterina Arbore, Economic geography, Editura Minerva, Enemy of the people, Errico Malatesta, Ethnography, Ethology, European Russia, Extradition, Ștefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Familia (magazine), Far-left politics, Far-right politics, Feminism, Ferdinand I of Romania, Finns, Fire in the Minds of Men, Five-Year Plans of Romania, France, Francophile, Freemasonry, Freemasonry in Romania, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Gazetteer, Geneva, Geography of Moldova, George Woodcock, German Empire, German language, Germanophile, Germans, Gheorghe Cristescu, Giurgiu, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand Master (Masonic), Grand Orient de France, Great Purge, Greater Romania, Greeks in Romania, Habsburg Monarchy, Hague Congress (1872), Henri H. Stahl, Henri Matisse, Hetman, History of Moldova, History of the cooperative movement, History of Ukrainian nationality, Hoover Institution, Hristo Botev, Humanitas (publishing house), I. C. Frimu, Iași, Igor Boțan, Ilie Cătărău, Imperial Russian Army, Imperialism, Independence of Moldova, International Workingmen's Association, Interwar period, Investigative journalism, Involuntary commitment, Ioan Slavici, Ion C. Brătianu, Ion Gorun, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Ion Varta, Irredentism, Iulia Hasdeu, Iurie Colesnic, Izabela Sadoveanu-Evan, Jacobin (politics), James Guillaume, James H. Billington, Johann Most, Joseph Conrad, Juozas Gabrys, Jura Federation, Jurnalul Național, Karl Marx, Kate Sharpley Library, King of the Romanians, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Serbia, Left-wing politics, Liberalism in Moldova, Liberalization, Literatura și Arta, Louis-Xavier de Ricard, Luceafărul (magazine), Lucian Boia, Lumea Nouă, Magazin Istoric, Marxism, Masonic Lodge, Max Nettlau, Maximilien Robespierre, Mayor of Bucharest, Memoir, Metropolis of Bessarabia, Mihai Eminescu, Mikhail Bakunin, Milcov River (Siret), Military funeral, Ministry of Internal Affairs (Romania), Minority rights, Modern art, Moldavia, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldova, Moldovan language, Monograph, Moscow, Moskal, Most Holy Synod, Mykolaiv, N. D. 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Crohmălniceanu, Oxford University Press, Pan Halippa, Paris Commune, Parliament of Romania, Pavel Axelrod, Peasants' Party (Romania), People's Party (interwar Romania), People's Radical Party, Persona non grata, Pessimism, Peter and Paul Fortress, Peter Kropotkin, Petrochemical industry in Romania, Petru Cazacu, Philippe Buonarroti, Philology, Plagiarism, Ploiești, Poles, Polirom, Political geography, Political prisoner, Poporanism, Popular history, Prahova County, Prime Minister of Romania, Professional association, Propaganda of the deed, Rapprochement, Rehabilitation (Soviet), Revista 22, Revolution of 1905, Robinson Crusoe, Romania, Romania during World War I, Romanian Academy, Romanian alphabet, Romanian Communist Party, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian diaspora, Romanian general election, 1919, Romanian general election, 1920, Romanian Land Forces, Romanian leu, Romanian literature, Romanian Police, Romanian Revolution, Romanian Social Democratic Workers' Party, Romanians, România Literară, România Muncitoare, Românul, Russian battleship Potemkin, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Provisional Government, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Russification, Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), Saint Petersburg, Scottish Rite, Seara (newspaper), Self-governance, Senate of Romania, Sergey Nechayev, Sfatul Țării, Siberia, Siguranța, Slavic studies, Social democracy, Social Democratic Party of Romania (1910–18), Social geography, Social medicine, Social science, Socialism, Socialist Party of Romania, Socialist Peasants' Party, Socialist Republic of Romania, Socialist Revolutionary Party, Sociology, Sofia Nădejde, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Soviet Union, Spain, Spiritism, Spiritualism, Stanford University, Statistician, Stolypin reform, Sud-Est (magazine), Switzerland, Take Ionescu, Tartarin of Tarascon, Timpul, Topography, Transaction Publishers, Transylvania, Treaty of Bucharest (1918), Trial of the Fourteen, Tsarist autocracy, Tudor Vladimirescu, Tulcea, Two-party system, Ukraine, Ukrainian nationalism, Ukrainians, Under Western Eyes, Union of Bessarabia with Romania, Union of Transylvania with Romania, United States, United States of Greater Austria, Universal suffrage, University of Bucharest, University of California Press, University of Florence, University of New Brunswick, University of Rouen, Vasile Conta, Vasile Ghenzul, Vasile Morțun, Vera Figner, Vevey, Viața Basarabiei, Vitalism, Vladimir Beșleagă, Vladimir Korolenko, Vladimir Tismăneanu, Wallachia, Wallachian uprising (1821), William Crookes, World War I, World War II, Zahari Stoyanov, Zürich, Ze'ev Iviansky, Ziarul Financiar, Zimmerwald Conference, 1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia, 1866 Constitution of Romania, 1907 Romanian Peasants' revolt. 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Adam Bruno Ulam (8 April 1922 – 28 March 2000) was a Polish-American historian and political scientist at Harvard University.
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Adevărul (meaning "The Truth", formerly spelled Adevĕrul) is a Romanian daily newspaper, based in Bucharest.
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Afanasy Nikolayevich Matushenko (Афана́сий Никола́евич Матюшенко, Пана́с Микола́йович Матюшенко, May 2, 1879 - October 20, 1907), was a political activist, a non-commissioned officer in the Russian Black Sea Fleet, and head of the uprising on the Russian battleship Potemkin.
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Agrarianism has two common meanings.
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Alecu (or Alexandru) Donici (January 19, 1806 near Donici, Orhei - January 21, 1865, Piatra Neamț) was a Moldavian-born Romanian poet and translator.
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Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; –) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party).
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Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
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Alexandru Hâjdeu (Алекса́ндр Фадде́евич Хижде́у, 30 November 1811 – 9 November 1872) was a writer of Romanian origin, who lived in Bessarabia (Russian Empire).
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The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies, often defined as self-governed, voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations.
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Anarchism and Marxism are similar political philosophies which emerged in the nineteenth century.
Russian anarchism is anarchism in Russia or among Russians.
Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.
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Anarchist communism (also known as anarcho-communism, free communism, libertarian communism, and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wages, and private property (while retaining respect for personal property), and in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy, and a horizontal network of voluntary associations and workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need".
The Anarchist International of St.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
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Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements, who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
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Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "avowed opposition to Freemasonry".
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Anti-Russian sentiment or Russophobia is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice of Russia, Russians and/or Russian culture.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group.
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The armistice between the Allies and Germany – known as the Armistice of Compiègne after the location in which it was signed – was the agreement that ended the fighting in western Europe that comprised the First World War.
Asociaţia Transilvană pentru Literatura Română şi Cultura Poporului Român (abbreviated ASTRA; in English, The Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and the Culture of the Romanian People) is a cultural association founded in 1861 in Sibiu.
Aurel C. Popovici (16 October 1863 Lugoj, Banat, Austrian Empire – 9 February 1917 Geneva, Switzerland) was an ethnic Romanian Austro-Hungarian lawyer and politician.
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Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.
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The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804.
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Élie Reclus (16 June 1827, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande – 11 February 1904, Brussels) was a French ethnographer who studied what were then called primitive cultures, and an anarchist.
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Élisée Reclus (15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905), also known as Jacques Élisée Reclus, was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist.
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The Babeș-Bolyai University (Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Babeș-Bolyai Universität), commonly known after its abbreviation, UBB, is a public university in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Barbara Jelavich (April 12, 1923 – January 14, 1995) was an American professor of history at Indiana University and an expert on the diplomatic histories of the Russian and Habsburg monarchies, the diplomacy of the Ottoman Empire, and the history of the Balkans.
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Basarabia was the first Romanian language newspaper to be published in Bessarabian guberniya of the Russian Empire in 1906-1907.
The city of Bern or Berne (Bern,; Berne; Berna; Berna; Bernese German: Bärn) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
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Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия Bessarabiya, Бессарабія Bessarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
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Bessarabia was an oblast (1812–1871) and later a guberniya (Guberniya of Bessarabia, 1871–1917) in the Russian Empire.
Bex is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, located in the district of Aigle.
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The Black Hundreds (sometimes The Black Hundred), also known as the black-hundredists (Чёрная сотня, черносотенцы in Russian, or Chornaya sotnya, chernosotentsy) was an ultra-nationalist movement in Russia in the early 20th century.
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Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu (name chosen in 1857, name at birth Tadeu Hasdeu; 26 February 1838 &ndash) was a Romanian writer and philologist, who pioneered many branches of Romanian philology and history.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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Boris Ivanovich Nicolaevsky (Борис Иванович Николаевский) (1887-1966) was a revolutionary Russian Marxist activist, archivist, and historian.
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Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian: Бори́с Ви́кторович Са́винков) (19 January 1879 – 7 May 1925) was a Russian writer and revolutionary terrorist.
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A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Moscovian, Kievan Rus'ian, Wallachian, and Moldavian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
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Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
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Broadview Press is an independent academic publisher that focuses on the humanities.
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Bucharest (București) is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania.
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Budjak or Budzhak (Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian: Буджак; Romanian: Bugeac) is a historical region in the Odessa Oblast (province) of Ukraine.
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Bukovina (Bucovina; Буковина Bukovyna; Hungarian: Bukovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe, divided between modern-day Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
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The Bulgarian Navy (Военноморски сили на Република България, Voennomorski sili na Republika Balgariya) is the navy of the Republic of Bulgaria and forms part of the Bulgarian Armed Forces.
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The Bulgarians (българи) are a South Slavic people who speak Bulgarian and are native to Bulgaria and neighbouring regions.
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Constantin Alexandru Rosetti (2 June 1816 – 8 April 1885) was a Romanian literary and political leader, born in Bucharest into Rosetti family.
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The California Digital Library (CDL) was founded by the University of California in 1997 to take advantage of emerging technologies that were transforming the way digital information was being published and accessed.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Nicolas Camille Flammarion (26 February 1842 – 3 June 1925) was a French astronomer and author.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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Carlo Cafiero (September 1, 1846 – July 17, 1892) was an Italian anarchist, champion of Mikhail Bakunin during the second half of the 19th century and one of the main proponents of anarcho-communism during the First International.
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Carol I (20 April 1839 – 27 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.) 1914), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was the ruler of Romania from 1866 to 1914.
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Censorship in Romania is the censorship in the state of Romania, in four stages: before 1918, 1918-1945, 1947-1989, 1990-Present.
Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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A centralized government (also centralised government (non-Oxford spelling)) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which '''federal states''', local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject.
Chernivtsi (Чернівці́,, Cernăuți; טשערנאָוויץ Chernovich; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut.
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Chișinău (also historically known as Kishinev) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
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Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.
Christian Rakovsky (– September 11, 1941) was a Bulgarian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and Soviet diplomat; he was also noted as a journalist, physician, and essayist.
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Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
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Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is a revolutionaryPatsouras, Louis.
A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.
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In law, a commercial code is a codification of private law relating to merchants, trade, business entities (especially companies), commercial contracts and other matters such as negotiable instruments.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
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The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie; Королевство Польское, Царство Польское, Korolevstvo Polskoye, Tsarstvo Polskoye,, Carstwo Polskie, translation: Tsardom of Poland), informally known as Congress Poland (Królestwo Kongresowe or Russian Poland), created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, was a real union of the Russian part of Poland with the Russian Empire.
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Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
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The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romania's two most important parties, the other one being the Liberal Party.
A conspiracy theory is an explanatory hypothesis that accuses two or more persons, a group, or an organization of having caused or covered up, through secret planning and deliberate action, an event or situation which is typically taken to be illegal or harmful.
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Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (born Solomon Katz; 1855, near Yekaterinoslav (modern Dnipropetrovsk), then in Imperial Russia – 1920, Bucharest) was a Romanian Marxist theorist, politician, sociologist, literary critic, and journalist.
Constantin Mille (December 21, 1861 – February 20, 1927) was a Romanian journalist, novelist, poet, lawyer, and socialist militant, as well as a prominent human rights activist.
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Constantin Stamati (1786, Iaşi – September 12, 1869, Ocniţa) was a Romanian/Moldovan writer and translator.
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Constantin G. Stere or Constantin Sterea (Romanian; Константин Егорович Стере, Konstantin Yegorovich Stere or Константин Георгиевич Стере, Konstantin Georgiyevich Stere; also known under his pen name Șărcăleanu; June 1, 1865 – June 26, 1936) was a Romanian writer, jurist, politician, ideologue of the Poporanist trend, and, in March 1906, co-founder (together with Garabet Ibrăileanu and Paul Bujor — the latter was afterwards replaced by the physician Ioan Cantacuzino) of the literary magazine Viața Românească.
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The Constitutional Democratic Party (Конституционно-демократическая партия), also called Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of People's Freedom, informally Kadets, was a liberal political party in the Russian Empire.
The word contraband, reported in English since 1529, from Medieval French contrebande "a smuggling," denotes any item which, relating to its nature, is illegal to be possessed or sold.
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Contrafort is a magazine based in Chişinău, Moldova.
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Convorbiri Literare (meaning Literary Talk in English) is a Romanian literary magazine published in Romania.
Cuvântul (meaning "The Word") is a literary and political monthly, published in Bucharest, Romania.
The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării; Дельта Дунаю, Del'ta Dunaju) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent.
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Demons (Бесы, Bésy) is an anti-nihilistic novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, first published in the journal The Russian Messenger in 1871-2.
Dimitrie Sturdza (in full Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza-Miclăușanu; 10 March 1833 – 21 October 1914) was a Romanian statesman and author of the late 19th century, and president of the Romanian Academy between 1882 and 1884.
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Dobruja (Добруджа, Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region shared today by Bulgaria and Romania.
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Dolna is a commune in Străşeni district, Moldova.
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Don Quixote, fully titled The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.
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A dowry is a transfer of parental property at the marriage of a daughter.
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An electronic book (variously: e-book, eBook, e-Book, ebook, digital book or e-edition) is a book-length publication in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on computers or other electronic devices.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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During World War I, the Eastern Front (Восточный фронт, sometimes called the "Second Fatherland War" or "Second Patriotic War" (Вторая Отечественная война) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Germany on the other.
Ecaterina Arbore, Arbore-Ralli or Ralli-Arbore (rendered into Russian as Екатерина Арборе or Арборэ - Yekaterina Arborye or Arbore, with "Ralli" as Ралли; 1873 or 1875–1937), daughter of Zamfir Arbore (a socialist militant in Imperial Russia), was a Romanian, Soviet and Moldovan communist activist and official.
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Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.
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Editura Minerva is one of the largest publishing houses in Romania.
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The term enemy of the people is a fluid designation of political or class opponents of the group using the term.
Errico Malatesta (14 December 1853 – 22 July 1932) was an Italian anarchist.
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Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
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The term "European Russia" was used in the Russian Empire to refer to traditional East Slavic territories under Russian control, including what is now Belarus and most of Ukraine (Dnieper Ukraine).
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Extradition is the official process whereby one country transfers a suspected or convicted criminal to another country.
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The Ștefan cel Mare University of Suceava (Universitatea "Ștefan cel Mare" din Suceava), also known as University of Suceava, is a public university in Suceava, Romania, founded in 1990.
The Romanian-language Familia literary magazine was first published by Iosif Vulcan in Budapest from 5 June 1865 to 17 April 1880.
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Far-left politics or extreme-left politics are left-wing politics that are further to the left than mainstream centre-left politics.
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Far-right politics are right-wing politics to the right of the mainstream centre right on the traditional left-right spectrum.
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Feminism is a range of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women.
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Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad; 24 August 1865 – 20 July 1927) was King of Romania from 10 October 1914 until his death in 1927.
The terms Finns and Finnish people (suomalaiset, finnar) may refer in English to ethnic Finns, not including other ethnic groups in Finland, such as Finland Swedes and Russians in Finland.
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Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith is a book about the spread of ideas written by James H. Billington, the current Librarian of Congress.
The Five-Year Plans of Romania (Cincinal in Romanian, plural Cincinale) were economic development projects in Communist Romania, largely inspired by the Soviet model.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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A Francophile (gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards the French language, French history, French culture or french people.
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Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that traces its origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
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The beginnings of Freemasonry in the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (which would unite to form Romania in 1859) date to the 18th century and the activities of the humanist scholar Anton Maria del Chiaro, secretary to voivodes Constantin Brâncoveanu (ruled Wallachia 1688-1714) and Constantine Mavrocordatos (alternately ruled both domains between 1730 and 1769).
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (a; 11 November 1821 – 9 February 1881), sometimes transliterated Dostoevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher.
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A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.
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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
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Located in southeastern Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine.
George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 – January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer of political biography and history, an anarchist thinker, an essayist and literary critic.
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The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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A Germanophile or Teutophile is a person who is fond of German culture, German people, and Germany in general, or even exhibits German nationalism – so to speak – in spite of not being an ethnic German or a German citizen.
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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.
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Gheorghe Cristescu (October 10, 1882 – November 29, 1973) was a Romanian socialist and, for a part of his life, communist militant.
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Giurgiu is the capital city of Giurgiu County, Romania, in Muntenia.
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The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Magnus Ducatus Finlandiæ, Великое княжество Финляндское) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), or Grand Principality of Moscow (also known in English simply as Muscovy), was a late medieval Rus' principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
In Freemasonry, a Grand Master is the title given to the person elected to oversee a Masonic jurisdiction.
The Grand Orient de France (GODF) is the largest of several Masonic organizations in France and the oldest in Continental Europe.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большой террор) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
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The term Greater Romania (România Mare) usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania in the interwar period.
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There has been a Greek presence in Romania for at least 27 centuries.
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The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire (occasionally also styled as the Austrian Monarchy and Danubian Monarchy) is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
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The Hague Congress was the fifth congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), held from 2–7 September 1872 in The Hague, Holland.
Henri H. Stahl (also known as Henry H. Stahl or H. H. Stahl; 1901—9 September 1991) was a Romanian Marxist cultural anthropologist, ethnographer, sociologist, and social historian.
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Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
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Hetman is a political title, historically assigned to military commanders.
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The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded.
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The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives.
The history of Ukrainian nationality can be traced back the Kiev-based kingdom of Kievan Rus' (Kиïвсьκa Pуcь) of the 9th to 12th centuries.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
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Hristo Botev (Христо Ботев, also transliterated as Hristo Botyov), born Hristo Botyov Petkov (Христо Ботьов Петков), was a Bulgarian poet and national revolutionary.
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Humanitas (Editura Humanitas) is an independent Romanian publishing house, founded on February 1, 1990 (after the Romanian Revolution) in Bucharest by the philosopher Gabriel Liiceanu, based on a state-owned publishing house, Editura Politică.
Ion Costache Frimu (&ndash) was a Romanian socialist militant and politician, a leading member of the Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR) and labor activist.
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Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the largest city in eastern Romania and the seat of Iași County.
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Igor Boţan (born April 15, 1960, Cojuşna) is a political analyst from Moldova, expert on political phenomena and elections.
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Ilie V. Cătărău (reportedly born Katarov, last name also Cătărău-Orhei; Bogdan Florin Popovici,,; retrieved October 20, 2011 1888 – ca. 1952) was a Bessarabian-born political adventurer, soldier and spy, who spent parts of his life in Romania.
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The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Imperialism is a type of advocacy of empire.
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The Independence of Moldova was officially recognized on March 2, 1992, when Moldova gained membership of the United Nations.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
In the context of the history of the twentieth century, the interwar period or interbellum (Latin: inter-, "between" + bellum, "war") was the period between the end of World War I and the beginning of World War II—the period beginning with the Armistice with Germany that concluded World War I in 1918 and the following Paris Peace Conference in 1919, and ending in 1939 with the invasion of Poland and the start of World War II.
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Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing.
Involuntary commitment or civil commitment is a legal process through which an individual with symptoms of severe mental illness is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).
Ioan Slavici (January 18, 1848 – August 17, 1925) was a Transylvanian-born Romanian writer and journalist.
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Ion Constantin Brătianu (June 2, 1821 – May 16, 1891) was one of the major political figures of 19th century Romania.
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Ion Gorun (pen name of Alexandru I. Hodoș; December 30, 1863–March 30, 1928) was an Imperial Austrian-born Romanian prose writer, poet and translator.
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Ion Heliade Rădulescu or Ion Heliade (also known as Eliad or Eliade Rădulescu;; January 6, 1802 – April 27, 1872) was a Wallachian-born Romanian academic, Romantic and Classicist poet, essayist, memoirist, short story writer, newspaper editor and politician.
Ion Varta (born December 12, 1958, Larga) is a politician from the Republic of Moldova.
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Irredentism (from Italian irredento for "unredeemed") is any political or popular movement intended to reclaim and reoccupy a lost homeland.
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Iulia Haşdeu (14 November 1869 in Bucharest – 29 September 1888 in Bucharest) was a Romanian poet, the daughter of writer and philologist Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu.
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Iurie Colesnic (born August 12, 1955, Dereneu, Călăraşi) is a Moldovan politician.
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Izabela Sadoveanu-Evan (last name also Sadoveanu-Andrei, first name also Isabella or Izabella; born Izabela Morțun, pen names I.Z.S.D. and Iz. Sd.;, in the National Library of Romania Revista Bibliotecii Naționale, Nr. 2/2003, p.36-37 February 24, 1870 – August 6, 1941) was a Romanian literary critic, educationist, opinion journalist, poet and feminist militant.
During the French Revolution (1789 to 1799), a Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that had been the most famous political club of the French Revolution.
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James Guillaume (February 16, 1844, London – November 20, 1916, Paris) was a leading member of the Jura federation, the anarchist wing of the First International.
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James Hadley Billington (born June 1, 1929) is an American academic and author who taught history at Harvard and Princeton before serving for 42 years as CEO of four federal cultural institutions.
Johann Joseph Most (February 5, 1846 in Augsburg, Bavaria – March 17, 1906 in Cincinnati, Ohio) was a German-American politician, newspaper editor, and orator.
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Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
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Juozas Gabrys or Juozas Gabrys-Paršaitis (February 22, 1880 – July 26, 1951) was a Lithuanian politician and diplomat, best remembered for his efforts to popularize the idea of Lithuania's independence in the West during World War I.
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The Jura Federation (French: Fédération jurassienne) was the federalist and anarchist section of the International Workingmen's Association (also known as the First International), based largely among watch-makers in the Jura mountain range in Switzerland.
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Jurnalul Național is a Romanian newspaper, part of the INTACT Media Group led by Dan Voiculescu, which also includes the popular television station Antena 1.
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Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
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The Kate Sharpley Library (or KSL) is a library dedicated to anarchist texts and history.
The King of the Romanians (Romanian: Regele Românilor) was the sovereign ruler of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947, when Romania was proclaimed a People's Republic following Michael I's forced abdication.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria, also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom was a constitutional monarchy, created on 22 September 1908 (old style), as а result of an elevation of the Bulgarian state to kingdom from principality.
The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania (1866, 1923, 1938).
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The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered Servia in English at the time of its existence, was created when Prince Milan Obrenović, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was crowned king in 1882.
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Left-wing politics are political positions or activities that accept or support social equality, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality.
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This article gives an overview of liberalism in the Republic of Moldova.
In general, liberalization (or liberalisation) refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions, usually in such areas of social, political and economic policy.
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Literatura şi Arta (Romanian for "Literature and Art") is a weekly newspaper from Chişinău, Moldova.
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Louis-Xavier de Ricard (January 25, 1843July 2, 1911) was a French poet, author and journalist of the 19th century.
Luceafărul ("The Evening Star") was a Romanian-language literary and cultural magazine that appeared in three series: 1902-1914 and 1919-1920; 1934-1939; and 1941-1945.
Lucian Boia (born 1 February 1944, Bucharest) is a Romanian historian.
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Lumea Nouă is a middle Neolithic to Chalcolithic (possibly Early Bronze Age) archaeological site in Alba Iulia, Romania.
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Magazin Istoric (The Historical Magazine) is a Romanian monthly magazine.
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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.
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A Masonic Lodge, often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry.
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Max Heinrich Hermann Reinhardt Nettlau (30 April 1865 – 23 July 1944) was a German anarchist and historian.
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Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
The Mayor of Bucharest (Primarul General al Municipiului Bucureşti in Romanian), sometimes known as the General Mayor, is the head of the Bucharest City Hall in Bucharest, Romania, which is responsible for city-wide affairs, such as the water system, the transport system and the main boulevards.
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Memoir (from French: mémoire: memoria, meaning memory or reminiscence), is a literary nonfiction genre.
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The Metropolis of Bessarabia (Mitropolia Basarabiei) is a Moldovan autonomous Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan bishopric of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
Mihai Eminescu (born Mihail Eminovici; 15 January 1850 – 15 June 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, often regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.
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Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (p; – 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist, and founder of collectivist anarchism.
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The Milcov River is a tributary of the Putna River in eastern Romania.
A military funeral is a memorial or burial rite given by a country's military for a soldier, sailor, marine or airman who died in battle, a veteran, or other prominent military figures or heads of state.
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The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Romania (Ministerul Afacerilor Interne) is one of the fifteen ministries of the Government of Romania.
Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.
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Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
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Moldavia (Moldova) is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river.
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The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR or MSSR; Moldovan/Romanian: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ or Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union.
Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south.
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Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recongnised by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
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A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, usually by a single author.
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Moscow (or; a) is the capital and the largest city of Russia with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 16.8 million within the urban area.
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Moskal (Russian and Ukrainian: москаль, Belarusian: маскаль, Polish: moskal) is a historical designation used for the residents of the Grand Duchy of Moscow between the 12 and the 18 centuries.
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The Most Holy Governing Synod (Святейший Правительствующий Синод) was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1721 and 1918, when the Patriarchate was restored.
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Mykolaiv (Миколаїв), also known as Nikolaev (from Russian Николаев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
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The Narodniks (народники) were a socially conscious movement of the Russian middle class in the 1860s and 1870s, some of whom became involved in revolutionary agitation against the Tsardom.
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The National Archives of Romania (Arhivele Naţionale ale României), until 1996 the State Archives (Arhivele Statului), are the national archives of Romania, headquartered in Bucharest.
The National Liberal Party (Partidul Național Liberal, PNL) is a liberal political party in Romania.
The National Library of Moldova (Biblioteca Naţională a Republicii Moldova) is on 31-August-1989 Street in Chişinău.
The National Moldavian Party was a political party in Bessarabia.
A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.
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The National-Christian Defense League (Liga Apărării Național Creștine, LANC) was a virulently anti-Semitic political party of Romania formed by A. C. Cuza.
Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
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Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Nicolae Iorga (sometimes Neculai Iorga, Nicolas Jorga, Nicolai Jorga or Nicola Jorga, born Nicu N. Iorga;Iova, p. xxvii. January 17, 1871 – November 27, 1940) was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright.
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Nicolae Manolescu (b. 27 November 1939, Râmnicu Vâlcea) is a Romanian literary critic.
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Nicolae Constantin Paulescu (30 October 1869 (O.S.) – 17 July 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, and politician, the discoverer of pancreine (later called insulin).
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The Nihilist movement was a Russian movement in the 1860s which rejected all authorities.
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Nikola Pašić (Никола Пашић,; 18 December 1845 – 10 December 1926) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat who was the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, the leader of the People's Radical Party who, among other posts, was twice a mayor of Belgrade (1890–91 and 1897) several times Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbia (1891–92, 1904–05, 1906–08, 1909–11, 1912–18) and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918, 1921–24, 1924–26.) He was an important politician in the Balkans, who, together with his counterparts like Eleftherios Venizelos in Greece, managed to strengthen their small, still emerging national states against strong foreign influences, most notably those of Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire.
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Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Моро́зов; 7 July 1854, Borok – 30 July 1946) was a Russian revolutionary who spent about 25 years in prison before turning his attention to various fields of science.
Nikolai Konstantinovich Sudzilovsky (Николай Константинович Судзиловский, Мікалай Канстанцінавіч Судзілоўскі also known as Nicholas Russel, and Kauka Lukini December 15, 1850 - April 30, 1930) was a revolutionary and scientist.
Nikolay Ivanovich Zhukovsky (Николай Иванович Жуковский; (Ufa –) was a Russian revolutionary and narodnik; he was born in Ufa and died in Geneva. Category:1833 births Category:1895 deaths Category:People from Ufa Category:Russian revolutionaries.
Nikolay Platonovich Ogarev (Ogaryov;; –), was a Russian poet, historian and political activist.
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Tamara Nina Arbore (8 October 1889, Tecuci – 7 March 1942, Bucharest) was a Romanian painter and illustrator, known for her still-lifes.
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The October Revolution (p), officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution (r), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
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The Order of the Star of Romania (Romanian: Ordinul din Steaua a României is Romania's highest civil Order and second highest State decoration after the defunct Order of Michael the Brave. It is awarded by the President of Romania. It has 5 ranks, from lowest to the highest: Officer, Commander, Grand Officer, Grand Cross, and Grand Cross with Collar.
The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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Ovid S. Crohmălniceanu (b. Moise Cahnor Cohn; 16 August 1921, Galați, Romania - 27 April or 28 April 2000, Berlin, Germany) was a Romanian literary critic and science fiction writer.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
Pantelimon "Pan" Halippa (1 August 1883 – 30 April 1979) was a Bessarabian and later Romanian journalist and politician.
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The Paris Commune was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
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The Parliament of Romania (Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților), and the Senate (Senat).
Pavel Borisovich Axelrod (Па́вел Бори́сович Аксельро́д; 25 August 1850 – 16 April 1928) was a Russian Menshevik.
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The Peasants' Party (Partidul Țărănesc, PȚ) was a political party in post-World War I Romania that espoused a left-wing ideology partly connected with Agrarianism and Populism, and aimed to represent the interests of the Romanian peasantry.
The People's Party (Romanian: Partidul Poporului, PP), originally People's League (Liga Poporului), was an eclectic, essentially populist, mass movement in Romania.
The People's Radical Party (Народна радикална странка, Narodna radikalna stranka) of Serbia was a political party formed on 8 January 1881, which was active in the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
In diplomacy, the term persona non grata (Latin, plural: personae non gratae), literally meaning "an unwelcome person," refers to a foreign person whose entering or remaining in a particular country is prohibited by that country's government.
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Pessimism is a state of mind in which one anticipates undesirable outcomes or believes that the evil or hardships in life outweigh the good or luxuries.
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The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропа́вловская кре́пость, Petropavlovskaya Krepost) is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706-1740.
Prince Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian geographer, economist, activist, philologist, zoologist, evolutionary theorist, philosopher, writer and prominent anarchist.
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Romania was one of the largest producers of oil in World War II.
Petru Cazacu (October 6, 1873, Chişinău - August 1956, Bucharest) was a Romanian politician.
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Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti, more usually referred to under the French version Philippe Buonarroti (11 November 1761 – 16 September 1837), was an Italian utopian socialist, writer, agitator, freemason, and conspirator; he was active in Corsica, France, and Geneva.
Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
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Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.
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Ploiești (older spelling: Ploești) is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia in Romania.
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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland.
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Polirom or Editura Polirom ("Polirom" Publishing House) is a Romanian publishing house with a tradition of publishing classics of international literature and also various titles in the fields of social sciences, such as psychology, sociology and anthropology.
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Political geography is a specific field of study within the more general field of human geography that examines how people in specific locations around the world have organized themselves into distinctive political groups, and how they influence and interact with each other.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible.
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The word “poporanism” is derived from “popor”, meaning “people” in the Romanian language.
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Popular history is a broad and somewhat ill-defined genre of historiography that takes a popular approach, aims at a wide readership, and usually emphasizes narrative, personality and vivid detail over scholarly analysis.
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Prahova is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Muntenia, with the capital city at Ploiești.
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The Prime Minister of Romania (Prim-ministrul României) is the head of the Government of Romania.
A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest.
Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is specific political action meant to be exemplary to others.
In international relations, a rapprochement, which comes from the French word rapprocher ("to bring together"), is a re-establishment of cordial relations, as between two countries.
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Rehabilitation (реабилитация, transliterated in English as reabilitatsiya or academically rendered as reabilitacija) was a term used in the context of the former Soviet Union, and the Post-Soviet states.
Revista 22 (22 Magazine) is a Romanian weekly magazine, issued by the Group for Social Dialogue and focused mainly on politics and culture.
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The Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
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Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.
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RomaniaIn English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania.
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The Romanian campaign was part of the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied against the armies of the Central Powers.
The Romanian Academy (Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Bucharest, Romania, in 1866.
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The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
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The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a communist party in Romania.
The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet is the Cyrillic alphabet used to write the Romanian language before 1860–1862, when it was officially replaced by a Latin-based Romanian alphabet.
The Romanian diaspora is the ethnically Romanian population outside Romania and Moldova.
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General elections were held in Romania between 4 and 8 November 1919.
General elections were held in Romania between 25 and 27 May 1920.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
The leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
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Romanian literature is literature written by Romanian authors, although the term may also be used to refer to all literature written in the Romanian language.
The Romanian Police (Poliția Română) is the national police force and main civil law enforcement agency in Romania.
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The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several Warsaw Pact countries.
The Romanian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Romanian: Partidul Social-Democrat al Muncitorilor din Romȃnia, PSDMR), established in 1893, was the first modern socialist political party in Romania.
Romanians (dated: Rumanians or Roumanians; in români or — historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism — rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a nation and ethnic group native to Romania that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language as a mother tongue, as well as by citizenship or by being subjects to the same country.
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România Literară is a cultural and literary magazine from Romania.
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România Muncitoare ("Working Romania" or "Laborer Romania") was a socialist newspaper, published in Bucharest, Romania.
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Românul (meaning "The Romanian"; originally spelled Romanulu or Românulŭ, also known as Romînul, Concordia, Libertatea and Consciinti'a Nationala), was a political and literary newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania, from 1857 to 1905.
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The Russian battleship Potemkin (Князь Потёмкин Таврический, Kniaz Potemkin Tavricheskiy, "Prince Potemkin of Tauris") was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Russian Navy's Black Sea Fleet.
The Russian Civil War (Гражданская война́ в Росси́и Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiy) (November 1917-October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
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The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
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Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
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The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya Pravoslávnaya Tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy Patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Provisional Government (Временное правительство России, translit.) was a provisional government of the Russian Republic established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II (March 15, 1917).
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; r) commonly referred to as Soviet Russia or simply as Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I was a sovereign state in 1917–22, the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union in 1922–91 and a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with own legislation in 1990–91.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, who speak the Russian language and primarily live in Russia. They are the most numerous ethnic group in Russia constituting more than 80% of the country's population according to the census of 2010, and the most numerous ethnic group in Europe.
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Russification is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
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The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of several Balkan countries.
Saint Petersburg (p) is the second largest city in Russia, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city).
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The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction in the United States often omits the and, while the English Constitution in the United Kingdom omits the Scottish), commonly known as simply the Scottish Rite, is one of several Rites of Freemasonry.
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Seara (meaning "The Evening") was a daily newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania, before and during World War I. Owned by politician Grigore Gheorghe Cantacuzino and, through most of its existence, managed by the controversial Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești, it was an unofficial and unorthodox tribune for the Conservative Party.
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Self-governance, or Autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
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The Senate (Senat) is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania.
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Sergey Gennadiyevich Nechayev (or Nyechayev; Серге́й Генна́диевич Неча́ев) (October 2, 1847 – November 21 or December 3, 1882) was a Russian revolutionary associated with the Nihilist movement and known for his single-minded pursuit of revolution by any means necessary, including political violence.
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Sfatul Țării was a council that united political, public, cultural, and professional organizations in the greater part of the territory of the Governorate of Bessarabia in the disintegrating Russian Empire, which proclaimed the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic in December 1917, and then union with Romania in April (according to the old style, March) 1918.
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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
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Siguranța Statului/Siguranța were the several instalments of the secret police of the Kingdom of Romania.
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Slavic studies (North America), Slavonic studies (Britain and Ireland) or Slavistics (borrowed from Russian славистика) is the academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture.
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Social democracy is a political ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a capitalist economy, and a policy regime involving welfare state provisions, collective bargaining arrangements, regulation of the economy in the general interest, redistribution of income and wealth, and a commitment to representative democracy.
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The Social Democratic Party of Romania (Partidul Social Democrat din România, or Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) was a Marxist social-democratic political party in Romania.
Social geography is the branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components.
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The field of social medicine seeks to.
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Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
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Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.
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The Socialist Party of Romania (Partidul Socialist din România, commonly known as Partidul Socialist, PS) was a Romanian socialist political party, created on December 11, 1918 by members of the Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR), after the latter emerged from clandestinity.
The Socialist Peasants' Party (Romanian: Partidul Socialist Țărănesc, or Partidul Socialist Țărănist, PSȚ) was a short-lived political party in Romania, presided over by the academic Mihai Ralea.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) was a single-party socialist state that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists Revolutionaries (the SRs; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры) was a major political party in early 20th century Russia and a key player in the Russian Revolution.
Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior, including its origins, development, organization, and institutions.
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Sofia Nădejde (born Sofia Băncilă; September 14, 1856–June 11, 1946) was a Romanian novelist, playwright, translator, journalist, women's rights activist and socialist.
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The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation of the formerly Romanian regions of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and Hertza by the Soviet Red Army during June 28 – July 4, 1940.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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Spiritism is a spiritualistic doctrine codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec, later called the Kardecist Spiritualism Doctrine, it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".
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Spiritualism is a belief that spirits of the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
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Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University) is a private research university in Stanford, California, and one of the world's most prestigious institutions, with the top position in numerous rankings and measures in the United States.
A statistician is someone who works with theoretical or applied statistics.
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The Stolypin agrarian reforms were a series of changes to Imperial Russia's agricultural sector instituted during the tenure of Pyotr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister).
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Sud-Est (Romanian for "South-East") is a magazine from Chişinău, Moldova.
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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.
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Take or Tache Ionescu (born Dumitru Ghiţă Ioan and also known as Demetriu G. Ionnescu; – June 2, 1922) was a Romanian centrist politician, journalist, lawyer and diplomat, who also enjoyed reputation as a short story author.
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Tartarin of Tarascon (Tartarin de Tarascon) is an 1872 novel written by the French author Alphonse Daudet.
Timpul (Romanian for "The Time") was a newspaper published in Romania between 1876 and 1914; it was the official platform of the Conservative Party.
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Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science comprising the study of surface shape and features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
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Transaction Publishers is a New Jersey-based publishing house that specializes in social sciences books.
Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Polish: Siedmiogród, Latin: Transsilvania, Turkish: Erdel) is a historical region in the central part of Romania.
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The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty between Romania on one side and Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire on the other, following the stalemate reached after campaign of 1916–17 and Romania's isolation after Russia's unilateral exit from World War I (see Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).
The Trial of the Fourteen ("Процесс 14-ти" in Russian) was a trial of fourteen members of Narodnaya Volya.
Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) refers to a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
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Tudor Vladimirescu (c. 1780 –) was a Wallachian Romanian revolutionary hero, the leader of the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and of the Pandur militia.
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Tulcea (Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian: Тулча, Tulcha; Greek: Αιγισσός, Aegyssus; Turkish: Hora-Tepé or Tolçu) is a city in Dobrogea, Romania.
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A two-party system is a system where two major political parties dominate politics within a government.
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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Ukrainian nationalism refers to the Ukrainian version of nationalism.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
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Under Western Eyes (1911) is a novel by Joseph Conrad.
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On, the Sfatul Țării, or National Council, of Bessarabia proclaimed union with the Kingdom of Romania.
The Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on by the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States of Greater Austria (Vereinigte Staaten von Groß-Österreich) was a proposal, conceived by a group of scholars surrounding Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, that never came to pass.
Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens (or subjects), though it may also mean extending that right to minors (Demeny voting) and non-citizens.
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The University of Bucharest (Universitatea din București), in Romania, is a university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Florence (Italian: Università degli Studi di Firenze, UniFI) is an Italian public research university located in Florence, Italy.
The University of New Brunswick (UNB) is a public university with campuses located in Fredericton and Saint John, New Brunswick.
The University of Rouen (Université de Rouen) is a French university, in the Academy of Rouen.
Vasile Conta (November 15, 1845 – April 21, 1882) was a Romanian philosopher, poet, and politician.
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Vasile Ghenzul was a Bessarabian politician.
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Vasile G. Morțun (November 30, 1860–July 20, 1919) was a Romanian politician, playwright and prose writer.
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Vera Nikolayevna Figner (Filippova) (Ве́ра Никола́евна Фи́гнер (Фили́ппова), – June 15, 1942) was a Russian revolutionary and narodnik born in Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire.
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Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva, near Lausanne.
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Viaţa Basarabiei (Romanian for "Bessarabia's Life") is a Romanian-language periodical from Chişinău, Moldova.
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Vitalism is an obsolete scientific doctrine that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
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Vladimir Beşleagă (born July 25, 1931 in Mălăieşti) is a Moldovan writer and politician.
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Vladimir Galaktionovich Korolenko (Володимир Галактионович Короленко, Volodymyr Halaktyonovych Korolenko; Влади́мир Галактио́нович Короле́нко) (27 July 1853 – 25 December 1921) was a Russian and Ukrainian short story writer, journalist, human rights activist and humanitarian.
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Vladimir Tismăneanu (born July 4, 1951) is a Romanian and American political scientist, political analyst, sociologist, and professor at the University of Maryland, College Park.
Wallachia or Walachia (Proto-Rom. Ţara Muntenească, Țara Românească or Valahia; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Cyrillic: Цѣра Румѫнѣскъ / Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ / Землѧ Ѹгровлахїиска, Земля Угровлахийская, Угровлашская Земля, Влашская Земля, Власское, Transalpina, Valachia) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
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The Wallachian uprising of 1821 was an uprising in Wallachia (a region of Romania) against Ottoman rule which took place during 1821.
Sir William Crookes, OM, FRS (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry, London, and worked on spectroscopy.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Zahari Stoyanov (Захари Стоянов; archaic: Захарий Стоянов) (1850 – 2 September 1889), born Dzhendo Stoyanov Dzhedev (Джендо Стоянов Джедев), was a Bulgarian revolutionary, writer, and historian.
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Zürich or Zurich (Zürich, Swiss German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo, Turitg) is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
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Ze'ev Iviansky is a former lecturer at the department of General History and Russian Studies of the Hebrew University David C. Rapoport, "Inside Terrorist Organizations", ISBN 0-7146-8179-2, Psychology Press, 2001, He is the author of the book Individual Terror, Theory and Practice (1977) and numerous articles on terrorism.
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Ziarul Financiar is a daily financial newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania.
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The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from 5 to 8 September 1915.
"1 Decembrie 1918" University, Alba Iulia is a public higher education and research institution founded in 1991 in Alba Iulia, Romania.
The 1866 Constitution of Romania was the fundamental law that capped a period of nation-building in the Danubian Principalities, which had united in 1859.
The 1907 Romanian Peasants' revolt took place in March 1907 in Moldavia and it quickly spread, reaching Wallachia.