23 relations: Arnold Sommerfeld, Binary relation, Constantin Carathéodory, Dimension, Edward A. Guggenheim, Equivalence relation, Euclidean relation, James Clerk Maxwell, James Serrin, Laws of thermodynamics, Max Planck, Microstate (statistical mechanics), Mole (unit), Ralph H. Fowler, Real number, Reflexive relation, Second law of thermodynamics, Temperature measurement, Thermal equilibrium, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamic temperature, Thermometer, Transitive relation.

## Arnold Sommerfeld

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.

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## Binary relation

In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a collection of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.

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## Constantin Carathéodory

Constantin Carathéodory (or Constantine Karatheodori; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή; 13 September 1873 – 2 February 1950) was a Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany.

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## Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

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## Edward A. Guggenheim

Edward Armand Guggenheim FRS (11 August 1901 in Manchester – 9 August 1970) was an English thermodynamicist and professor of chemistry at the University of Reading.

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## Equivalence relation

In mathematics, an equivalence relation is the relation that holds between two elements if and only if they are members of the same cell within a set that has been partitioned into cells such that every element of the set is a member of one and only one cell of the partition.

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## Euclidean relation

In mathematics, Euclidean relations are a class of binary relations that satisfy a weakened form of transitivity that formalizes Euclid's "Common Notion 1" in The Elements: things which equal the same thing also equal one another.

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## James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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## James Serrin

James Burton Serrin (1 November 1926, Chicago, Illinois – 23 August 2012, Minneapolis, Minnesota) was an American mathematician, and a professor at University of Minnesota.

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## Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems.

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## Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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## Microstate (statistical mechanics)

In statistical mechanics, a microstate is a specific microscopic configuration of a thermodynamic system that the system may occupy with a certain probability in the course of its thermal fluctuations.

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## Mole (unit)

The mole is a unit of measurement for amount of substance.

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## Ralph H. Fowler

Sir Ralph Howard Fowler OBE FRS (17 January 1889 – 28 July 1944) was a British physicist and astronomer.

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## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line.

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## Reflexive relation

In mathematics, a reflexive relation is a binary relation on a set for which every element is related to itself.

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## Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that in every natural thermodynamic process the sum of the entropies of all participating bodies is increased.

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## Temperature measurement

Temperature measurement describes the process of measuring a current local temperature for immediate or later evaluation.

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## Thermal equilibrium

Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if no heat flows between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.

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## Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the content of a macroscopic volume in space, along with its walls and surroundings; it undergoes thermodynamic processes according to the principles of thermodynamics.

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## Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.

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## Thermometer

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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## Transitive relation

In mathematics, a binary relation R over a set X is transitive if whenever an element a is related to an element b, and b is in turn related to an element c, then a is also related to c. Transitivity is a key property of both partial order relations and equivalence relations.

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## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeroth_law_of_thermodynamics