Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
In computer programming, an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name; in other words, it copies a value into the variable.
In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the set.
In computer science, a Boolean expression is an expression in a programming language that produces a Boolean value when evaluated, i.e. one of true or false.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The C preprocessor or cpp is the macro preprocessor for the C and C++ computer programming languages.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
This article is about the computer science concept.
ColdFusion Markup Language, more commonly known as CFML, is a scripting language for web development that runs on the JVM, the.NET framework, and Google App Engine.
Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).
In computer science, compile time refers to either the operations performed by a compiler (the "compile-time operations"), programming language requirements that must be met by source code for it to be successfully compiled (the "compile-time requirements"), or properties of the program that can be reasoned about during compilation.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
In logic, conditioned disjunction (sometimes called conditional disjunction) is a ternary logical connective introduced by Church.
In computer programming, a constant is a value that cannot be altered by the program during normal execution, i.e., the value is constant.
CPL (Combined Programming Language) is a multi-paradigm programming language, that was developed in the early 1960s.
In mathematics and computer science, currying is the technique of translating the evaluation of a function that takes multiple arguments (or a tuple of arguments) into evaluating a sequence of functions, each with a single argument.
Double-precision floating-point format is a computer number format, usually occupying 64 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point.
In certain computer programming languages, the Elvis operator ?: is a binary operator that returns its first operand if that operand is true, and otherwise evaluates and returns its second operand.
Evaluation strategies are used by programming languages to determine when to evaluate the argument(s) of a function call (for function, also read: operation, method, or relation) and what kind of value to pass to the function.
Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.
An expression in a programming language is a combination of one or more constants, variables, operators, and functions that the programming language interprets (according to its particular rules of precedence and of association) and computes to produce ("to return", in a stateful environment) another value.
An expression-oriented programming language is a programming language where every (or nearly every) construction is an expression and thus yields a value.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
Fundamental Concepts in Programming Languages were an influential set of lecture notes written by Christopher Strachey for the International Summer School in Computer Programming at Copenhagen in August, 1967.
In computer science, future, promise, delay, and deferred refer to constructs used for synchronizing program execution in some concurrent programming languages.
The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.
Go (often referred to as Golang) is a programming language created at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
In computer engineering, a hardware description language (HDL) is a specialized computer language used to describe the structure and behavior of electronic circuits, and most commonly, digital logic circuits.
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.
Higher-Order and Symbol Computation (formerly LISP and Symbolic Computation; print:, online) is a computer science journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.
In computing, IIf (an abbreviation for Immediate if) is a function in several editions of the Visual Basic programming language and ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML), and on spreadsheets that returns the second or third parameter based on the evaluation of the first parameter.
In computer programming, initialization is the assignment of an initial value for a data object or variable.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
In programming language theory, lazy evaluation, or call-by-need is an evaluation strategy which delays the evaluation of an expression until its value is needed (non-strict evaluation) and which also avoids repeated evaluations (sharing).
Lucee is open source software that implements a lightweight dynamically-typed scripting language for the Java virtual machine (JVM), facilitating the rapid development of web applications that compile directly to Java bytecode.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks.
MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki software.
Microsoft Foundation Class Library (MFC) is a C++ object-oriented library for developing desktop applications for Windows.
ML (Meta Language) is a general-purpose functional programming language.
The null coalescing operator (called the Logical Defined-Or operator in Perl) is a binary operator that is part of the syntax for a basic conditional expression in several programming languages, including C#, Perl as of version 5.10, Swift, and PHP 7.0.0.
In computing, a null pointer has a value reserved for indicating that the pointer does not refer to a valid object.
Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Delphi.
In programming languages, the associativity of an operator is a property that determines how operators of the same precedence are grouped in the absence of parentheses.
In mathematics and computer programming, the order of operations (or operator precedence) is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given mathematical expression.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database.
In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Railo Server, commonly referred to as Railo, is open source software which implements the general-purpose CFML server-side scripting language, often used to create dynamic websites, web applications and intranet systems.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
Rust is a systems programming language sponsored by Mozilla which describes it as a "safe, concurrent, practical language," supporting functional and imperative-procedural paradigms.
S is a statistical programming language developed primarily by John Chambers and (in earlier versions) Rick Becker and Allan Wilks of Bell Laboratories.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
Short-circuit evaluation, minimal evaluation, or McCarthy evaluation (after John McCarthy) is the semantics of some Boolean operators in some programming languages in which the second argument is executed or evaluated only if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression: when the first argument of the AND function evaluates to false, the overall value must be false; and when the first argument of the OR function evaluates to true, the overall value must be true.
In computer science, a function or expression is said to have a side effect if it modifies some state outside its scope or has an observable interaction with its calling functions or the outside world besides returning a value.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
In computer programming languages, a switch statement is a type of selection control mechanism used to allow the value of a variable or expression to change the control flow of program execution via a multiway branch.
Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.
In mathematics, a ternary operation is an ''n''-ary operation with n.
In the C, C++, and D programming languages, a type qualifier is a keyword that is applied to a type, resulting in a qualified type. For example, const int is a qualified type representing a constant integer, while int is the corresponding unqualified type, simply an integer.
In computer programming, undefined behavior (UB) is the result of executing computer code whose behavior is not prescribed by the language specification to which the code adheres, for the current state of the program.
In mathematics and in computer programming, a variadic function is a function of indefinite arity, i.e., one which accepts a variable number of arguments.
Verilog, standardized as IEEE 1364, is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems.
Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008.
Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) is a multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language, implemented on the.NET Framework.
The Void type, in several programming languages derived from C and Algol68, is the type for the result of a function that returns normally, but does not provide a result value to its caller.
The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems.