292 relations: Abel Prize, Age of Enlightenment, Agrégation, Aimé Césaire, Airbus, Alain Badiou, Alain Connes, Alain Juppé, Alain Peyrefitte, Alain Touraine, Albert Fert, Albert François Lebrun, Alexander Grothendieck, Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde, Alfred Dreyfus, Alfred Kastler, Algebraic geometry, Algebraic topology, Algeria, Alphonse de Gisors, Amphitryon 38, Ancien Régime, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, André Weil, Annales school, Antoine Augustin Cournot, Assia Djebar, Atomium - European Institute for Science, Media and Democracy, École Freudienne de Paris, École nationale d'administration, École normale supérieure, École normale supérieure de jeunes filles, École normale supérieure de Lyon, École normale supérieure de Rennes, École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay, Éditions Albin Michel, Éditions Gallimard, Édouard Herriot, Élie Cartan, Émile Durkheim, Éric-Emmanuel Schmitt, Établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel, Étienne Balibar, Évariste Galois, Belles-lettres, Benny Lévy, Bernard-Henri Lévy, Bourbon Restoration, Brittany, ..., Bruno Le Maire, California Institute of Technology, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Cédric Villani, Centrale Graduate School, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Charles Péguy, Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude Louis Berthollet, Claudine Tiercelin, Clément Rosset, CNRS Gold medal, Collège de France, Columbia University, Conférence des Grandes écoles, Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney, Cornell University, Deconstruction, Denis-Luc Frayssinous, Distinction (book), Dominique Joseph Garat, Dreyfus affair, East China Normal University, Edmund Husserl, Egyptology, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel Saez, ENSAE ParisTech, Erich Maria Remarque, Ernest Lavisse, ESSEC Business School, Esther Duflo, European Union, Fayard, Feminism, Fields Medal, France, Francis Wolff, Free University of Berlin, French colonial empire, French Communist Party, French First Republic, French Ministry for the Economy and Finance, French Resistance, French Revolution, French Third Republic, Gabriel Lippmann, Galois theory, Gaspard Monge, Gaston Maspero, Gérard Debreu, Gérard Genette, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Georges Canguilhem, Georges Dumézil, Georges Pompidou, Gilbert Simondon, Grandes écoles, Group theory, Gustave Choquet, Gustave Lanson, Hachette (publisher), Haiti, Harvard University, HEC Paris, Henri Bergson, Henri Cartan, Individuation, Institut de France, Jacqueline de Romilly, Jacques Bouveresse, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Dixmier, Jacques Lacan, Jacques Le Goff, Jacques Rancière, Jacques Soustelle, Jacques-Alain Miller, Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Jérôme Carcopino, Jean Baptiste Perrin, Jean Bousquet, Jean Cavaillès, Jean Giraudoux, Jean Hyppolite, Jean Jaurès, Jean-Christophe Yoccoz, Jean-Claude Milner, Jean-Luc Marion, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean-Pierre Richard, Jean-Pierre Serre, John Bates Clark Medal, Joseph Lakanal, Jules Romains, Jules Simon, Julien Gracq, L'Harmattan, Langevin dynamics, Langevin equation, Laurent Fabius, Laurent Lafforgue, Laurent Schwartz, Léon Blum, Léopold Sédar Senghor, Les Éditions de Minuit, Les Belles Lettres, List of École normale supérieure people, Louis Althusser, Louis Néel, Louis Pasteur, Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, Lucien Febvre, Lucien Herr, Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lyon, Marc Bloch, Marc Mézard, Marcel Granet, Martinique, Marxism, Maurice de Gandillac, Maurice Halbwachs, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Maximilien Robespierre, McGill University, Michel Foucault, Michel Sapin, Minerva, Mines ParisTech, Ministry of National Education (France), Montrouge, Mythology, Napoleon, National Convention, National Museum of Natural History (France), Nature (journal), Négritude, New Philosophers, New York University, Ngô Bảo Châu, Nicolas Bourbaki, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize in Physics, Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges, Number theory, Orange S.A., Oscar and the Lady in Pink (novel), Panthéon, Pantheon-Sorbonne University, Paris, Paris School of Economics, Paris-Sorbonne University, Pasteurization, Paul Bénichou, Paul Celan, Paul Landowski, Paul Langevin, Paul Nizan, Paul Painlevé, Paul Sabatier (chemist), Paul Veyne, Paul Vidal de La Blache, Peking University, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philippe Descola, Philology, Philosophy of science, Pierre Bourdieu, Pierre Brossolette, Pierre Grimal, Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Pierre-Louis Lions, Pisa, Plön, Port-au-Prince, Post-structuralism, Pre-Columbian era, President of Senegal, Presses Universitaires de France, Princeton University, Prix du meilleur jeune économiste de France, Professor, Proto-Indo-European religion, PSL Research University, Psychiatrist, Psychoanalysis, Purple, QS World University Rankings, Quentin Meillassoux, Raymond Aron, Reign of Terror, René Thom, Ribot's Law, Robert Brasillach, Robert Flacelière, Roger Godement, Romain Rolland, Samuel Beckett, Sèvres, School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Serge Haroche, Shanghai, Simone Weil, Socialism, Sociology, Stanford University, Stéphane Hessel, Structuralism, SUNY Press, Théodule Ribot, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, The Opposing Shore, The Trojan War Will Not Take Place, Thomas Piketty, Trifunctional hypothesis, Trinity College Dublin, Unanimism, University of California, Berkeley, University of Cambridge, University of Edinburgh, University of France, University of Oxford, University of Paris, Urban area, Victor Cousin, Vietnam, Vladimir Jankélévitch, Wendelin Werner, World Association of Psychoanalysis, World War I, World War II, Xavier Gabaix, Yale University, Yves Meyer, Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat, 5th arrondissement of Paris. 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The Abel Prize (Abelprisen) is a Norwegian prize awarded annually by the Government of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
In France, the agrégation is a competitive examination for civil service in the French public education system.
Aimé Fernand David Césaire (26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and French poet, author and politician from Martinique.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
Alain Badiou (born 17 January 1937) is a French philosopher, formerly chair of Philosophy at the École normale supérieure (ENS) and founder of the faculty of Philosophy of the Université de Paris VIII with Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault and Jean-François Lyotard.
Alain Connes (born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the Collège de France, IHÉS, Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University.
Alain Marie Juppé (born 15 August 1945) is a French politician, and a member of The Republicans.
Alain Peyrefitte (26 August 1925 – 27 November 1999) was a French scholar and politician.
Alain Touraine (born 3 August 1925) is a French sociologist.
Albert Fert (born 7 March 1938) is a French physicist and one of the discoverers of giant magnetoresistance which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks.
Albert François Lebrun (29 August 1871 – 6 March 1950) was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940.
Alexander Grothendieck (28 March 1928 – 13 November 2014) was a German-born French mathematician who became the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry.
Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde (28 February 1735 – 1 January 1796) was a French mathematician, musician and chemist who worked with Bézout and Lavoisier; his name is now principally associated with determinant theory in mathematics.
Alfred Dreyfus (9 October 1859 – 12 July 1935) was a French Jewish artillery officer whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason became one of the most tense political dramas in modern French history with a wide echo in all Europe.
Alfred Kastler (3 May 1902 – 7 January 1984) was a French physicist, and Nobel Prize laureate.
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials.
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alphonse-Henri Guy de Gisors (3 September 1796 – 18 August 1866) was a 19th-century French architect, a member of the Gisors family of architects and prominent government administrators responsible for the construction and preservation of many public buildings in Paris.
Amphitryon 38 is a play written in 1929 by the French dramatist Jean Giraudoux, the number in the title being Giraudoux's whimsical approximation of how many times the story had been told on stage previously.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
André Weil (6 May 1906 – 6 August 1998) was an influential French mathematician of the 20th century, known for his foundational work in number theory, algebraic geometry.
The Annales school is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history.
Antoine Augustin Cournot (28 August 180131 March 1877) was a French philosopher and mathematician who also contributed to the development of economics theory.
Fatima-Zohra Imalayen (30 June 1936 – 6 February 2015), known by her pen name Assia Djebar (آسيا جبار), was an Algerian novelist, translator and filmmaker.
Atomium – European Institute for Science, Media and Democracy (EISMD) – formerly known as Atomium Culture AISBL - is an international non-profit organisation bringing together several universities, newspapers and businesses in Europe in the first intersectoral platform to promote knowledge sharing and “out of the box” thinking on issues regarding the development of a European knowledge society.
The École freudienne de Paris (EFP) was a French psychoanalytic professional body formed in 1964 by Jacques Lacan.
The École nationale d'administration (generally referred to as ÉNA;; National School of Administration) is a French grande école, created in 1945 by French President, Charles de Gaulle, and principal author of the French Constitution, Michel Debré, to democratise access to the senior civil service.
An école normale supérieure or ENS is a type of publicly funded higher education in France.
The École normale supérieure de jeunes filles (also, École normale supérieure de Sèvres) was a French institute of higher education, in Sèvres, now a commune in the suburbs of Paris.
The École normale supérieure de Lyon (also known as ENS Lyon, ENSL or Normale Sup' Lyon) is a highly selective grande école located in Lyon, France.
The École normale supérieure de Rennes, also called ENS Rennes is a French scientific Grande École, belonging to the network of Écoles normales supérieures.
The École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay (also ENS Paris-Saclay or Normale Sup' Paris-Saclay), formerly ENS Cachan, is a higher education institution located in Cachan within the Val-de-Marne department near Paris, in the Île-de-France region of France.
Éditions Albin Michel is a French publisher.
Éditions Gallimard is one of the leading French publishers of books.
Édouard Marie Herriot (5 July 1872 – 26 March 1957) was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic who served three times as Prime Minister and for many years as President of the Chamber of Deputies.
Élie Joseph Cartan, ForMemRS (9 April 1869 – 6 May 1951) was an influential French mathematician who did fundamental work in the theory of Lie groups and their geometric applications.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt (born 28 March 1960) is a Franco–Belgian playwright, short stories writer and novelist, as well as film director.
In French law, établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel (EPSCP; English: public scientific, cultural or professional establishment) is a formal category of more than one hundred and thirty public higher education institutes in the fields of sciences, culture and professional education.
Étienne Balibar (born 23 April 1942) is a French philosopher.
Évariste Galois (25 October 1811 – 31 May 1832) was a French mathematician.
Belles-lettres or belles lettres is a category of writing, originally meaning beautiful or fine writing.
Benny Lévy (also Pierre Victor; 1945–2003) was a philosopher, political activist and author.
Bernard-Henri Lévy (born 5 November 1948) is a French public intellectual, media personality, and author.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Bruno Le Maire (born 15 April 1969) is a French politician and former diplomat.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Capital in the Twenty-First Century is a 2013 book by French economist Thomas Piketty.
Cédric Patrice Thierry Villani (born 5 October 1973) is a French mathematician working primarily on partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry and mathematical physics.
The Ecoles Centrales Group is an alliance consisting of the following graduate schools of engineering.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
Charles Pierre Péguy (7 January 1873 – 5 September 1914) was a noted French poet, essayist, and editor.
The classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE) (English: Higher School Preparatory Classes), commonly called classes prépas or prépas, are part of the French post-secondary education system.
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (born 1 April 1933) is a French physicist.
Claude Louis Berthollet (9 December 1748 in Talloires, France – 6 November 1822 in Arcueil, France) was a Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804.
Claudine Tiercelin is a French philosopher, working on metaphysics and philosophy of science.
Clément Rosset (12 October 1939 – 28 March 2018) was a French philosopher and writer.
The CNRS Gold medal is the highest scientific research award in France.
The Collège de France, founded in 1530, is a higher education and research establishment (grand établissement) in France and an affiliate college of PSL University.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Conférence des Grandes Écoles (CGE), French for "Conference of Grandes Écoles", is a French national institution, created in 1973, that represents all the engineering institutions accredited by the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur (CTI) to deliver the French Diplôme d'Ingénieur and all the business schools which deliver a Master's degree.
Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney (3 February 175725 April 1820) was a French philosopher, abolitionist, historian, orientalist, and politician.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
Deconstruction is a critique of the relationship between text and meaning originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida.
Denis-Antoine-Luc, comte de Frayssinous (9 May 176512 December 1841) was a French prelate and statesman, orator and writer.
Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (La distinction) is a 1979 book by Pierre Bourdieu, based upon the author's empirical research from 1963 until 1968.
Dominique Joseph Garat (8 September 17499 December 1833) was a French Basque writer and politician.
The Dreyfus Affair (l'affaire Dreyfus) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.
East China Normal University (ECNU) is a comprehensive public research university in Shanghai, China.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
Emmanuel Bernard Le Roy Ladurie (born 19 July 1929) is a French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the Ancien Régime, particularly the history of the peasantry.
Emmanuel Saez (born November 26, 1972) is a French and American economist who is Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.
ENSAE ParisTech (officially École nationale de la statistique et de l'administration économique) is one of the most prestigious French Grandes Ecoles of engineering and a member of ParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology).
Erich Maria Remarque (born Erich Paul Remark; 22 June 1898 – 25 September 1970) was a German novelist who created many works about the horrors of war.
Ernest Lavisse (17 December 1842 – 18 August 1922) was a French historian.
ESSEC Business School is an international higher education institution located in France (Cergy-Pontoise and La Défense in the Paris area), Singapore and Morocco.
Esther Duflo, FBA (born 25 October 1972) is a French American economist, Co-Founder and Director of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), and Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fayard (complete name: Librairie Arthème Fayard) is a French Paris-based publishing house established in 1857.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Wolff (April 6, 1907 – March 8, 1971) was a record company executive, photographer and record producer.
The Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin, often abbreviated as FU Berlin or simply FU) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Ministry for the Economy and Finance (Ministère de l'économie et des finances), called the Finance Ministry for short and informally referred to as Bercy, is one of the most important ministries in the cabinet of France.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann (16 August 1845 – 13 July 1921) was a Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, and Nobel laureate in physics for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.
In the field of algebra within mathematics, Galois theory, provides a connection between field theory and group theory.
Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry.
Sir Gaston Camille Charles Maspero (June 23, 1846 – June 30, 1916) was a French Egyptologist known for popularizing the term "Sea Peoples" in an 1881 paper.
Gérard Debreu (4 July 1921 – 31 December 2004) was a French-born American economist and mathematician.
Gérard Genette (7 June 1930 – 11 May 2018) was a French literary theorist, associated in particular with the structuralist movement and such figures as Roland Barthes and Claude Lévi-Strauss, from whom he adapted the concept of bricolage.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Georges Canguilhem (or; 4 June 1904 – 11 September 1995) was a French philosopher and physician who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science (in particular, biology).
Georges Dumézil (4 March 1898 – 11 October 1986, Paris) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Proto-Indo-European religion and society.
Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.
Gilbert Simondon (2 October 1924 – 7 February 1989) was a French philosopher best known for his theory of individuation, a major source of inspiration for Gilles Deleuze and Bernard Stiegler.
The Grandes Écoles (literally in French "Great Schools") of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
Gustave Choquet (1 March 1915 – 14 November 2006) was a French mathematician.
Gustave Lanson (5 August 1857 – 15 December 1934) was a French historian and literary critic.
Hachette is a French publisher.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
HEC Paris (École des hautes études commerciales de Paris) is an international business school established in 1881 and located in Jouy-en-Josas, France.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Henri Paul Cartan (July 8, 1904 – August 13, 2008) was a French mathematician with substantial contributions in algebraic topology.
The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things.
The Institut de France (Institute of France) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.
Jacqueline Worms de Romilly (née David, 26 March 1913 – 18 December 2010) was a Franco-Greek philologist, classical scholar and fiction writer.
Jacques Bouveresse (born August 20, 1940) is a philosopher who has written on subjects including Ludwig Wittgenstein, Robert Musil, Karl Kraus, philosophy of science, epistemology, philosophy of mathematics and analytical philosophy.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jacques Dixmier (born 1924) is a French mathematician.
Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".
Jacques Le Goff (1 January 1924 – 1 April 2014) was a French historian and prolific author specializing in the Middle Ages, particularly the 12th and 13th centuries.
Jacques Rancière (born 1940) is a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris VIII: Vincennes—Saint-Denis who came to prominence when he co-authored Reading Capital (1968), with the structuralist Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser.
Jacques Soustelle (3 February 1912 – 6 August 1990) was an important and early figure of the Free French Forces, an anthropologist specializing in Pre-Columbian civilizations, and vice-director of the Musée de l'Homme in Paris in 1939.
Jacques-Alain Miller (born 14 February 1944) is a psychoanalyst and writer.
Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (also called Bernardin de St. Pierre) (19 January 1737 Le Havre – 21 January 1814 Éragny, Val-d'Oise) was a French writer and botanist.
Jérôme Carcopino (27 June 1881 – 17 March 1970) was a French historian and author.
Jean Baptiste Perrin (30 September 1870 – 17 April 1942) was a French physicist who, in his studies of the Brownian motion of minute particles suspended in liquids, verified Albert Einstein’s explanation of this phenomenon and thereby confirmed the atomic nature of matter (sedimentation equilibrium).
Jean Bousquet (9 May 1912, Bordeaux – 1 April 1996, aged 83) was a 20th-century French Hellenist.
Jean Cavaillès (May 15, 1903 – February 17, 1944) was a French philosopher and logician who specialized in philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of science.
Hippolyte Jean Giraudoux (29 October 1882 – 31 January 1944) was a French novelist, essayist, diplomat and playwright.
Jean Hyppolite (January 8, 1907 – October 26, 1968) was a French philosopher known for championing the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and other German philosophers, and educating some of France's most prominent post-war thinkers.
Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred as Jean Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader.
Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (May 29, 1957 – September 3, 2016) was a French mathematician.
Jean-Claude Milner (born 3 January 1941) is a linguist, philosopher and essayist.
Jean-Luc Marion (born 3 July 1946) is a French historian of philosophy, phenomenologist, and Roman Catholic theologian.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jean-Pierre Richard (born 15 July 1922, Marseille) is a French writer and literary critic.
Jean-Pierre Serre (born 15 September 1926) is a French mathematician who has made contributions to algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, and algebraic number theory.
The John Bates Clark Medal is awarded by the American Economic Association to "that American economist under the age of forty who is adjudged to have made a significant contribution to economic thought and knowledge".
Joseph Lakanal (July 14, 1762 – February 14, 1845) was a French politician, and an original member of the Institut de France.
Jules Romains, born Louis Henri Jean Farigoule (26 August 1885 – 14 August 1972), was a French poet and writer and the founder of the Unanimism literary movement.
Jules François Simon (31 December 1814 – 8 June 1896) was a French statesman and philosopher, and one of the leaders of the Moderate Republicans in the Third French Republic.
Julien Gracq (27 July 1910 – 22 December 2007; born Louis Poirier in Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, in the French département of Maine-et-Loire) was a French writer.
Éditions L'Harmattan, usually known simply as L'Harmattan, is one of the largest French book publishers.
In physics, Langevin dynamics is an approach to the mathematical modeling of the dynamics of molecular systems, originally developed by the French physicist Paul Langevin.
In physics, Langevin equation (named after Paul Langevin) is a stochastic differential equation describing the time evolution of a subset of the degrees of freedom.
Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a French Socialist politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 17 July 1984 to 20 March 1986.
Laurent Lafforgue (born 6 November 1966) is a French mathematician.
Laurent-Moïse Schwartz (5 March 1915 – 4 July 2002) was a French mathematician.
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
Léopold Sédar Senghor (9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal (1960–80).
Les Éditions de Minuit (Midnight Press) is a French publishing house which has its origins in the French Resistance of World War II and still publishes books today.
Les Belles Lettres is a French publisher specialising in the publication of ancient texts such as the Collection Budé.
Here follows a list of notable alumni and faculty of the École normale supérieure.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Louis Eugène Félix Néel ForMemRS (22 November 1904 – 17 November 2000) was a French physicist born in Lyon.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton (29 May 1716 – 1 January 1800) was a French naturalist and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
Lucien Febvre (22 July 1878 – 11 September 1956) was a French historian best known for the role he played in establishing the Annales School of history.
Lucien Herr (17 January 1864 – 18 May 1926) was a French intellectual, librarian at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and mentor to a number of well-known socialist politicians and writers, including Jean Jaurès and Charles Péguy.
The Lycée Louis-le-Grand is a prestigious secondary school located in Paris.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (6 July 1886 – 16 June 1944) was a French historian who cofounded the highly influential Annales School of French social history.
Marc Mézard (born 29 August 1957) is a French physicist and academic administrator.
Marcel Granet (29 February 1884 – 25 November 1940) was a French sociologist, ethnologist and sinologist.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Maurice de Gandillac (14 February 1906 – 20 April 2006) was a French philosopher.
Maurice Halbwachs (11 March 1877 – 16 March 1945) was a French philosopher and sociologist known for developing the concept of collective memory.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Michel Sapin (born 9 April 1952, Boulogne-Billancourt) is a former French politician.
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
MINES ParisTech (officially École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris in French or Paris School of Mines in English, also known as École des mines de Paris, ENSMP, Mines Paris or simply les Mines), created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is a French engineer school and a constituent college of Université PSL.
The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche), or simply "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.
Montrouge is a commune in the southern Parisian suburbs, located from the centre of Paris, France.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
The French National Museum of Natural History, known in French as the (abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne Universities.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Négritude is a framework of critique and literary theory, developed mainly by francophone intellectuals, writers, and politicians of the African diaspora during the 1930s.
The New Philosophers (nouveaux philosophes) is a term which refers to a generation of French philosophers who broke with Marxism in the early 1970s.
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
Ngô Bảo Châu (born June 28, 1972) is a Vietnamese-French mathematician at the University of Chicago, best known for proving the fundamental lemma for automorphic forms proposed by Robert Langlands and Diana Shelstad.
Nicolas Bourbaki is the collective pseudonym under which a group of (mainly French) 20th-century mathematicians, with the aim of reformulating mathematics on an extremely abstract and formal but self-contained basis, wrote a series of books beginning in 1935.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges (18 March 1830 – 12 September 1889) was a French historian.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
Oscar and the Lady in Pink (French: Oscar et la dame rose) is a novel of Éric-Emmanuel Schmitt, the third chapter of the series « Cycle de l'invisible », published in 2002.
The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.
Pantheon-Sorbonne University (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), also known as Paris 1, is a multidisciplinary public research university in Paris, France.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris School of Economics (PSE; French: École d'économie de Paris) is a French research institute in the field of economics.
Paris-Sorbonne University (also known as Paris IV; Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris IV), was a public research university in Paris, France, from 1971 to 2017.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
Paul Bénichou (19 September 1908 – 14 May 2001) was a French writer, intellectual, critic, and literary historian.
Paul Celan (23 November 1920 – c. 20 April 1970) was a Romanian-born German language poet and translator.
Paul Maximilien Landowski (1 June 1875 – 31 March 1961) was a French monument sculptor of Polish descent.
Paul Langevin (23 January 1872 – 19 December 1946) was a prominent French physicist who developed Langevin dynamics and the Langevin equation.
Paul-Yves Nizan (7 February 1905 – 23 May 1940) was a French philosopher and writer.
Paul Painlevé (5 December 1863 – 29 October 1933) was a French mathematician and statesman.
Prof Paul Sabatier FRS(For) HFRSE (5 November 1854 – 14 August 1941) was a French chemist, born in Carcassonne.
Paul Veyne (born 13 June 1930 in Aix-en-Provence) is a French archaeologist and historian, and a specialist on Ancient Rome.
Paul Vidal de La Blache (Pézenas, Hérault, 22 January 1845 - Tamaris-sur-Mer, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, 5 April 1918) was a French geographer.
Peking University (abbreviated PKU or Beida; Chinese: 北京大学, pinyin: běi jīng dà xué) is a major Chinese research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philippe Descola, FBA (born 19 June 1949) is a French anthropologist noted for studies of the Achuar, one of several Jivaroan peoples, and for his contributions to anthropological theory.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.
Pierre Brossolette (25 June 1903 – 22 March 1944) was a French journalist, a leading left-wing politician, and a major hero of the French Resistance.
Pierre Grimal (November 21, 1912, Paris – October 11, 1996, Paris) was a French historian, classicist and Latinist.
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (October 24, 1932 – May 18, 2007) was a French physicist and the Nobel Prize laureate in physics in 1991.
Pierre-Louis Lions (born 11 August 1956) is a French mathematician.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Plön is the district seat of the Plön district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and has about 8,700 inhabitants.
Port-au-Prince (Pòtoprens) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
The President of Senegal is the head of state of Senegal.
Presses universitaires de France (PUF, English: University Press of France), founded in 1921 by Paul Angoulvent (1899–1976), is the largest French university publishing house.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
The prix du meilleur jeune économiste de France (lit. Best Young Economist of France Award) is an annual award given since 2000 by daily newspaper Le Monde and the Cercle des économistes to French economists under the age of 40.
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Université PSL (Paris Sciences & Lettres) is a French collegiate university currently organized as a ComUE (university community).
A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red.
QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).
Quentin Meillassoux (born 1967) is a French philosopher.
Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist, political scientist, and journalist. He is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people – Aron argues that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
René Frédéric Thom (2 September 1923 – 25 October 2002) was a French mathematician.
Ribot's law of retrograde amnesia was hypothesized in 1881 by Théodule Ribot.
Robert Brasillach (31 March 1909 – 6 February 1945) was a French author and journalist.
Robert Flacelière (29 May 1904, Paris – 23 May 1982, Montpellier) was a scholar of Classical Greek.
Roger Godement (October 1, 1921 – July 21, 2016) was a French mathematician, known for his work in functional analysis as well as his expository books.
Romain Rolland (29 January 1866 – 30 December 1944) was a French dramatist, novelist, essayist, art historian and mystic who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1915 "as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings".
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
The School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales; also known as EHESS) is a French grande école (élite higher-education establishment that operates outside the regulatory framework of the public university system) specialised in the social sciences and often considered as the most prestigious institution for the social sciences in France.
The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (SNS) is a public higher learning institution in Pisa, Italy.
Serge Haroche (born 11 September 1944) is a French physicist who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physics jointly with David J. Wineland for "ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems", a study of the particle of light, the photon.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Simone Weil (3 February 1909 – 24 August 1943) was a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. The mathematician Andre Weil was her brother. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher. She taught intermittently throughout the 1930s, taking several breaks due to poor health and to devote herself to political activism, work that would see her assisting in the trade union movement, taking the side of the Anarchists known as the Durruti Column in the Spanish Civil War, and spending more than a year working as a labourer, mostly in auto factories, so she could better understand the working class. Taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract much attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous in continental Europe and throughout the English-speaking world. Her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A meta study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her. Albert Camus described her as "the only great spirit of our times".
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Stéphane Frédéric Hessel (20 October 1917 – 26 February 2013) was a diplomat, ambassador, writer, concentration camp survivor, French Resistance member and BCRA agent.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Théodule-Augustin Ribot (August 8, 1823 – September 11, 1891) was a French realist painter and printmaker.
The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is the 1978 English-language translation of a seminar held by Jacques Lacan.
The Opposing Shore (Le Rivage des Syrtes) is a 1951 novel by the French writer Julien Gracq.
The Trojan War Will Not Take Place (La guerre de Troie n'aura pas lieu) is a play written in 1935 by French dramatist Jean Giraudoux.
Thomas Piketty (born 7 May 1971) is a French economist whose work focuses on wealth and income inequality.
The trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society postulates a tripartite ideology ("idéologie tripartite") reflected in the existence of three classes or castes—priests, warriors, and commoners (farmers or tradesmen)—corresponding to the three functions of the sacral, the martial and the economic, respectively.
Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.
Unanimism (French: Unanimisme) is a movement in French literature begun by Jules Romains in the early 1900s, with his first book, La vie unanime, published in 1904.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of France (Université de France; originally the Imperial University of France) was a highly centralized educational state organization founded by Napoleon I in 1808 and given authority not only over the individual (previously independent) universities but also over primary and secondary education.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Victor Cousin (28 November 179214 January 1867) was a French philosopher.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vladimir Jankélévitch (31 August 1903 – 6 June 1985) was a French philosopher and musicologist.
Wendelin Werner (born 23 September 1968) is a French mathematician working on random processes such as self-avoiding random walks, Brownian motion, Schramm–Loewner evolution, and related theories in probability theory and mathematical physics.
The World Association of Psychoanalysis (WAP) was launched at the initiative of Jacques-Alain Miller in Buenos Aires on 3 January 1992.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xavier Gabaix (born August 1971) is a French economist, currently the Pershing Square Professor of Economics and Finance at Harvard University.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yves F. Meyer (born 19 July 1939) is a French mathematician.
Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat (born 29 December 1923 in Lille) is a French mathematician and physicist.
The 5th arrondissement of Paris (Ve arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.
E.N.S., E.N.S. paris, ENS Ulm, Ecole Normal Superieure, Ecole Normale, Ecole Normale Superieur, Ecole Normale Superieure, Ecole Normale Superieure d'Ulm (ENS Ulm), Ecole Normale Superieure des Beaux-Arts, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Ecole Normale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris, Ecole Normale Supérieure of Education & Technology, Ecole Normale Supérieure of Paris, Ecole normale superieure, Ecole normale supérieure, Ecole normale supérieure, Paris, Ens paris, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole normale superieure, L'École Normale Supérieure, Normale Sup, Normale sup, Normale sup’, The École normale supérieure, ÉNS, École Normale, École Normale Superieure, École Normale Supérieure, École Normale Supérieure (Ulm), École Normale Supérieure d'Ulm (ENS Ulm), École normale supérieure (Ulm), École normale supérieure (rue d'Ulm — Paris), École normale supérieure (rue d'Ulm), École normale supérieure de la rue d'Ulm.