In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.
Alphabetical order is a system whereby strings of characters are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet.
On IBM compatible personal computers, many characters not directly associated with a key can be entered using the Alt Numpad input method or Alt code: pressing and holding the ''Alt'' key while typing the number identifying the character with the keyboard's numeric keypad.
The Alt key (pronounced or) on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys.
AltGr (also Alt Graph, or Right Alt) is a modifier key found on some computer keyboards and is primarily used to type characters that are unusual for the locale of the keyboard layout, such as currency symbols and accented letters.
Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Antiqua–Fraktur dispute was a typographical dispute in 19th- and early 20th-century Germany.
Bastarda (or bastard) was a blackletter script used in France, the Burgundian Netherlands and Germany during the 14th and 15th centuries.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Beta (uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bē̂ta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Cambria is a transitional serif typeface commissioned by Microsoft and distributed with Windows and Office.
The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
Capital sharp s (ẞ; großes Eszett) is the majuscule (uppercase) form of the eszett (also called scharfes S, 'sharp s') ligature in German orthography (ß).
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
In computing, a code page is a table of values that describes the character set used for encoding a particular set of characters, usually combined with a number of control characters.
Code page 437 is the character set of the original IBM PC (personal computer), or DOS.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In computing, a Control key is a modifier key which, when pressed in conjunction with another key, performs a special operation (for example, C); similar to the Shift key, the Control key rarely performs any function when pressed by itself.
The Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung ("Council for German Orthography" or "Council for German Spelling"), or RdR, is the main international body regulating German orthography.
Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
Ȥ (minuscule: ȥ, Unicode codepoints U+0224 and U+0225, respectively), a Latin letter Z with a hook.
阝 (Kangxi radical 163 & 170) is a character used in Kangxi writing which serves as the combining form of two distinct radicals, distinguished by whether it is on the left or right of a character.
Frankfurt (Oder) (also Frankfurt an der Oder, abbreviated Frankfurt a. d. Oder, Frankfurt a. d. O., Frankf., 'Frankfurt on the Oder') is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the town of Słubice, which was part of Frankfurt until 1945.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The German orthography reform of 1996 (Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von 1996) was a change to German spelling and punctuation that was intended to simplify German orthography and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to users of the language.
Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings.
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-10:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 10: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-13:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 13: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-14:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 14: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 15: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-16:2001, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 16: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-3:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 3: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-4:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 4: Latin alphabet No.
ISO/IEC 8859-9:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 9: Latin alphabet No.
Johann Christian August Heyse (21 April 1764 in Nordhausen – 27 July 1829 in Magdeburg) was a German grammarian and lexicographer.
Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 173210 September 1806) was a German grammarian and philologist.
Kurrent is an old form of German-language handwriting based on late medieval cursive writing, also known as Kurrentschrift, Alte Deutsche Schrift ("old German script") and German cursive.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
Latin Extended Additional is a Unicode block.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference.
Lithuania Minor (Mažoji Lietuva; Kleinlitauen; Litwa Mniejsza; Máлая Литвá) or Prussian Lithuania (Prūsų Lietuva; Preußisch-Litauen, Litwa Pruska) is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuvininkai lived.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
Lucida is an extended family of related typefaces designed by Charles Bigelow and Kris Holmes in 1985.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
The Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ; lit.: "New Journal of Zurich") is a Swiss, German-language daily newspaper, published by NZZ Mediengruppe in Zurich.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
The Option key is a modifier key (ALT) present on Apple keyboards.
Pirna (Pěrno) is a town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, capital of the administrative district Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge.
QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets.
In Latin script typography, roman is one of the three main kinds of historical type, alongside blackletter and italic.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Swiss Standard German (Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (Schweizer Hochdeutsch or Schweizerhochdeutsch), referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is the written form of one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Sz is a digraph of the Latin script, used in Hungarian, Polish, Kashubian and German, and in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
Theuerdank (Teuerdank, Tewerdanck, Teuerdannckh) is a poetic work composed by the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, (1486-1519) in German which tells the fictionalised and romanticised story of his journey to marry Mary of Burgundy in 1477.
Type design is the art and process of designing typefaces.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard, based in Mountain View, California.
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
A virtual keyboard is a software component that allows the input of characters without the need for physical keys.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a 1 byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Es tset, Es zett, Es-tset, Es-zed, Es-zett, Ess tsett, Ess-set, Ess-tset, Ess-tsett, Ess-zed, Ess-zet, Ess-zett, Esset, Esssett, Esszet, Esszett, Eszet, Eszett, Eszett (letter), German B, German S, German eszett, German sharp S, German sharp s, German sz, S Sharp, S-zett, Schaffers s, Scharfes S, Scharfes ess, Scharfes s, Scharfes-s, Sharp S, Sharp es, Sharp ess, Sharp s, Sharp s (ess-zed), Sulzbacher Form, Sulzbacher form, Szett, Szlig.