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İzmir

Index İzmir

İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara. [1]

512 relations: Abdul Hamid II, Abraham Palacci, Achaemenid Empire, Adnan Menderes Airport, Aegean Islands, Aegean Region, Aegean Sea, Aeolians, Aeolic Greek, Aeolis, Africa, Afyonkarahisar, Agora, Agriculture, Ahmet Adnan Saygun, Ahmet Piriştina, Albert Einstein, Aleppo, Alexander (son of Ivan Shishman), Alexander the Great, Aliağa, Alluvial plain, Alpay Özalan, Alsancak, Alsancak railway station, Altay S.K., Altınordu F.K., Amazons, American Collegiate Institute, Americas, Anatolia, Anatolia Eyalet, Anatolian beyliks, Ancona, Ankara, Apollon Smyrni F.C., Archaic Greece, Arkas Spor, Art exhibition, Artemis, Arup Group, Arzawa, Asansör, Ashgate Publishing, Asia, Asia (Roman province), Association football, Assyria, Aston Villa F.C., Atatürk Mask, İzmir, ..., Athena, Athens, Attic Greek, Aydın, Aydınids, Azerbaijan, Aziz Kocaoğlu, Çeşme, Çiğli, Ödemiş, İDO, İZBAN, İZBAN A.Ş., İzmir, İzmir (1st electoral district), İzmir (2nd electoral district), İzmir (electoral districts), İzmir Atatürk Stadium, İzmir Clock Tower, İzmir Economic Congress, İzmir European Jazz Festival, İzmir Institute of Technology, İzmir Province, İzmir University of Economics, İzmirspor, Şifa University, Baku, Balçova, Balkans, Bandırma, Basketbol Süper Ligi, Basmane railway station, Battle of Ankara, Battle of Chesma, Battle of Issus, Bayezid I, Bayraklı, Bazaar, Bălți, Beşiktaş J.K., Bequest, Bergama, Bike path, Birds Without Wings, Bishkek, Bodrum, Bodrum Castle, Bonn, Book of Revelation, Bornova, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Boston, Boxing, Boyoz, Bremen, Brill Publishers, Bronze Age, Buca, Bucaspor, Bukhara, Bulgaria, Bulgarians, Bureau International des Expositions, Byzantine Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cape Town, Capital city, Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, Caracalla, Carlo Goldoni, CEV Challenge Cup, Chalcolithic, Chariot racing, Charles Bronson, Charles Kegan Paul, Charles Texier, China, Chios, Chrysostomos of Smyrna, City-state, Classical antiquity, Coach (sport), Colophon (city), Commuter rail, Congress, Constanța, Constantin Carathéodory, Constantinople, Crete, Croatia, Crusades, Cuba, Cumhuriyet Square (İzmir), Cycling, Cyrus the Great, Czech Republic, Darío Moreno, Darius III, Defensive wall, Denmark, Dido Sotiriou, Diocese, Dionysus, Dobruja, Dokuz Eylül University, Dolmuş, E. Howard Hunt, Earthquake, Eastern Anatolia Region, Edward Elgar, Ege University, Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, Ekrem Akurgal, Eleftherios Venizelos, Empire of Nicaea, England, English language, Ephesus, Eric Ambler, Esplanade, EuroBasket, EuroBasket Women 2005, Europe, European Festivals Association, Evangelical School of Smyrna, Expo 2015, Eyalet, Famagusta, Fenerbahçe S.K., Fishing, Foça, Folkart Towers, Fourth Crusade, France, Free economic zone, French people, Further-eastern European Time, Galatasaray S.K. (football), Gaziemir, Göztepe S.K., Göztepe, Konak, Gediz River, Genoa, Geographical regions of Turkey, Germany, Gezi Park protests, Giaour, Gomidas Institute, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Great fire of Smyrna, Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), Greece, Greek Dark Ages, Greek language, Greeks, Gulf of İzmir, Hadrian, Haim Palachi, HarperCollins, Hasan Tahsin, Hatay, Konak, Havana, Hellenic Army, Hellenistic period, Herodotus, Hippodamus of Miletus, Hippodrome, History of the Jews in Turkey, Hittites, Homer, House of Shishman, Human overpopulation, Human settlement, IAOIZ, Ice hockey, India, Indigenous peoples, Indonesia, Industrialisation, Institute of technology, Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, Intermodal container, Ionia, Ionian University of Smyrna, Ionians, Ionic Greek, Iron Age, Irving Louis Horowitz, Israel, Istanbul, Isthmus, Italy, Izmir Ethnography Museum, Jazz, Jeffrey Eugenides, Jews, John the Apostle, Joint venture, Junayd of Aydın, Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Kadifekale, Karabağlar, Karataş, Karataş, Konak, Karşıyaka, Karşıyaka Basket, Karşıyaka S.K., Kardzhali, Kazakhstan, Köppen climate classification, Kültepe, Kütahya, Keşkek, Kemalism, Kemalpaşa, Kemeraltı, Klazomenai, Knights Hospitaller, Koç family, Koç Holding, Kofta, Konak Square, Konak, İzmir, Kuşadası, Kumru (sandwich), Kyrgyzstan, Labour Battalions (Ottoman Empire), Late Bronze Age collapse, Leiden, Les Orientales, Levant, Levantine mansions of İzmir, Life of Homer (Pseudo-Herodotus), List of fires, List of hospitals in Izmir Province, List of kings of Lydia, List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, List of mayors of İzmir, List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft, List of museums in Izmir, List of Ottoman mosques in Izmir, List of parks in Izmir, List of people from Izmir, List of sovereign states, Lokma, London, Long Beach, California, Lord Byron, Louis de Bernières, Luwians, Lydia, Lydians, Manisa, Marcus Aurelius, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Games, Mediterranean Sea, Mehmed I, Menderes, İzmir, Menemen, Metin Oktay, Metropolis of Smyrna, Metropolitan area, Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey, Metropolitan municipality, Middle East, Milan, Minibus, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Italy), Moldova, Mordoğan, Mostar, Mount Nif, Mount Sipylus, Muğla University, Mudbrick, Mumbai, Municipal president, Mustafa Denizli, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mycenaean Greece, Myrrh, Narlıdere, Nationalist Movement Party, Nazilli, Near East, Neolithic, Netherlands, Northern Cyprus, Northern Line (İZBAN), Occupation of Smyrna, Odense, Oil refinery, Olive, Olympiad, Onomastus of Smyrna, Orchestra, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish alphabet, Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman Turks, Pallache family, Panionios F.C., Pasaport Ferry Terminal, Pausanias (geographer), Pelops, Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey), Pergamon, Petroglyph, Phaeton (carriage), Phragmites, Plzeň, Polycarp, Pope Clement VI, Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, Portmanteau, Postal code, Private sector, Protected area, Proto-Greek language, Provinces of Turkey, Rahamim Nissim Palacci, Rapid transit, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Turkey Identity Card, Republican People's Party (Turkey), River delta, River Meles, Rock music, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Romania, Ronald Syme, Russia, Sabbatai Zevi, Saffron, Sanctuary, Sanjak, Sardis, Söke, Süper Lig, Sea Peoples, Seferihisar, Selahattin Demirtaş, Selçuk, Seljuq dynasty, Sephardi Jews, Serie A, Seven churches of Asia, Shymkent, Sister city, Small and medium-sized enterprises, Smyrna, Smyrne Cassaba & Prolongements, Smyrniote crusades, Solo (music), Sousse, South Africa, Southeastern Anatolia Region, Southern Line (İZBAN), Spain, Split, Croatia, Sujuk, SUNY Press, Surabaya, Synagogue, Taekwondo, Tampa, Florida, Tantalus, Tarhana, Türkmenabat, Tel Aviv, Theseus, Tianjin, Timur, Tire, İzmir, Tony Curtis, Torbalı, Trade fair, Train station, Treaty of Lausanne, Treaty of Sèvres, Trolleybus, Trolleybuses in Izmir, Troy, Tunisia, Turgutlu, Turin, Turkey, Turkey national football team, Turkic peoples, Turkish Basketball Cup, Turkish Basketball Presidential Cup, Turkish constitutional referendum, 2007, Turkish constitutional referendum, 2010, Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017, Turkish cuisine, Turkish Cup, Turkish general election, June 2015, Turkish Ice Hockey Federation, Turkish Ice Hockey Super League, Turkish Land Forces, Turkish local elections, 1999, Turkish local elections, 2009, Turkish local elections, 2014, Turkish Men's Volleyball Cup, Turkish Men's Volleyball League, Turkish presidential election, 2014, Turkish State Railways, Turkmenistan, Tzachas, U.S. Città di Palermo, Uşak, UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, UEFA Euro 2000, United Kingdom, United States, United States Space Camp, Universal health care, Universiade, University of Cologne, University of Washington, Urban district, Urban forest, Urla, İzmir, Uzbekistan, Vehicle registration plates of Turkey, Venice, Victor Hugo, Vilayet, Vineyard, Virtuoso, Volgograd, Wiley-Blackwell, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Will and testament, World Taekwondo, World War I, World's fair, Wuhan, Xiamen, Yaşar University, Yamanlar, Yeşilova Höyük, Yeni Kavaflar Market, Yogurt, You Can't Win 'Em All, Yuvarlakia, 1961–62 Serie A, 1968–69 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, 1969–70 European Cup Winners' Cup, 1971 Mediterranean Games, 2004 in archaeology, 2005 Summer Universiade, 2006 European Fencing Championships, 2009 Men's European Volleyball Championship, 2010 FIBA World Championship, 2010–11 Süper Lig, 2011 European Team Championships, 2012–13 FIBA EuroChallenge. Expand index (462 more) »

Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.

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Abraham Palacci

Abraham Palacci (1809 or 1810–January 2, 1898) was a grand rabbi and author (in Ladino and Hebrew) of Izmir, was the son of grand rabbi Haim Palachi and brother of grand rabbi Rahamim Nissim Palacci and rabbi Joseph Palacci.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Adnan Menderes Airport

İzmir Adnan Menderes Airport is an international airport serving İzmir and most of the surrounding province in Turkey.

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Aegean Islands

The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast.

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Aegean Region

The Aegean Region is one of the 7 geographical regions of Turkey.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Aeolians

The Aeolians (Αἰολεῖς) were one of the four major tribes in which Greeks divided themselves in the ancient period (along with the Achaeans, Dorians and Ionians).

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Aeolic Greek

In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (also Aeolian, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.

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Aeolis

Aeolis (Ancient Greek: Αἰολίς, Aiolís), or Aeolia (Αἰολία, Aiolía), was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Afyonkarahisar

Afyonkarahisar (afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress") is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province.

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Agora

The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ahmet Adnan Saygun

Ahmet Adnan Saygun (7 September 1907 – 6 January 1991) was a Turkish composer, musicologist and writer on music.

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Ahmet Piriştina

Ahmet Piriştina (April 8, 1952 – June 15, 2004) was a Turkish politician who was Mayor of İzmir from 1999 to 2004.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Alexander (son of Ivan Shishman)

Alexander (Александър), subsequently Iskender (Ottoman Turkish: اسكندر) (died 1418), was the eldest son of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman (r. 1371–1395).

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Aliağa

Aliağa, is a town and a district of Izmir Province in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

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Alluvial plain

An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms.

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Alpay Özalan

Fehmi Alpay Özalan (born 29 May 1973), known as Alpay, is a Turkish football manager and former footballer.

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Alsancak

Alsancak is a centrally situated large quarter (or a zone; semt in Turkish) in İzmir, Turkey, within the boundaries of the metropolitan district of Konak, the historic center of the city.

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Alsancak railway station

Alsancak railway station (Alsancak garı) is one of the two main railway terminals in İzmir and is the second-oldest railway station in Turkey, after Kemer, being completed in 1858.

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Altay S.K.

Altay Spor Kulübü is a professional Turkish football club based in the city of İzmir, Turkey.

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Altınordu F.K.

Altınordu Futbol Kulübü (formerly known as Altınordu Spor Kulübü) is a football club based in İzmir, Turkey.

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Amazons

In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ἀμαζόνες,, singular Ἀμαζών) were a tribe of women warriors related to Scythians and Sarmatians.

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American Collegiate Institute

Founded in 1878, the American Collegiate Institute (“Özel İzmir Amerikan Koleji” in Turkish), referred to by the acronym ACI, is a private co-educational high school in Goztepe, İzmir, Turkey.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anatolia Eyalet

The Eyalet of Anatolia (ایالت آناطولی; Eyālet-i Anaṭolı) was one of the two core provinces (Rumelia being the other) in the early years of the Ottoman Empire.

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Anatolian beyliks

Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.

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Ancona

Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.

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Ankara

Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.

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Apollon Smyrni F.C.

Apollon Smyrnis Football Club (Greek: ΠΑΕ Απόλλων Σμύρνης), or in its full name Gymnasticos Syllogos Apollon Smyrnis (Greek: Γυμναστικός Σύλλογος Απόλλων Σμύρνης, Gymnastics Society Apollon of Smyrna) is a Greek football club based in the city of Athens, that plays in the Super League.

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Archaic Greece

Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.

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Arkas Spor

Arkas Spor Izmir is a professional volleyball team based in Izmir, Turkey.

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Art exhibition

An art exhibition is traditionally the space in which art objects (in the most general sense) meet an audience.

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Artemis

Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.

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Arup Group

Arup (officially Arup Group Limited) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London which provides engineering, design, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment.

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Arzawa

Arzawa in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC (roughly from late 15th century BC until the beginning of the 12th century BC) was the name of a region and a political entity (a "kingdom" or a federation of local powers) in Western Anatolia.

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Asansör

Asansör (Turkish for "elevator", derived from the French word ascenseur) is a historical building in İzmir's Karataş quarter, within the boundaries of the metropolitan district of Konak.

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Ashgate Publishing

Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asia (Roman province)

The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Aston Villa F.C.

Aston Villa Football Club (nicknamed Villa, The Villa, The Villans and The Lions) is a professional football club based in Aston, Birmingham, England.

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Atatürk Mask, İzmir

The Atatürk Mask (Atatürk Maskı) is a large concrete relief of the head of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern Turkey, located to the south of Kadifekale the historical castle of İzmir at.

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Athena

Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Attic Greek

Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.

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Aydın

Aydın (EYE-din;; formerly named Güzelhisar), ancient Greek Tralles, is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province in Turkey's Aegean Region.

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Aydınids

The Aydinids or Aydinid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Aydınoğulları, Aydınoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Aydin and Beylik of Aydin (Aydın Beyliği), was one of the Anatolian beyliks and famous for its seaborne raiding.

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Azerbaijan

No description.

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Aziz Kocaoğlu

Aziz Kocaoğlu (Erbaa July 12 1948) is a Turkish politician who has been the Mayor of İzmir, Turkey's third largest city, since 2004.

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Çeşme

Çeşme is a coastal town and the administrative centre of the district of the same name in Turkey's westernmost end, on a promontory on the tip of the peninsula that also carries the same name and that extends inland to form a whole with the wider Karaburun Peninsula.

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Çiğli

Çiğli (Silleon in Greek) is a metropolitan district of İzmir in western Turkey.

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Ödemiş

Ödemiş is a district of İzmir Province of Turkey, as well as the name of its central town (urban population 75,577 as of 2012), located 113 km southeast of the city of İzmir.

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İDO

İDO Istanbul Fast Ferries Co.

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İZBAN

İZBAN, also called Egeray, is a commuter rail system serving İzmir and its metropolitan area, mainly on a north-south axis, via two lines: the Northern Line and the Southern Line.

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İZBAN A.Ş.

İzmir Banliyö Anonim Şirketi or İZBAN A.Ş. is the joint-stock company of İZBAN.

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İzmir

İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.

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İzmir (1st electoral district)

İzmir's first electoral district is one of two divisions of İzmir province for the purpose of elections to Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

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İzmir (2nd electoral district)

İzmir's second electoral district is one of two divisions of İzmir province for the purpose of elections to Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

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İzmir (electoral districts)

İzmir is a Turkish province divided into two electoral districts of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

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İzmir Atatürk Stadium

İzmir Atatürk Stadium (İzmir Atatürk Stadyumu) is a multi-purpose stadium in İzmir, Turkey.

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İzmir Clock Tower

Izmir Clock Tower (İzmir Saat Kulesi) is a historic clock tower located at the Konak Square in the Konak district of İzmir, Turkey.

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İzmir Economic Congress

İzmir Economic Congress (İzmir İktisat Kongresi) was held in İzmir, Turkey between 17 February - 4 March 1923, shortly after the end of the Turkish War of Independence and during the interval between the two conferences that led to the Lausanne Treaty the same year.

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İzmir European Jazz Festival

The İzmir European Jazz Festival, (İzmir Avrupa Caz Festivali) is a cultural event held in the first half of every March in İzmir, Turkey.

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İzmir Institute of Technology

İzmir Institute of Technology (İzmir Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü, commonly referred to as İYTE) is a public research university in İzmir, Turkey.

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İzmir Province

İzmir Province (Izmir ili) is a province and metropolitan municipality of Turkey in western Anatolia, situated along the Aegean coast. Its capital is the city of İzmir, which is in itself composed of the province's central 10 districts out of 30 in total. To the west, it is surrounded by the Aegean Sea, and it encloses the Gulf of Izmir. Its area is, with a population of 4,279,677 in 2017. The population was 3,370,866 in 2000. Neighboring provinces are Balıkesir to the north, Manisa to the east, and Aydın to the south. The traffic code of the province is 35. Major rivers of the province include the Küçük Menderes river, Koca Çay (with Güzelhisar dam), and Bakırçay.

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İzmir University of Economics

İzmir University of Economics (IUE), which is the first foundation university in İzmir and in Aegean region, was established in 2001 by the İzmir Chamber of Commerce Education and Health Foundation.

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İzmirspor

İzmirspor is а Turkish football club from İzmir, Turkey.

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Şifa University

Şifa University is a foundation university with the theme of health, which was founded in 2010 by Turkish medical doctors.

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Baku

Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.

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Balçova

Balçova (pronounced Balchova), is a district of Izmir Province in Turkey.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Bandırma

Bandırma (from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city in northwestern Turkey with 143,000 inhabitants (2012 estimate) on the Sea of Marmara.

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Basketbol Süper Ligi

The Basketbol Süper Ligi (BSL), also known as Tahincioğlu Basketbol Süper Ligi for sponsorship reasons, is the top professional basketball division of the Turkish basketball league system.

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Basmane railway station

Basmane station (Basmane Garı) is one of the two main railway stations in İzmir, the other being Alsancak.

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Battle of Ankara

The Battle of Ankara (or Angora) was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk plain near Ankara between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire.

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Battle of Chesma

The naval Battle of Chesme took place on 5–7 July 1770 during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) near and in Çeşme (Chesme or Chesma) Bay, in the area between the western tip of Anatolia and the island of Chios, which was the site of a number of past naval battles between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice.

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Battle of Issus

The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, on November 5, 333 BC between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Empire, led by Darius III, in the second great battle of Alexander's conquest of Asia.

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Bayezid I

Bayezid I (بايزيد اول; I. (nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: یلدیرم), "Lightning, Thunderbolt"); 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402.

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Bayraklı

Bayraklı is a district of İzmir Province of Turkey.

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Bazaar

A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.

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Bălți

Bălți (Belz, Bielce, Бельцы,, Бєльці,, בעלץ) is a city in Moldova.

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Beşiktaş J.K.

Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), also known simply as Beşiktaş, is a Turkish sports club founded in 1903, and based in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Bequest

A bequest is property given by will.

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Bergama

Bergama is a populous district, as well as the center city of the same district, in İzmir Province in western Turkey.

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Bike path

A bike path is a bikeway separated from motorized traffic and dedicated to cycling or shared with pedestrians or other non-motorized users.

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Birds Without Wings

Birds Without Wings is a novel by Louis de Bernières, written in 2004.

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Bishkek

Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).

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Bodrum

Bodrum is a district and a port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey.

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Bodrum Castle

Bodrum Castle (Bodrum Kalesi), located in southwest Turkey in the port city of Bodrum, was built from 1402 onwards, by the Knights of St John as the Castle of St.

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Bonn

The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.

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Book of Revelation

The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.

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Bornova

Bornova is a metropolitan district of İzmir in İzmir Province in Turkey.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Boston

Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Boyoz

Boyoz is a Turkish pastry, associated with İzmir, Turkey, which is practically the only city where it is prepared for commercial purposes and follows the original recipe.

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Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Buca

Buca (pron.) is a district of İzmir Province of Turkey.

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Bucaspor

Bucaspor is a professional Turkish football based in Buca, Izmir.

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Bukhara

Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bulgarians

Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.

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Bureau International des Expositions

The Bureau International des Expositions or the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE) is an intergovernmental organization created to supervise international exhibitions (also known as expos or world expos) falling under the jurisdiction of the Convention Relating to International Exhibitions.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cape Town

Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire

Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire were contracts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers, particularly France.

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Caracalla

Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.

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Carlo Goldoni

Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 – 6 February 1793) was an Italian playwright and librettist from the Republic of Venice.

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CEV Challenge Cup

The CEV Challenge Cup is an annual European-wide third-tier level competition for men's Volleyball clubs.

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Chalcolithic

The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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Chariot racing

Chariot racing (harmatodromia, ludi circenses) was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.

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Charles Bronson

Charles Bronson (born Charles Dennis Buchinsky; Karolis Dionyzas Bučinskis; November 3, 1921 – August 30, 2003) was an American actor.

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Charles Kegan Paul

Charles Kegan Paul (1828 – 19 July 1902) was an English publisher and author.

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Charles Texier

Félix Marie Charles Texier (22 August 1802, Versailles – 1 July 1871, Paris) was a French historian, architect and archaeologist.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chios

Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.

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Chrysostomos of Smyrna

Chrysostomos Kalafatis (8 January 1867 – 10 September 1922) (Χρυσόστομος Καλαφάτης), known as Saint Chrysostomos of Smyrna, Chrysostomos of Smyrna and Metropolitan Chrysostom, was the Greek Orthodox metropolitan bishop of Smyrna (Izmir) between 1910 and 1914, and again from 1919 until his death in 1922.

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City-state

A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Coach (sport)

In sports, a coach is a person involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople.

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Colophon (city)

Colophon (Κολοφών) was an ancient city in Ionia.

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Commuter rail

Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km (10 miles) and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis.

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Congress

A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.

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Constanța

Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.

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Constantin Carathéodory

Constantin Carathéodory (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή Konstantinos Karatheodori; 13 September 1873 – 2 February 1950) was a Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Crete

Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cumhuriyet Square (İzmir)

Cumhuriyet Square (Cumhuriyet Meydanı, meaning Republic Square) is one of the main urban squares of İzmir, Turkey, located between the neighbourhoods of Alsancak and Çankaya in the Konak district.

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Cycling

Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

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Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Darío Moreno

David Arugete (3 April 1921 – 1 December 1968), commonly known under his stage name Darío Moreno, was a Turkish polyglot singer, an accomplished composer, lyricist, and guitarist.

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Darius III

Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.

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Defensive wall

A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Dido Sotiriou

Dido Sotiriou (née Pappa; alternative spelling: Dido Sotiriu; Greek: Διδώ Σωτηρίου, Turkish: Dido Sotiroğlu; 18 February 1909 – 23 September 2004)Born on 18 February 1911 according to other sources (Kalimerhaba, p. 808) was a Greek novelist, journalist, and playwright.

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Diocese

The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".

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Dionysus

Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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Dobruja

Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.

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Dokuz Eylül University

Dokuz Eylül University (Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi) (DEÜ) is a university in Turkey.

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Dolmuş

In Turkey and Northern Cyprus, dolmuş are share taxis that run set routes within and between cities.

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E. Howard Hunt

Everette Howard Hunt Jr. (October 9, 1918 – January 23, 2007), better known as E. Howard Hunt, was an American intelligence officer and published author of 73 books.

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Earthquake

An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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Eastern Anatolia Region

The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Edward Elgar

Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.

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Ege University

Ege University (Ege Üniversitesi) is a public university in İzmir, Turkey.

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Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu

Ekmeleddin Mehmet İhsanoğlu (born 26 December 1943) is a Turkish academic, politician and diplomat who was Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) from 2004 to 2014.

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Ekrem Akurgal

Ekrem Akurgal (March 30, 1911 – November 1, 2002) was a Turkish archaeologist.

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Eleftherios Venizelos

Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος,; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.

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Empire of Nicaea

The Empire of Nicaea or the Nicene Empire was the largest of the three Byzantine GreekA Short history of Greece from early times to 1964 by W. A. Heurtley, H. C. Darby, C. W. Crawley, C. M. Woodhouse (1967), page 55: "There in the prosperous city of Nicaea, Theodoros Laskaris, the son in law of a former Byzantine Emperor, establish a court that soon become the Small but reviving Greek empire." rump states founded by the aristocracy of the Byzantine Empire that fled after Constantinople was occupied by Western European and Venetian forces during the Fourth Crusade.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ephesus

Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.

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Eric Ambler

Eric Clifford Ambler OBE (28 June 1909 – 22 October 1998) was an influential British author of thrillers, in particular spy novels, who introduced a new realism to the genre.

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Esplanade

An esplanade or promenade is a long, open, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water, where people may walk.

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EuroBasket

EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.

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EuroBasket Women 2005

The 2005 European Women Basketball Championship, commonly called Eurobasket 2005 Women, was held in Turkey between 2 September and 11 September 2005.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Festivals Association

The European Festivals Association (EFA) is an umbrella group for various festivals in Europe and other countries.

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Evangelical School of Smyrna

The Evangelical School (Ευαγγελική Σχολή) was a Greek educational institution established in 1733 in Smyrna, Ottoman Empire, now Izmir, Turkey.

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Expo 2015

Expo 2015 was a universal exposition hosted by Milan, Italy.

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Eyalet

Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.

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Famagusta

Famagusta (Αμμόχωστος; Mağusa, or Gazimağusa) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus.

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Fenerbahçe S.K.

Fenerbahçe Spor Kulübü (Fenerbahçe Sports Club), commonly known as Fenerbahçe, are a major Turkish multi-sport club based in the Kadıköy district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fishing

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.

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Foça

Foça is a town and district in Turkey's İzmir Province, on the Aegean coast.

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Folkart Towers

Folkart Towers are twin skyscrapers in the Bayraklı district of the Turkish city of İzmir.

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Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Free economic zone

Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries.

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French people

The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.

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Further-eastern European Time

Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time.

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Galatasaray S.K. (football)

Galatasaray Spor Kulübü, also known simply as Galatasaray, is a Turkish football club based on the European side of the city of Istanbul.

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Gaziemir

Gaziemir is a district of İzmir Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.

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Göztepe S.K.

Göztepe Spor Kulübü (Göztepe Sports Club) also known as Göztepe, are a Turkish sports club located in the Güzelyalı neighborhood of İzmir, Turkey.

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Göztepe, Konak

Göztepe is a neighborhood of İzmir, situated on the southern shore of the Gulf of İzmir, administratively within the boundaries of the metropolitan district of Konak.

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Gediz River

The Gediz River (Gediz Nehri) is the second-largest river in Anatolia flowing into the Aegean Sea.

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Genoa

Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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Geographical regions of Turkey

The geographical regions of Turkey comprise seven regions (bölge) which were originally defined at the country's First Geography Congress in 1941.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gezi Park protests

A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Turkey began on 28 May 2013, initially to contest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park.

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Giaour

Giaour or Gawur (gâvur,; from گور gâvor an obsolete variant of modern گبر gaur; ghiaur; Kaur; giaoúris) meaning "infidel", is an extremely offensive term, a slur, historically used in the Ottoman Empire for non-Muslims or more particularly Christians in the Balkans.

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Gomidas Institute

The Gomidas Institute (GI; ԿԻ) is an independent academic institution "dedicated to modern Armenian and regional studies." Its activities include research, publications and educational programmes.

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Grand National Assembly of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.

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Great fire of Smyrna

The Great fire of Smyrna or the Catastrophe of Smyrna (Καταστροφή της Σμύρνης, "Smyrna Catastrophe"; 1922 İzmir Yangını, "1922 Izmir Fire"; Զմիւռնիոյ Մեծ Հրդեհ, Zmyuṙno Mets Hrdeh) destroyed much of the port city of Smyrna (modern İzmir, Turkey) in September 1922.

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Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922 was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek Dark Ages

The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Gulf of İzmir

The Gulf of İzmir (İzmir Körfezi), formerly known as the Gulf of Smyrna, is a gulf on the Aegean Sea, with its inlet between the peninsula of Karaburun and the mainland area of Foça.

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Hadrian

Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.

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Haim Palachi

Haim Palachi (חיים פלאג'י חיים פאלאדזשי; Acronym: MaHaRHaF or HaVIF) (January 28, 1788– February 10, 1868) was a Jewish-Turkish chief rabbi of Smyrna (İzmir) and author in Ladino and Hebrew.

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HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Hasan Tahsin

Hasan Tahsin was the code name of Osman Nevres (1888 – 15 May, 1919), an Ottoman-born Turkish nationalist and journalist.

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Hatay, Konak

Hatay is a large quarter (or a zone; semt) of the city of İzmir, Turkey.

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Havana

Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.

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Hellenic Army

The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hippodamus of Miletus

Hippodamus of Miletus (Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, Hippodamos ho Milesios; 498 – 408 BC), was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher, who is considered to be "the father of European urban planning", the namesake of the "Hippodamian Plan" (grid plan) of city layout.

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Hippodrome

The hippodrome (ἱππόδρομος) was an ancient Grecian stadium for horse racing and chariot racing.

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History of the Jews in Turkey

The history of the Jews in Turkey (Türkiye Yahudileri, Turkish Jews; יהודים טורקים Yehudim Turkim, Djudios Turkos) covers the 2,400 years that Jews have lived in what is now Turkey.

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Hittites

The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

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Homer

Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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House of Shishman

Shishman (Шишман), also Shishmanids or Shishmanovtsi (Шишмановци), was a medieval Bulgarian royal dynasty of Cuman (or partial Cuman) origin.

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Human overpopulation

Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.

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Human settlement

In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live.

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IAOIZ

Izmir Atatürk organized industrial zone (IAOIZ) (İzmir Atatürk Organize Sanayi Bölgesi) is one of the largest and most modern organized industrial zones in Turkey.

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Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Industrialisation

Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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Institute of technology

An institute of technology (also: university of technology, polytechnic university, technikon, and technical university) is a type of university which specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and sometimes natural sciences.

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Inter-Cities Fairs Cup

The Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, sometimes referred to as the European Fairs Cup, Fairs Cities' Cup, or simply as the Fairs Cup, was a European football competition played between 1955 and 1971.

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Intermodal container

An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport, meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo.

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Ionia

Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.

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Ionian University of Smyrna

The Ionian University of Smyrna (Ιωνικό Πανεπιστήμιο Σμύρνης) was a university established by the local Greek authorities during the Greek Occupation of Smyrna (1919–1922), today Izmir, Turkey.

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Ionians

The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.

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Ionic Greek

Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Irving Louis Horowitz

Irving Louis Horowitz (September 25, 1929 – March 21, 2012) was an American sociologist, author and college professor who wrote and lectured extensively in his field.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Isthmus

An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Izmir Ethnography Museum

The İzmir Ethnography Museum (İzmir Etnografya Müzesi) is an ethnography museum in Izmir, Turkey, containing a number of pieces of clothing and pottery from the Seljuk period of Turkish history onwards.

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Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Jeffrey Eugenides

Jeffrey Kent Eugenides (born March 8, 1960) is an American novelist and short story writer.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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John the Apostle

John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.

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Joint venture

A joint venture (JV) is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and risks, and shared governance.

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Junayd of Aydın

Juneyd or Junayd Bey (İzmiroğlu Cüneyd) was the last ruler (bey) of the Aydınid principality in what is now central western Turkey.

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Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.

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Kadifekale

Kadifekale (literally "the velvet castle" in Turkish) is the name of the hill located within the urban zone of İzmir, Turkey, as well as being the name of the ancient castle on top of the same hill.

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Karabağlar

Karabağlar is a district of İzmir Province of Turkey.

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Karataş

Karataş (Greek: Μεγαρσος, Mègarsos) is a small city and a district in Adana Province, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, 47 km from the city of Adana, between the rivers of Seyhan and Ceyhan, the Pyramos of Antiquity.

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Karataş, Konak

Karataş (قره طاش) is a neighborhood of İzmir, Turkey, within the boundaries of the city's central metropolitan district of Konak.

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Karşıyaka

Karşıyaka is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey.

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Karşıyaka Basket

Karşıyaka Basket, mostly known as Pınar Karşıyaka for sponsorship reasons, is a Turkish professional basketball team that is located in Karşıyaka, İzmir.

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Karşıyaka S.K.

Karşıyaka is a Turkish sports club located in Karşıyaka, Izmir.

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Kardzhali

Kardzhali (Кърджали, Kǎrdžali; Kırcaali; Κάρτζαλι, Kártzali), sometimes spelt Kardzali or Kurdzhali, is a town in the Eastern Rhodopes in Bulgaria, centre of Kardzhali Municipality and Kardzhali Province.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kültepe

Kültepe (Turkish: "Ash Hill") is an archaeological site in Kayseri Province, Turkey.

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Kütahya

Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level.

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Keşkek

Keşkek, also known as Kashkak and Kashkek, is a sort of ceremonial meat or chicken and wheat or barley stew found in Turkish, Iranian and Greek cuisines.

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Kemalism

Kemalism (Kemalizm), also known as Atatürkism (Atatürkçülük, Atatürkçü düşünce), or the '''Six Arrows''' (Altı ok), is the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey.

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Kemalpaşa

Kemalpaşa is a large town and the center of the district of the same name in İzmir Province, Turkey.

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Kemeraltı

Kemeraltı (more fully, Kemeraltı Çarşısı) is a historical market (bazaar) district of İzmir, Turkey.

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Klazomenai

Klazomenai (Κλαζομεναί) or Clazomenae was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia and a member of the Ionian League.

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Knights Hospitaller

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.

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Koç family

The Koç family is a Turkish family of business people founded by Vehbi Koç, one of the wealthiest self-made people in Turkey.

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Koç Holding

Koç Holding A.Ş. (pronounced: Coach with a short syllable) is the largest industrial conglomerate in Turkey, and that country's only entry on the Fortune Global 500 list.

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Kofta

Kofta is a family of meatball or meatloaf dishes found in South Asian, Middle Eastern, Balkan, and Central Asian cuisines.

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Konak Square

Konak Square (Konak Meydanı) is a busy square at the southern end of Atatürk Avenue in the Konak district of İzmir, Turkey.

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Konak, İzmir

Konak is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey.

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Kuşadası

Kuşadası is a resort town on Turkey's Aegean coast, and the center of the seaside district of the same name within Aydın Province.

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Kumru (sandwich)

Kumru is a Turkish sandwich on a bun, typically with cheese, tomato, and sausage.

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Kyrgyzstan

The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Labour Battalions (Ottoman Empire)

Ottoman labour battalions (Amele Taburları, Աշխատանքային բատալիոն, Greek: Τάγματα Εργασίας, Tagmata Ergasias, but more often the transliterated Turkish name αμελέ ταμπουρού is used) was a form of unfree labour in the late Ottoman Empire.

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Late Bronze Age collapse

The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.

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Leiden

Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Les Orientales

Les Orientales is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, inspired by the Greek War of Independence.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Levantine mansions of İzmir

Levantine mansions of İzmir (İzmir Levanten köşkleri) refer to about thirty stately residences, dating principally from the 19th century and of which a significant number remain intact to this day, by being restored and continuing to be used and visited, in İzmir, Turkey.

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Life of Homer (Pseudo-Herodotus)

The Life of Homer, whose unknown author is referred to as Pseudo-Herodotus, is one among several ancient biographies of the Greek epic poet, Homer.

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List of fires

This is a list of historic fires.

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List of hospitals in Izmir Province

This is a list of hospitals in İzmir, Turkey.

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List of kings of Lydia

This page lists the known kings of Lydia, both legendary and historical.

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List of largest cities and towns in Turkey

This is a list of cities and towns in Turkey by population, which includes cities and towns that are provincial capitals or have a population of at least 7,001.

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List of mayors of İzmir

The following list is the list of mayors of İzmir, Turkey after the proclamation of Turkish republic.

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List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft

Microsoft is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions.

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List of museums in Izmir

Below is a list of museums in İzmir, Turkey, indicated with the neighborhood and the district where each is located.

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List of Ottoman mosques in Izmir

The list below contains historical Ottoman mosques in modern-day İzmir, Turkey.

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List of parks in Izmir

The following is a partial list of the noteworthy parks in and around the city of İzmir, Turkey.

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List of people from Izmir

This is a list of famous people from İzmir, Turkey.

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List of sovereign states

This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

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Lokma

Lokma (Turkish), loukoumades (λουκουμάδες, singular λουκουμάς, loukoumas), zalabyieh (Arabic: زلابية), or bāmiyeh (Persian: بامیه)—see etymology below—are pastries made of deep fried dough soaked in syrup, chocolate sauce or honey, with cinnamon and sometimes sprinkled with sesame or grated walnuts.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Long Beach, California

Long Beach is a city on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Greater Los Angeles area of Southern California.

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Lord Byron

George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.

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Louis de Bernières

Louis de Bernières (born 8 December 1954) is a British novelist most famous for his fourth novel, Captain Corelli's Mandolin.

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Luwians

The Luwians were a group of Indo-European speaking people who lived in central, western, and southern Asia Minor as well as the northern part of western Levant in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.

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Lydia

Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.

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Lydians

The Lydians were an Anatolian people living in Lydia, a region in western Anatolia, who spoke the distinctive Lydian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian group.

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Manisa

Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean Games

The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held usually every four years, between nations around or very close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe, Africa, and Asia meet.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mehmed I

Mehmed I (1379 – 26 May 1421), also known as Mehmed Çelebi (چلبی محمد, "the noble-born") or Kirişci (from Greek Kyritzes, "lord's son"), was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421.

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Menderes, İzmir

Menderes is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey.

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Menemen

Menemen, is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey as well as the district's central town.

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Metin Oktay

Metin Oktay (2 February 1936 -13 September 1991) nicknamed the Uncrowned King by Galatasaray fans, was a Turkish footballer and one of the most successful goal scorers in Turkey.

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Metropolis of Smyrna

The Metropolis of Smyrna (Μητρόπολη Σμύρνης) is an ecclesiastical territory (diocese) of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, modern Turkey.

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Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.

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Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

There are 81 provinces in Turkey (il).

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Metropolitan municipality

A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Minibus

A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Italy)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (Ministero degli affari esteri e della cooperazione internazionale or MAECI) is the foreign ministry of the government of the Republic of Italy.

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Moldova

Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).

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Mordoğan

Mordoğan is a sea-side township with own municipality in Karaburun district in Turkey's Izmir Province.

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Mostar

Mostar is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Mount Nif

Mount Nif, Nif Dağı, (elevation) is a mountain in the district of Kemalpaşa, towering over the district center (formerly also called Nif), located immediately to the east of the city of İzmir, in western Turkey.

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Mount Sipylus

Mount Spil (Spil Dağı), the ancient Mount Sipylus (Σίπυλος) (elevation), is a mountain rich in legends and history in Manisa Province, Turkey, in what used to be the heartland of the Lydians and what is now Turkey's Aegean Region.

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Muğla University

Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University was established in 1992 as a state university with four proposed faculties: the Faculty of Arts & Sciences and Humanities, the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, the Faculty of Technical Education and the Faculty of Fisheries.

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Mudbrick

A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.

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Mumbai

Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Municipal president

A presidente municipal (English: "municipal president") is the chief of government of municipios in Mexico.

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Mustafa Denizli

Mustafa Denizli (born 10 November 1949) is a former Turkish football player and current the technical manager of Eskişehirspor.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Myrrh

Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.

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Narlıdere

Narlıdere is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey.

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Nationalist Movement Party

The Nationalist Movement Party (alternatively translated as Nationalist Action Party; Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP) is a Turkish far-right conservative political party that adheres to Turkish ultranationalism and Euroscepticism.

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Nazilli

Nazilli is the second largest town in Aydın Province in the Aegean region of western Turkey, east of the city of Aydın, on the road to Denizli.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

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Northern Line (İZBAN)

The Northern Line is a commuter rail service operated by IZBAN using tracks owned by the Turkish State Railways.

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Occupation of Smyrna

The Occupation of Smyrna was the military control by Greek forces of the city of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) and surrounding areas from 15 May 1919 until 9 September 1922.

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Odense

Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark.

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Olive

The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.

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Olympiad

An Olympiad (Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks.

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Onomastus of Smyrna

Onomastus of Smyrna (Ὀνόμαστος) was the first Olympic victor in boxing at the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC, when this sport was added.

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Orchestra

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Turkish alphabet

The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا) is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet.

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Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Pallache family

"Pallache" – also (de) Palacio(s), Palache, Palachi, Palacci, Palaggi, and many other variations (documented below) – is the surname of a prominent, Ladino-speaking, Sephardic Jewish family from the Iberian Peninsula, who spread mostly through the Mediterranean after the Alhambra Decree of March 31, 1492, and related events.

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Panionios F.C.

Panionios G.S.S. Football Club (Greek: ΠΑΕ Πανιώνιος Γ.Σ.Σ.; Πανιώνιος Γυμναστικός Σύλλογος Σμύρνης; Paniόnios Gymnastikόs Sýllogos Smýrnis, "All-Ionian Gymnastic Club of Smyrna"), but more commonly known as Panionios F.C. or simply Panionios, is a Greek association football club based in Nea Smyrni, Athens.

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Pasaport Ferry Terminal

Pasaport Ferry Terminal (Pasaport İskelesi) is a passenger ferry terminal in Konak, İzmir on the Gulf of İzmir.

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Pausanias (geographer)

Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

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Pelops

In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek: Πέλοψ), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus.

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Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey)

The Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkish: Halkların Demokratik Partisi (HDP), Kurdish: Partiya Demokratîk a Gelan), or Democratic Party of the Peoples, is a pro-minority political party in Turkey.

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Pergamon

Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.

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Petroglyph

Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.

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Phaeton (carriage)

A Phaeton (also Phaéton) was a form of sporty open carriage popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.

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Phragmites

Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world.

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Plzeň

Plzeň, also called Pilsen in English and German, is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic.

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Polycarp

Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Polycarpus; AD 69 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.

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Pope Clement VI

Clement VI (Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger, was Pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352.

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Population exchange between Greece and Turkey

The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.

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Portmanteau

A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.

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Postal code

A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.

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Private sector

The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.

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Protected area

Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.

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Proto-Greek language

The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.

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Provinces of Turkey

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il).

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Rahamim Nissim Palacci

Rahamim Nissim Isaac Palacci (also "Palaggi," "Palagi," "Falaji," and many variations) (1813–1907) was a rabbi and author in Izmir, Turkey, and descendent of the Pallache family.

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Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.

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Republic of Genoa

The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Republic of Turkey Identity Card

The Republic of Turkey Identity Card (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Kimlik Kartı) is compulsory for all Turkish citizens from birth.

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Republican People's Party (Turkey)

The Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP) is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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River Meles

The river Meles (more appropriately described as "Meles Brook") is a stream charged with history and famous in literature, especially by virtue of being associated in a common and consistent tradition with Homer's birth and works, and which flowed by the ancient city of Smyrna, and a namesake of which flows through the present-day metropolitan center of İzmir.

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Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Ronald Syme

Sir Ronald Syme, (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989) was a New Zealand-born historian and classicist.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sabbatai Zevi

Sabbatai Zevi (other spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September 17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire, who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah.

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Saffron

Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".

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Sanctuary

A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.

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Sanjak

Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.

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Sardis

Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.

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Söke

Söke is a town and a large district of Aydın Province in the Aegean region of western Turkey, 54 km (34 miles) south-west of the city of Aydın, near the Aegean coast.

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Süper Lig

The Süper Lig (Super League) is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs.

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Sea Peoples

The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).

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Seferihisar

Seferihisar is a coastal district and the center town of the same district in İzmir Province, in Turkey.

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Selahattin Demirtaş

Selahattin Demirtaş (born 10 April 1973) is a Turkish politician of Zaza Kurdish descent, member of the parliament of Turkey since 2007.

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Selçuk

Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district, İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of the ancient city of Ephesus.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Serie A

Serie A, also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia.

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Seven churches of Asia

The Seven Churches of Revelation, also known as the Seven Churches of the Apocalypse and the Seven Churches of Asia, are seven major churches of Early Christianity, as mentioned in the New Testament Book of Revelation.

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Shymkent

Shymkent (Shymkent, شىمكەنت, known until 1993 as Chimkent (Чимкент, چىمكېنت; Чимкент, Čimkent), is a city in the Republic of Kazakhstan; one of the three cities which have the status equal to that of a region (the city of republican significance). It is the third most populous city in Kazakhstan behind Almaty and Astana with an estimated population of 669,326 in 2012. After joining adjacent areas to the city the population has sharply risen to 858,147 in the beginning of 2015; as by 1 st May of 2018, Republic of Kazakhstan Committee on Statistics estimated the city population to be equal to 988 894. According to the region and city officials, millionth resident of Shymkent was born on 17th May, 2018. Shymkent is a major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, the city is also a notable cultural centre, with an international airport. Shymkent is situated west of Almaty and to the north of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Small and medium-sized enterprises

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, also small and medium enterprises) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.

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Smyrna

Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.

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Smyrne Cassaba & Prolongements

The Smyrne Cassaba & Prolongements (English:Smyrna Cassaba & Prolongations), formerly The Smyrna Cassaba Railway, was a railway company operating in Western Anatolia from 1863 to 1934.

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Smyrniote crusades

The Smyrniote crusades (1343–1351) were two Crusades sent by Pope Clement VI against the Emirate of Aydin under Umur Beg which had as their principal target the coastal city of Smyrna in Asia Minor.

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Solo (music)

In music, a solo (from the solo, meaning alone) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung featuring a single performer, who may be performing completely alone or supported by an accompanying instrument such as a piano or organ, a continuo group (in Baroque music), or the rest of a choir, orchestra, band, or other ensemble.

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Sousse

Sousse or Soussa (سوسة, Berber: Susa) is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Southeastern Anatolia Region

The Southeastern Anatolia Region (Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Southern Line (İZBAN)

The Southern Line (Güney hattı) is an electrified commuter rail line running south from Alsancak Terminal in Izmir to Torbalı operated by İZBAN, using trackage owned by the Turkish State Railways.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Split, Croatia

Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.

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Sujuk

Sucuk is a dry, spicy sausage which is eaten from the Balkans to the Middle East and Central Asia.

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SUNY Press

The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.

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Surabaya

Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.

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Synagogue

A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.

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Taekwondo

Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.

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Tampa, Florida

Tampa is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States.

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Tantalus

Tantalus (Τάνταλος Tántalos) was a Greek mythological figure, most famous for his eternal punishment in Tartarus.

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Tarhana

Tarkhana (Armenian թարխանա), trahanas (Greek τραχανάς) or (xyno)hondros ((ξυνό)χονδρος), tarkhineh, tarkhāneh, tarkhwāneh (Persian ترخینه، ترخانه، ترخوانه), tarxane (Kurdish), trahana (Albanian), трахана / тархана (Bulgarian), tarana / траxана, trahana (Bosnian, Serbian), or tarhana (Turkish) are names for a dried food based on a fermented mixture of grain and yoghurt or fermented milk, usually made into a thick soup with water, stock, or milk (Persian ash-e tarkhineh dugh آش ترخینه دوغ).

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Türkmenabat

Türkmenabat (Cyrillic Түркменабат), formerly and since medieval times, Chardzhou (Чарджоу, Čardžou; Çärjew, Чәрҗев) (Persian: چهارجوی 'Chharjvy', meaning 'four canals') and in ancient times Āmul, is the second-largest city in Turkmenistan and the capital of Lebap Province.

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Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.

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Theseus

Theseus (Θησεύς) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens.

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Tianjin

Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.

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Timur

Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Tire, İzmir

Tire (تيره) is a populous district, as well as the center town of the same district, in İzmir Province in western Turkey.

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Tony Curtis

Tony Curtis (born Bernard Schwartz; June 3, 1925September 29, 2010) was an American film actor whose career spanned six decades but who was mostly popular in the 1950s and early 1960s.

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Torbalı

Torbalı is a district of İzmir Province of Turkey.

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Trade fair

A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or expo) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, meet with industry partners and customers, study activities of rivals, and examine recent market trends and opportunities.

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Train station

A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.

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Treaty of Lausanne

The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.

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Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.

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Trolleybus

A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.

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Trolleybuses in Izmir

The Izmir trolleybus system formed part of the public transport network in the city of Izmir, Turkey, from 1954 to 1992.

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Troy

Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Turgutlu

Turgutlu, also known as Kasaba (Cassaba or Casaba) is a city and district in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.

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Turin

Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkey national football team

The Turkey national football team (Türkiye Millî Futbol Takımı) represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Turkish Basketball Cup

The Turkish Basketball Cup (Basketbol Erkekler Türkiye Kupası) is a men's professional basketball national cup competition in Turkey.

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Turkish Basketball Presidential Cup

The Turkish Basketball Presidential Cup (Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kupası.), sometimes referred to as Turkish Basketball Super Cup, is the professional men's basketball super cup competition that takes place each year in Turkey.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2007

A constitutional referendum on electoral reform took place in Turkey on 21 October 2007.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2010

A constitutional referendum on a number of changes to the constitution was held in Turkey on 12 September 2010.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017

A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).

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Turkish cuisine

Turkish cuisine (Turkish: Türk mutfağı) is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines.

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Turkish Cup

The Turkish Cup (Turkish: Türkiye Kupası) is a football cup competition in Turkish football, run by the Turkish Football Federation since 1962.

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Turkish general election, June 2015

The Turkish general election of June 2015 took place on 7 June 2015 in all 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly.

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Turkish Ice Hockey Federation

Turkish Ice Hockey Federation (Türkiye Buz Hokeyi Federasyonu, TBHF) is the governing body of the ice hockey sport in Turkey.

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Turkish Ice Hockey Super League

The Turkish Ice Hockey Super League (Türkiye Buz Hokeyi Süper Ligi, abbreviated TBHSL) is the highest level of ice hockey in Turkey.

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Turkish Land Forces

The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.

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Turkish local elections, 1999

Turkey held 11th local elections on April 18, 1999.

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Turkish local elections, 2009

Turkey held local elections on 29 March 2009.

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Turkish local elections, 2014

Local elections (formal: Local authority general elections, Turkish: Mahalli İdareler Genel Seçimi or simply Yerel Seçimleri) were held in Turkey on 30 March 2014, with some repeated on 1 June 2014.

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Turkish Men's Volleyball Cup

The Turkish Men's Volleyball Cup (Erkekler Voleybol Türkiye Kupası), is a national cup for professional men's volleyball in Turkey, organized by the Turkish Volleyball Federation since the 1988-89 season.

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Turkish Men's Volleyball League

The Turkish Men's Volleyball League (Türkiye 1.), is the highest professional men's volleyball league in Turkey.

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Turkish presidential election, 2014

Presidential elections were held on 10 August 2014 in order to elect the 12th President of Turkey.

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Turkish State Railways

The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları), abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines.

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Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Tzachas

Tzachas (Τζαχᾶς), also known as Chaka Bey (Çaka Bey)The Turkish form of "Tzachas" does not appear in any historical documents.

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U.S. Città di Palermo

Unione Sportiva Città di Palermo, commonly referred to as Palermo, is an Italian football club from Palermo, Sicily, playing in Serie B. Formed in 1900 as Anglo Palermitan Athletic and Football Club, the club had various names before assuming its current form in 1987, and is the top-ranked football club from the island of Sicily.

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Uşak

Uşak is a city in the interior part of the Aegean Region of Turkey.

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UEFA Cup Winners' Cup

The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (abbreviated as CWC) was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions.

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UEFA Euro 2000

The 2000 UEFA European Football Championship, also known as Euro 2000, was the 11th UEFA European Football Championship, which is held every four years and organised by UEFA, association football's governing body in Europe.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Space Camp

U.S. Space Camp is a camp and related programs owned and operated by the Alabama Space Science Exhibit Commission's U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

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Universal health care

Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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Universiade

The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation (FISU).

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University of Cologne

The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is a university in Cologne, Germany.

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University of Washington

The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.

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Urban district

Urban district may refer to.

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Urban forest

An urban forest is a forest or a collection of trees that grow within a city, town or a suburb.

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Urla, İzmir

Urla (Vourlá) is a town and the center of the district of the same name in İzmir Province, in Turkey.

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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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Vehicle registration plates of Turkey

Turkish car number plates are license plates found on Turkish vehicles.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Victor Hugo

Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.

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Vilayet

The Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire were the first-order administrative division, or provinces, of the later empire, introduced with the promulgation of the Vilayet Law (Teşkil-i Vilayet Nizamnamesi) of 21 January 1867.

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Vineyard

A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.

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Virtuoso

A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso or, "virtuous", Late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus, "virtue", "excellence", "skill", or "manliness") is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability in a particular art or field such as fine arts, music, singing, playing a musical instrument, or composition.

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Volgograd

Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.

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Wiley-Blackwell

Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.

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Will and testament

A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.

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World Taekwondo

World Taekwondo, called the World Taekwondo Federation until June 2017, is the international federation governing the sport of taekwondo and is a member of the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF).

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World's fair

A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations.

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Wuhan

Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.

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Xiamen

Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.

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Yaşar University

Yaşar University (In Turkish, Yaşar Üniversitesi) is a university, in Izmir, Turkey on the Aegean Sea.

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Yamanlar

Mount Yamanlar (Yamanlar Dağı) is a mountain in İzmir, Turkey, located within the boundaries of the Greater Metropolitan Area of the city.

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Yeşilova Höyük

Yeşilova Höyük is a höyük (mound) in Bornova, Turkey, and is the first known settlement in prehistory in the area of İzmir.

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Yeni Kavaflar Market

Yeni Kavaflar Market (Yeni Kavaflar Çarşısı) is a covered bazaar in İzmir, Turkey.

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Yogurt

Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.

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You Can't Win 'Em All

You Can't Win 'Em All is a 1970 war film, written by Leo Gordon (also an actor who appears in the film) and directed by Peter Collinson, starring Tony Curtis and Charles Bronson.

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Yuvarlakia

Yuvarlakia (Greek γιουβαρλάκια, from Turkish yuvarlak 'round'), are a Greek meatball (''kefte'' κεφτέ) made of beef and rice or bulgur and cooked in moist heat; it is also a dish of these meatballs in tomato or avgolemono sauce.

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1961–62 Serie A

;22 goals.

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1968–69 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup

The eleventh Inter-Cities Fairs Cup was played over the 1968–1969 season.

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1969–70 European Cup Winners' Cup

The 1969–70 season of the European Cup Winners' Cup football club tournament was won by Manchester City in a final victory against Górnik Zabrze.

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1971 Mediterranean Games

The VI Mediterranean Games – İzmir 1971, commonly known as the 1971 Mediterranean Games, were the 6th Mediterranean Games.

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2004 in archaeology

The year 2004 in archaeology included many events, some of which are listed below.

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2005 Summer Universiade

The 2005 Summer Universiade, also known as the XXIII Summer Universiade, took place in İzmir, Turkey.

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2006 European Fencing Championships

The 2006 European Seniors Fencing Championship was held in İzmir, Turkey, between 4 July and 9 July 2006.

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2009 Men's European Volleyball Championship

2009 Men's European Volleyball Championship was held from September 3 to September 13, 2009 in İzmir and Istanbul, Turkey.

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2010 FIBA World Championship

The 2010 FIBA World Championship, hosted by Turkey, was the international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams.

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2010–11 Süper Lig

The 2010–11 Süper Lig (known as the Spor Toto Süper Lig for sponsorship reasons) was the 53rd season since its establishment.

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2011 European Team Championships

The third SPAR European Team Championships took place on 18 and 19 June 2011.

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2012–13 FIBA EuroChallenge

2012–13 EuroChallenge was the 9th edition of Europe's third-tier level transnational competition for men's professional basketball clubs.

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Redirects here:

Adıyamanı düzeltin izmir yapın, Ismir, Turkey, Izmir, Izmir Derby, Izmir Turkey, Izmir, Turkey, Jzmir, UN/LOCODE:TRIZM, İzmir Derby, İzmir Metropolitan Municipality, İzmir Municipality, İzmir city, İzmir, Turkey, İzmi̇r, إزمير.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/İzmir

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