Ĉ or ĉ (C circumflex) is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing the sound.
Ĝ or ĝ (G circumflex) is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a voiced postalveolar affricate (either palato-alveolar or retroflex), and is equivalent to a voiced postalveolar affricate or a voiced retroflex affricate.
Ĥ or ĥ is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a voiceless velar fricative or voiceless uvular fricative.
Ŝ or ŝ (S circumflex) is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing the sound.
Ŭ or ŭ is a letter in the Esperanto alphabet, based on u. It is also used in the Belarusian language, when written in the 20th-century form of the Belarusian Latin alphabet.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.