365 relations: A1 autostrada (Poland), A2 autostrada (Poland), Academy of Fine Arts In Łódź, Academy of Music in Łódź, Ada Yonath, Aerial bombing of cities, Aharon Katzir, Alaska, Aleksander Bardini, Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Łódź, Alexandre Tansman, American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, Amy Totenberg, Andrzej Bartkowiak, Andrzej Munk, Andrzej Sapkowski, Andrzej Sontag, Andrzej Wajda, Archcathedral Basilica of St. Stanislaus Kostka, Łódź, Argentina, Arnold Rutkowski, Arthur Greiser, Arthur Rubinstein, Arthur Szyk, Artur Brauner, Association football, Auschwitz concentration camp, Axis of Time, Örebro, Łódź, Łódź Army, Łódź Design Festival, Łódź Fabryczna railway station, Łódź Ghetto, Łódź Hills Landscape Park, Łódź insurrection, Łódź Kaliska railway station, Łódź Voivodeship, Łódź Władysław Reymont Airport, Łódź Widzew railway station, Łódź Wooden Architecture Skansen, Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna, ŁKS Łódź, Łowicz, Barbara Walters, Barreiro, Portugal, Basketball, Bat-Sheva Dagan, Battle of Łódź (1914), ..., Ben Burns, Białystok, Blitzkrieg, Bohemia, Boxing, Budowlani Łódź, Buenos Aires, Bundeswehr, Business magnate, Canting arms, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Central Museum of Textiles, Łódź, Character (arts), Chełmno, Chemnitz, Chief Rabbi, Christian National Union, City of Film, Civic Platform, Client state, Coat of arms, Commodore International, Communism, Commuter rail, Congress of Vienna, Congress Poland, Copyright, Cornell University, Correspondent, Cotton mill, Creative Cities Network, Cryptography, Crystallography, Curzon Line, Customs war, Czech Republic, Daniel Amit, Daniel Libeskind, David Lynch, Dell, Democratic Left Alliance, Dov Freiberg, Duchy of Warsaw, Dzielnica, East-Central Europe, Ekstraklasa (beach soccer), Empirical formula, English language, EuroBasket 2009, Eurocities, Europa Europa, Europe, European Universities Games, Expo 2023, Extermination camp, Fantasy, Feliks W. 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The autostrada A1, officially named Amber Highway (pol. Autostrada Bursztynowa) in Poland is a north-south motorway, partly under construction, that runs through central Poland, from Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea through Łódź and the Upper Silesian Industry Area (to the west of Katowice) to the Polish-Czech border in Gorzyczki (Wodzisław County) /Věřňovice (Karviná District), where it is connected with the Czech motorway D1.
The autostrada A2 in Poland is a motorway which runs from west to east through central Poland, from the Polish-German border in Świecko/Frankfurt, where it connects to the German A12 autobahn, through Poznań and Łódź to Warsaw.
The Academy of Fine Art in Łódź is a public university in Łódź for artists.
Academy of Music in Łódź (Akademia Muzyczna im.), is a government-funded Institution of higher education in Łódź, Poland.
Ada E. Yonath (עדה יונת.) (born 22 June 1939) is an Israeli crystallographer best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome.
The aerial bombing of cities in warfare is an optional element of strategic bombing which became widespread during World War I. The bombing of cities grew to a vast scale in World War II, and is still practiced today.
Aharon Katzir (Aharon Katzir-Katchalsky) (September 15, 1914 – May 30, 1972) was an Israeli pioneer in the study of the electrochemistry of biopolymers.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aleksander Bardini (17 November 1913 – 30 July 1995) was a Polish-Jewish theatre and opera director, actor, notable professor at the State Theatre School in Warsaw.
Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm, or Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm (born 15 April 1949, Łódź, Poland), is a Polish-born U.S.-based writer and academic.
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Sobór św.) is an orthodox church located in the city of Łódź, in central Poland.
Alexandre Tansman (12 June 1897 – 15 November 1986) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of Jewish origin.
The American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE) is a non-profit 501(c)(3) U.S.-based organization established in 1993 "to strengthen the U.S.-Israel relationship.".
Amy Mil Totenberg (born December 29, 1950) is a United States District Judge on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia.
Andrzej Bartkowiak, A.S.C. (born 6 March 1950) is a Polish cinematographer and director.
Andrzej Munk (16 October 1921 – 20 September 1961) was a Polish film director, screen writer and documentalist.
Andrzej Sapkowski (born 21 June 1948) is a Polish fantasy writer.
Andrzej Sontag (born 26 April 1952) is a retired triple jumper from Poland.
Andrzej Witold Wajda (6 March 1926 – 9 October 2016) was a Polish film and theatre director.
Archcathedral Basilica of St.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arnold Rutkowski is a Polish opera singer who has sung leading tenor roles both in his native country and abroad.
Arthur Karl Greiser (22 January 1897 – 21 July 1946) was a Nazi German politician, SS-Obergruppenführer and Reichsstatthalter (Reich Governor) of the German-occupied territory of Wartheland.
Arthur Rubinstein (Artur Rubinstein; 28 January 188720 December 1982) was a Polish American classical pianist.
Arthur Szyk (Polish:, June 16, 1894 – September 13, 1951) was a Polish-Jewish artist who worked primarily as a book illustrator and political artist throughout his career.
Artur "Atze" Brauner (born Abraham Brauner; 1 August 1918) is a German film producer and entrepreneur of Polish origin.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The Axis of Time trilogy is an alternative history series of novels written by Australian journalist and author John Birmingham, from Macmillan Publishing.
Örebro is a city with 117,543 inhabitants, the seat of Örebro Municipality and the capital of Örebro County in Sweden.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Łódź Army (Armia Łódź) was one of the Polish armies that took part in the Invasion of Poland of 1939.
Łódź Design Festival is an international festival of design taking place since 2007 in Łódź, Poland.
Łódź Fabryczna is the largest and most modern railway station in the city of Łódź, Poland.
The Łódź Ghetto (Ghetto Litzmannstadt) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.
Łódź Hills Landscape Park (Park Krajobrazowy Wzniesień Łódzkich) is a protected area (Landscape Park) in central Poland, established in 1996, covering an area of.
The Łódź insurrection, also known as the June Days, was an uprising by Polish workers in Łódź against the Russian Empire between 21–25 June 1905.
Łódź Kaliska is a main railway station of the central Polish city of Łódź.
Łódź Voivodeship (also known as Łódź Province, or by its Polish name, województwo łódzkie) is a province (voivodeship) in central Poland.
Łódź Władysław Reymont Airport, formerly known as Łódź-Lublinek Airport, is a regional airport in central Poland, located approximately southwest of the Łódź city center and about away from the Retkinia block housing estate.
Łódź Widzew is a major railway station located in Widzew, an eastern district of the central Polish city of Łódź. It is located on a number of important railway lines including the Łódź Fabryczna to Koluszki and Warsaw railway line, the Widzew to Kutno railway line, and the Łódź Kaliska to Warsaw line. It consists of three island platforms and six tracks. The station is served by all passing passenger trains, including long distance and local services. Trains departing from the station serve major Polish cities, regional towns in the Łódź Voivodeship, and other stations in the Łódź metropolitan area. Operators include PKP Intercity, Przewozy Regionalne, and Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna. The Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna maintenance facility is located at the station. The station is served by local bus routes operated by city bus operator MPK, as well as a passenger waiting room, ticket counter and car park.
Open-air Museum of the Łódź Wooden Architecture is an integral part of the Central Museum of Textiles in Łódź.
Łódzka Kolej Aglomeracyjna (Łódź Metropolitan Railway) is a commuter rail service operating between the Polish city of Łódź and surrounding towns in the Łódź Voivodeship (province).
ŁKS Łódź (Łódzki Klub Sportowy) is a Polish sports club that is owned by Łódź city council.
Łowicz is a town in central Poland with 28,811 inhabitants (2016).
Barbara Jill Walters (born September 25, 1929) is an American broadcast journalist, author, and television personality.
Barreiro is a town and a municipality in Setúbal District in Portugal.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Bat-Sheva Dagan (בת-שבע דגן) (born September 8, 1925) is a Polish-Israeli Holocaust survivor, educator, author, and speaker.
The Battle of Łódź took place from November 11 to December 6, 1914, near the city of Łódź in Poland.
Ben Burns (August 25, 1913 – January 29, 2000) was a pioneering editor of black publications (including the Chicago Daily Defender, Ebony, Jet and Negro Digest) and a public relations executive in Chicago.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Budowlani Łódź (Klub Sportowy Budowlani Łódź) is a sports club based in Łódź, Poland.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
A business magnate (formally industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.
Canting arms are heraldic bearings that represent the bearer's name (or, less often, some attribute or function) in a visual pun or rebus.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Museum of Textiles is a museum of textiles located in the Ludwik Geyer's White Factory in Łódź, Poland.
A character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, play, television series, film, or video game).
Chełmno (older Culm) is a town in northern Poland near the Vistula river with 20,000 inhabitants and the historical capital of Chełmno Land.
Chemnitz, known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities.
The Christian National Union (Zjednoczenie Chrześcijańsko-Narodowe), abbreviated to ZChN,Maher (2004), p. 3458 was a Polish nationalist political party in Poland.
A UNESCO City of Film is a city that has joined the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as notable in filmmaking.
Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO)The party is officially the Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej).
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km (10 miles) and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
A correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is usually a journalist or commentator for magazines, or more speaking, an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or radio or television news, or another type of company, from a remote, often distant, location.
A cotton mill is a factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution when the early mills were important in the development of the factory system.
The UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) is a project of UNESCO launched in 2004 to promote cooperation among cities which recognized creativity as a major factor in their urban development.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
A Customs war, also known as a toll war or tariff war, is a type of economical conflict between two or more states.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Daniel J. Amit (Łódź, Poland, May 5, 1938 – Jerusalem, November 4, 2007) was an Israeli physicist and pacifist, who was one of the pioneers in the field of computational neuroscience.
Daniel Libeskind (born May 12, 1946) is a Polish-American architect, artist, professor and set designer.
David Keith Lynch (born January 20, 1946) is an American filmmaker, painter, musician, actor, and photographer.
Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.
Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is a social-democratic political party in Poland.
Dov Freiberg (15 May 1927 – March 2008) born Berek Freiberg, was a Holocaust survivor, writer, and witness at the Eichmann trial and the Demjanjuk case.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
In the Polish system of local administration, a dzielnica (Polish plural dzielnice) is an administrative subdivision or quarter of a city or town.
East-Central Europe is the region between German, West Slavic and Hungarian speaking Europe and the Eastern Slavic lands of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.
Ekstraklasa is the top division in the Polish beach soccer league.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The FIBA EuroBasket 2009 was the 36th FIBA EuroBasket, the biennial regional basketball championship contested by European nations and held by FIBA Europe.
EUROCITIES is the network of major European cities, founded in 1986 by the mayors of Barcelona, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lyon, Milan, and Rotterdam.
Europa Europa (Hitlerjunge Salomon, lit. "Hitler Youth Salomon") is a 1990 historical war drama film directed by Agnieszka Holland.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Universities Games (EUG) is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the European University Sports Association (EUSA).
Expo 2023 is an upcoming specialized exhibition to be held in 2023 in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Feliks Wiktor Kres (a pseudonym of Witold Chmielecki, b. 1966 in Łódź) is a popular Polish fantasy writer.
In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
The Freedom Union (UW) was a liberal democratic political party in Poland.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Grażyna Bacewicz (5 February 1909 – 17 January 1969) was a Polish composer and violinist.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Synagogue of Łódź (Polish: Wielka Synagoga w Łodzi) was a synagogue in Łódź, Poland, built in 1881.
Grembach Łódź has a professional beach soccer team based in Łódź, Poland.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Hanna Elżbieta Zdanowska (born March 29, 1959) is a Polish politician.
Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American novelist, best known for his work in the genres of alternate history, historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Henry Holt and Company is an American book publishing company based in New York City.
Henryk Rodakowski (1823–1894) was a Polish painter.
The History of interwar Poland comprises the period from the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918, until the joint Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
Hotel Savoy is a 1924 novel by the Austrian writer Joseph Roth.
Ida is a 2013 Polish drama film directed by Paweł Pawlikowski and written by Pawlikowski and Rebecca Lenkiewicz.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Infosys Limited (formerly Infosys Technologies Limited) is an Indian multinational corporation that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services.
Inland Empire is an internationally produced 2006 film written and directed by David Lynch.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Israel Joshua Singer (Yiddish: ישראל יהושע זינגער; November 30, 1893, Biłgoraj, Congress Poland — February 10, 1944 New York) was a Polish American novelist who wrote in Yiddish.
Ivanovo (p) is a city and the administrative center of Ivanovo Oblast, Russia, located from Moscow and approximately from Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Kostroma.
Izrael Kalman Poznański (1833 in Aleksandrów – 1900 in Łódź) was a Polish-Jewish businessman, textile magnate and philanthropist in Łódź, and the husband of Elenora Hertz Poznański.
Izrael Poznański's Palace is a 19th-century palace in Łódź, Poland.
Jack Tramiel (born Idek Trzmiel; December 13, 1928 – April 8, 2012) was a Polish American businessman, best known for founding Commodore International.
Jacob Bronowski (18 January 1908 – 22 August 1974) was a Polish-born British mathematician, historian of science, theatre author, poet and inventor.
Jan Karski (24 June 1914 – 13 July 2000) was a Polish World War II resistance-movement soldier, and later a professor at Georgetown University.
Lt. Col. Jan Kowalewski (23 October 1892 – 31 October 1965) was a Polish cryptologist, intelligence officer, engineer, journalist, military commander, and creator and first head of the Polish Cipher Bureau.
Janusz "Kuba" Morgenstern (16 November 1922 – 6 September 2011) was a Polish film director and producer.
Józef Hecht (December 14, 1891 – June 19, 1951), also known as Joseph Hecht, was a printmaker and painter.
Jerzy Filip Janowicz Jr. (born 13 November 1990) is a Polish professional tennis player.
Jerzy Kosiński (June 14, 1933 – May 3, 1991), born Józef Lewinkopf, was a Polish-American novelist and two-time President of the American Chapter of P.E.N., who wrote primarily in English.
Jerzy Janusz Kropiwnicki (born 5 July 1945 in Częstochowa) is a Polish right-wing politician, member of Law and Justice party.
The Łódź Jewish Cemetery, also known as the New Jewish Cemetery, was once the largest Jewish cemetery in Poland and one of the largest in the world.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
John Birmingham (born 7 August 1964) is a British-born left-wing Australian author, known for the 1994 memoir He Died with a Felafel in His Hand, and his Axis of Time trilogy.
Josef Joffe (born March 15, 1944) is publisher-editor of Die Zeit, a weekly German newspaper.
Joseph Friedenson (1922–2013) was a Holocaust survivor, Holocaust historian, Yiddish writer, lecturer, and editor of.
Sir Joseph Rotblat (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish physicist, a self-described "Pole with a British passport".
Joseph Roth, born Moses Joseph Roth (2 September 1894 – 27 May 1939), was an Austrian-Jewish journalist and novelist, best known for his family saga Radetzky March (1932), about the decline and fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, his novel of Jewish life, Job (1930), and his seminal essay "Juden auf Wanderschaft" (1927; translated into English in The Wandering Jews), a fragmented account of the Jewish migrations from eastern to western Europe in the aftermath of World War I and the Russian Revolution.
Joshua D. Zimmerman (born 1966) is Professor of History at Yeshiva University, where he holds the Eli and Diana Zborowski Professorial Chair in Interdisciplinary Holocaust Studies.
Julian Tuwim (September 13, 1894 – December 27, 1953), known also under the pseudonym "Oldlen" as a lyricist,.
Julian Tuwim Monument or the Tuwim's Bench (Ławeczka Tuwima) is a monument dedicated to Julian Tuwim at the Piotrkowska Street district of Łódź, Poland.
Juliusz Karol Wilhelm Rómmel (3 June 1881 – 8 September 1967) was a Polish military commander, a general of the Polish Army and a member of the civil rights movement.
Jurek Becker (probably 30 September 1937 – 14 March 1997) was a Polish-born German writer, film-author and GDR dissident.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Karl Dedecius (20 May 1921 in Łódź – 26 February 2016) was a Polish-born German translator of Polish and Russian literature.
Karl Dominik (Chinese name: Kaier, 凯洱, pinyin: Kǎiěr, lit. "Triumphant River"; born March 2, 1980) is a Western Chinese-speaking actor based in China.
Karl Litzmann (22 January 1850 – 28 May 1936) was a German World War I general and later Nazi Party member and state politician.
The Chapel of Karl Scheibler, located in the Evangelical-Augsburg part of the Old Cemetery on Ogrodowa Street 43, is a major architectural work in old Łódź, Poland.
Karl Wilhelm Scheibler (Karol Scheibler, 1 September 1820 – 13 April 1881) was a German-born Polish industrialist, businessman and textile manufacturer.
Karolina Kowalkiewicz (born 15 October 1985) is a Polish mixed martial artist.
Katarzyna Kobro (26 January 1898 in Moscow – 21 February 1951 in Łódź) was a Polish sculptor.
Kazimierz Brandys (27 October 1916 – 11 March 2000) was a Polish essayist and writer of film scripts.
Kazimierz Karabasz (born May 6, 1930 in Bydgoszcz, Poland) is a Polish documentary filmmaker.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Koluszki is a town, and a major railway junction, in Central Poland, in Łódź Voivodeship, about 20 km east of Łódź with a population of 13,246 (2016).
KP Łódź has a professional beach soccer team based in Łódź, Poland.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kutno is a town located in central Poland with 44,718 inhabitants (2016) and an area of.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
LaBeouf, Rönkkö & Turner is an artist trio consisting of Shia LaBeouf (born 1986; Los Angeles, United States), Nastja Säde Rönkkö (born 1985; Helsinki, Finland), and Luke Turner (born 1982; Manchester, UK).
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Lea Koenig (ליא קניג; b. 30 November 1929) is an Israeli theatre actress of Polish descent, nicknamed The First Lady of Israeli Theatre.
Leon Schiller or Leon Schiller de Schildenfeld (14 March 1887 – 25 March 1954) was a Polish theatre and film director, as well as critic and theatre theoretician.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The Lod Airport massacre"They were responsible for the Lod Airport massacre in Israel in 1972, which was committed on behalf of the PFLP." Jeffrey D. Simon, The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism, Indiana University Press, p. 324.
Lodz University of Technology (TUL) was created in 1945 and has developed into one of the biggest technical universities in Poland.
Lewis Milton Goldwasser (1885 Łódź, Congress Poland - 1950, Miami, Florida, US) was a composer, pianist and band leader immensely popular in New York City from the late-1910s to the early 1930s.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Lucjan Dobroszycki (1925 – October 24, 1995 in New York City) was a Polish scientist and historian specializing in modern Polish and Polish-Jewish history.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
The Manufaktura is an arts centre, shopping mall, and leisure complex in Łódź, Poland.
Marcin Gortat (born February 17, 1984) is a Polish professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Marek Edelman (מאַרעק עדעלמאַן, born either 1919 in Homel or 1922 in Warsaw – October 2, 2009 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Jewish-Polish political and social activist and cardiologist.
Marek Mirosław Saganowski (born 31 October 1978) is a retired Polish football player who played as a striker.
Marian Peter Opala (January 20, 1921 – October 11, 2010) was a Polish-American lawyer and jurist who served as a Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court for thirty-two years.
Max Factor is a line of cosmetics from Coty, Inc..
Maksymilian Faktorowicz (15 September 1872 – 30 August 1938), also known as Max Factor Sr., was a Polish-Jewish businessman, entrepreneur and inventor.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
The Medical University of Łódź was founded on October 1, 2002 as a merger of the Medical Academy of Łódź (founded January 1, 1950) and the Military Medical Academy of Łódź (founded July 1, 1958).
Mordka Mendel Grossman (born 27 June 1913 in Staszów, Poland, died 30 April 1945 during the Death marches), artistic graphic, photographer, worker in the Statistical Department of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto.
The menorah (מְנוֹרָה) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Miś Uszatek (Floppy Bear, literally Teddy Floppy-ear) is a Polish character from the stop motion-animated TV series of the same name.
Michał Krystian Wiśniewski (born 9 September 1972 in Łódź) is a Polish pop vocalist, leader of the pop group Ich Troje, who sang for Poland at the 2003 and 2006 Eurovision Song Contests.
Marshal of Armoured Troops Mikhail Efimovich Katukov (17 September 1900 – 8 June 1976) (Михаи́л Ефи́мович Катуко́в) served as a commander of armored troops in the Red Army during and following World War II.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region).
Muzeum Sztuki, or the Museum of Art in Łódź is a museum of modern and contemporary art in Łódź, whose main goal is to research and display avant-garde art, as well as progressive artistic interventions.
Natan Spigel (also: Nathan, Szpigiel/Spiegel/Szpigel) (1892–1942) was a Jewish painter born in Poland.
Nathan Lewin is an American attorney.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The Leon Schiller National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre in Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi) is the leading Polish academy for future actors, directors, photographers, camera operators and TV staff.
National Independence Day (Narodowe Święto Niepodległości) is a national day in Poland celebrated on 11 November to commemorate the anniversary of the restoration of Poland's sovereignty as the Second Polish Republic in 1918 from the German, Austrian and Russian Empires.
National road 1 (Droga krajowa nr 1) is a route in the Polish national road network.
National road (Droga krajowa) in Poland refers to a public trunk road controlled by the Polish central government authority, the General Directorship of National Roads and Motorways (Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad).
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nina Totenberg (born January 14, 1944) is an American legal affairs correspondent for National Public Radio (NPR) focusing primarily on the activities and politics of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Adam Ostrowski (born 15 May 1980 in Łódź, Poland), better known as O.S.T.R., is a Polish rapper, musician, audio engineer and record producer, famous for his freestyle rap skills, ambitious lyrics and unique beats.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Osiedle (Polish plural: osiedla) is a term used in Poland to denote a designated subdivision of a city or town, or of a dzielnica, with its own council and executive.
Panel building may refer to buildings of one of the following types.
Paul Kletzki (21 March 1900 - 5 March 1973) was a Polish conductor and composer.
Paweł Aleksander Pawlikowski (born 15 September 1957) is a Polish filmmaker, who has lived and worked most of his life in the UK.
Pesa (Pojazdy Szynowe Pesa Bydgoszcz) is a company manufacturing railway vehicles based in Bydgoszcz, Poland.
Piotr Fronczewski (born 8 June 1946 in Łódź, Poland), is a Polish actor and singer.
Piotr Pustelnik (born July 12, 1951 in Łódź, Poland) is a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber.
Piotr Sobociński (3 February 1958 – 26 March 2001) was a cinematographer from Poland.
Piotrkowska Street (ulica Piotrkowska), the main artery of Łódź, Poland, is one of the longest commercial thoroughfares in Europe, with a length of 4.9 km.
A planetarium (plural planetaria or planetariums) is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Poland has been a member state of the European Union since 1 May 2004, with the Treaty of Accession 2003 signed on 16 April 2003 in Athens as the legal basis for Poland's accession to the EU.
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich) is a museum on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto.
The Polish census of 1931 or Second General Census in Poland (Drugi Powszechny Spis Ludności) was the second census taken in sovereign Poland during the interwar period, performed on December 9, 1931 by the Main Bureau of Statistics.
Polish Film School (Polska Szkoła Filmowa) refers to an informal group of Polish film directors and screenplay writers active between 1955 and approximately 1963.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
To publish is to make content available to the general public.
Puebla (Spanish: Puebla de Zaragoza), formally Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza and also known as Puebla de los Ángeles, is the seat of Puebla Municipality, the capital and largest city of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important Spanish colonial cities in Mexico.
The Radogoszcz station (Bahnhof Radegast) built originally between 1926 and 1937, is a small historic railway station in Łódź, Poland; also referred to as the loading platform in Marysin, a neighbourhood in the Bałuty district of the city.
During World War II, the Radogoszcz prison was a German Order Police and Gestapo prison in Łódź (Erweitertes Polizeigefängnis, Radegast), used by the German authorities during the Nazi occupation of Poland in 1939–1945.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Regional rail, also known as local trains and stopping trains, are passenger rail services that operate between towns and cities.
The Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German Reichsgau formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II.
Polish Jews were the primary victims of the German-organized Holocaust. Throughout the German occupation of Poland, some Poles risked their lives – and the lives of their families – to rescue Jews from the Germans. Poles were, by nationality, the most numerous persons who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. To date, ethnic Poles have been recognized by the State of Israel as Righteous among the Nations – more, by far, than the citizens of any other country. The Home Army (the Polish Resistance) alerted the world to the Holocaust through the reports of Polish Army officer Witold Pilecki, conveyed by Polish Government-in-Exile courier Jan Karski. The Polish Government-in-Exile and the Polish Secret State pleaded, to no avail, for American and British help to stop the Holocaust. Some estimates put the number of Polish rescuers of Jews as high as 3 million, and credit Poles with saving up to some 450,000 Jews, temporarily, from certain death. The rescue efforts were aided by one of the largest resistance movements in Europe, the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Home Army. Supported by the Government Delegation for Poland, these organizations operated special units dedicated to helping Jews; of those units, the most notable was the Żegota Council, based in Warsaw, with branches in Kraków, Wilno, and Lwów. Polish rescuers of Jews were hampered by the most stringent conditions in all of German-occupied Europe. Occupied Poland was the only country where the Germans decreed that any kind of help to Jews was punishable by death for the rescuer and the rescuer's entire family. Of the estimated 3 million non-Jewish Poles killed in World War II, thousands – perhaps as many as 50,000 – were executed by the Germans solely for saving Jews.
Retkinia is a panel block housing estate and district in the city of Łódź (Poland), located in the south-western part of the city.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Road bicycle racing is the cycle sport discipline of road cycling, held on paved roads.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Włocławek Vladislavien(sis), until the 20th century known as the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kujawy, is a suffragan diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the Ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gniezno in western Poland.
Roman Józef Kantor (March 15, 1912 – 1943) was a Polish Olympic epee fencer.
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Rustavi (რუსთავი) is a city in the southeast of Georgia, in the province of Kvemo Kartli, situated southeast of the capital Tbilisi.
Ruth Minsky Senderowicz (born 3 May 1926) is a Holocaust survivor.
Sabina Citron (born 1928) is a Holocaust survivor.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Se-ma-for is a Polish animation studio.
The 1793 Second Partition of Poland was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Sh'erit ha-Pletah (lit) is a biblical (Ezra 9:14 and 1 Chronicles 4:43) term used by Jewish refugees who survived the Holocaust to refer to themselves and the communities they formed in postwar Europe following the liberation in the spring of 1945.
Sieradz (Syradia, 1941-45 Schieratz) is a town on the Warta river in central Poland with 42,762 inhabitants (2016).
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Skierniewice is a town in central Poland with 48,327 inhabitants (2016), situated in the Łódź Voivodship (since 1999), previously capital of Skierniewice Voivodship (1975–1998).
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
Solomon Perel (also Shlomo Perel or Sally Perel; born 21 April 1925) is an Israeli author and motivational speaker.
South Prussia (Südpreußen; Prusy Południowe) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports.
Stadion Miejski is a football stadium in Łódź, Poland.
Stanisław Wawrzyniec Staszic (baptised 6 November 1755 – 20 January 1826) was a leading figure in the Polish Enlightenment: a Catholic priest, philosopher, geologist, writer, poet, translator and statesman.
Stanisław Wyspiański (15 January 1869 – 28 November 1907) was a Polish playwright, painter and poet, as well as interior and furniture designer.
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Stefan Rozental (13 August 1903, Łódź – 2 August 1994, Copenhagen), was a nuclear physicist, specialising in quantum mechanics.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
In mid-1981, amid widespread economic crisis and food shortages, thousands of Poles, mainly women and their children, took part in several hunger demonstrations, organized in cities and towns across the country.
Sylwester Bednarek (born 28 April 1989) is a Polish high jumper.
Szeged (see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád county.
Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko; February 4 or 12, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian military engineer, statesman, and military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States.
Tadeusz Mazowiecki; (18 April 1927 – 28 October 2013) was a Polish author, journalist, philanthropist and Christian-democratic politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist Polish prime minister since 1946.
Tadeusz Miciński (9 November 1873 in Łódź – February 1918 in Cherykaw Raion, Belarus) was an influential Polish poet, gnostic and playwright, and was a forerunner of Expressionism and Surrealism.
Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Brothers Ashkenazi (1936) is a novel by Israel Joshua Singer.
The Daily Caller is a conservative American news and opinion website based in Washington, D.C. It was founded by political pundit Tucker Carlson and Neil Patel, former adviser to former Vice President Dick Cheney.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Promised Land (Ziemia obiecana) is a 1975 Polish drama film directed by Andrzej Wajda, based on a novel by Władysław Reymont.
The Promised Land (Ziemia obiecana) is an 1899 novel by the Polish author and Nobel laureate, Władysław Reymont; first published in Warsaw.
The Statesman's Yearbook is a one-volume reference book providing information on the countries of the world.
A theatre director or stage director is an instructor in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a theatre production (a play, an opera, a musical, or a devised piece of work) by unifying various endeavours and aspects of production.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow) using track bicycles.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.
The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) is an American mixed martial arts organization based in Las Vegas, Nevada, that is owned and operated by parent company William Morris Endeavor.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge (pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution) appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The University of Łódź (Polish: Uniwersytet Łódzki, Latin: Universitas Lodziensis) is a public research university founded in 1945 in Łódź, Poland, as a continuation of educational institutions functioning in Łódź in the interwar period — the Teacher Training Institute (1921–1928), the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences (1924–1928) and a division of the Free Polish University (1928–1939).
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom, urban renewal or urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment in cities, often where there is urban decay.
Vehicle registration plates of Poland indicate the region of registration of the vehicle encoded in the number plate.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Virtual Shtetl (Wirtualny Sztetl) is a bilingual Polish-English portal of the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw, devoted to the Jewish history of Poland.
A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.
In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship.
The Deutsche Volksliste (German People's List) was a Nazi Party institution whose purpose was the classification of inhabitants of German occupied territories into categories of desirability according to criteria systematized by Heinrich Himmler.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; powstanie w getcie warszawskim; Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Warsaw - Kalisz Railway (Kolej Warszawsko-Kaliska), also called Kalisz Railway is a railway which connects Warsaw and Kalisz, built in 1900 - 1902 by the Society of the Warsaw - Vienna Railway, and opened on November 15, 1902, as a broad gauge line (1535 mm, see also Russian gauge).
The Warsaw-Vienna Railway (Kolej Warszawsko-Wiedeńska, Warschau-Wiener Eisenbahn) was a railway system which operated in Congress Poland, a part of the Russian Empire, from 1845 until 1912, when it was nationalized by the Russian government.
The Washington Wizards are an American professional basketball team based in Washington, D.C. The Wizards compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA) as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Władysław Pasikowski (born June 14, 1959 in Łódź, Poland) is a Polish film director and screenwriter.
Władysław Stanisław Reymont (born Rejment; 7 May 1867 – 5 December 1925) was a Polish novelist and the 1924 laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Władysław Strzemiński (Уладыслаў Страмінскі; 21 November 1893, Minsk – 26 December 1952, Łódź) was a Polish avant-garde painter of international renown.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The White Factory (Biała Fabryka) is the classicist building in Łódź, Poland, constructed in 1835-1839 to host a textile factory which belonged to Ludwik Geyer.
RTS Widzew Łódź is a Polish football club based in Łódź.
Sir William Heerlein Lindley (30 January 1853, in Hamburg – 30 December 1917, in London) was a British civil engineer.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Worldwar series is the fan name given to a series of alternate history science fiction novels by Harry Turtledove.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Zbigniew Nienacki (January 1, 1929 in Łódź – September 23, 1994 in Morąg) was a pen name of Polish writer, Zbigniew Tomasz Nowicki.
Zbigniew Rybczyński (born January 27, 1949) is a Polish filmmaker, director, cinematographer, screenwriter, creator of experimental animated films and multimedia artist who has won numerous prestigious industry awards both in the United States and internationally including the 1982 Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for Tango.
Ze’ev Raban (1890-1970) was a leading painter, decorative artist, and industrial designer of the Bezalel school style, and was one of the founders of the Israeli art world.
Zew Wawa Morejno (28 February 1916 – 19 March 2011) was a Polish and American rabbi.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 1982–83 season of the European Cup football club tournament was won for the first time by Hamburg, who beat Juventus 1–0 in the final at Athens' Olympic Stadium.
The 2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup will be the 22nd edition of the FIFA U-20 World Cup, the biennial international men's youth football championship contested by the under-20 national teams of the member associations of FIFA, since its inception in 1977 as the FIFA World Youth Championship.
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