27 relations: Abjad, Abjad numerals, Ancient South Arabian script, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Arabic script, Classical Arabic, Dalet, Egyptian Arabic phonology, Gulf Arabic, Hejazi Arabic, Levantine Arabic, Maghrebi Arabic, Mashriq, Mesopotamian Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Phoenician alphabet, Post-creole continuum, Pronunciation respelling for English, Sibilant, Sudanese Arabic, Th (digraph), Tunisian Arabic, Varieties of Arabic, Voiced alveolar fricative, Voiced dental and alveolar stops.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values.
The Ancient South Arabian script (Old South Arabian 𐩣𐩯𐩬𐩳 ms3nd; modern المُسنَد musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Dalet (also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath, Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order).
This article is about the phonology of Egyptian Arabic, also known as Cairene Arabic or Masri.
Gulf Arabic (خليجي local pronunciation: or اللهجة الخليجية, local pronunciation) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, as well as parts of eastern Saudi Arabia (Eastern Province), southern Iraq (Basra Governorate and Muthanna Governorate), and south Iran (Bushehr Province and Hormozgan Province) and northern Oman.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (حجازي), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
The Mashriq (مَـشْـرِق, also Mashreq, Mashrek) is the historical region of the Arab world to the east of Egypt.
Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
A post-creole continuum or simply creole continuum is a dialect continuum of varieties of a creole language between those most and least similar to the superstrate language (that is, a closely related language whose speakers assert dominance of some sort).
A pronunciation respelling for English is a notation used to convey the pronunciation of words in the English language, which does not have a phonemic orthography (i.e. the spelling does not reliably indicate pronunciation).
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Sudanese Arabic is the variety of Arabic spoken throughout Sudan.
Th is a digraph in the Latin script.
Tunisian Arabic, or Tunisian, is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds.
The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.