269 relations: Aachen, Abū Sahl al-Qūhī, Abbasid Caliphate, Abbess, Abbot, Abu al-Wafa' Buzjani, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi, Abu'l Haret Ahmad, Abu-Mahmud Khojandi, Adalbert of Hamburg, Adalbert, Duke of Lorraine, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Al-Biruni, Al-Hasa, Al-Karaji, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Tasrif, Al-Zahrawi, Ali ibn Isa al-Asturlabi, Althing, Americas, Angkor, Anno Domini, Arab slave trade, Arabian Peninsula, Argyrus (catepan of Italy), Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Avicenna, Ælfthryth, wife of Edgar, Baghdad, Barjawan, Bartholomew the Apostle, Battle of Svolder, Bell, Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia, Bolesław I the Brave, Book of Optics, Bulgars, Buyid dynasty, Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty, Cairo, Caliphate, Caliphate of Córdoba, Catholic Church, Córdoba, Spain, Chachapoya culture, Chaulukya dynasty, ..., Château de Goulaine, Chichen Itza, Chimú culture, China, Chinese painting, Chola dynasty, Cholula (Mesoamerican site), Christianization of Kievan Rus', Christianization of Scandinavia, Common year starting on Wednesday, Congress of Gniezno, Constantine IX Monomachos, Constantinople, December 25, December 31, Denmark, Diocese, Dominic of Silos, Duchy of Carinthia, Duchy of Lorraine, Duchy of Normandy, Early Middle Ages, Early Muslim conquests, East–West Schism, Edgar the Peaceful, Esztergom, Fantinus, Fatimid Caliphate, First Bulgarian Empire, Foundry, Friesland, García Sánchez II of Pamplona, Ghaznavids, Gilbert, Count of Brionne, Gniezno, Gosse Ludigman, Guigues I of Albon, Heian period, Heptarchy, Hermit, High Middle Ages, History of Auvergne, History of Iran, Holy Roman Empire, House of Capet, Hugh Capet, Hungary, Huyan Zan, Hymn, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn Yunus, Icelandic Commonwealth, India, Iran, Iraq, Islamic Golden Age, Islamization of the Sudan region, Italy, Ivar of Waterford, Jacob ibn Jau, Japan, John Mauropous, Judah ben David Hayyuj, Julian calendar, June 22, Kaifeng, Kamboja Pala dynasty, Khazars, Khmer Empire, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Dublin, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Navarre, Kingdom of Scotland, Kołobrzeg, Kyiso, Kyoto, L'Anse aux Meadows, Lý Thái Tông, Leap year starting on Monday, Leif Erikson, Linguistics, List of Aragonese monarchs, List of archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, List of Navarrese monarchs, Liudolf of Lotharingia, Magdeburg, Mahipala, Malfrida, Manfred I of Turin, Margravate of Meissen, Mathematics in medieval Islam, May 17, Maya peoples, Meissen, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican chronology, Michael I Cerularius, Middle Ages, Middle kingdoms of India, Millenarianism, Minamoto no Shigeyuki, Mitla, Monte Albán, Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Muslim world, Mysia, New World, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nikephoros Xiphias, Nishapur, Nobility, Norsemen, Norway, Olaf Tryggvason, Old World, Order of Saint Benedict, Oslo, Otto Bolesławowic, Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, Pagan Kingdom, Pala Empire, Palenque, Patan, Gujarat, Patriarch, Pechenegs, Pereyaslavets, Petén Basin, Pilgrimage, Pliska, Podestà, Pontificia Fonderia Marinelli, Pope, Pope Sylvester III, Pre-Columbian era, Priest, Princess Masako (Reizei), Proleptic Gregorian calendar, Qarmatians, Qawam al-Dawla, Radim Gaudentius, Raja Raja Chola I, Ramwod, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Reconquista, Regensburg, Regent, Robert de Turlande (saint), Robert I, Duke of Normandy, Robert II of France, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paderborn, Roman numerals, Rome, Rotho, Saeculum obscurum, Sahelian kingdoms, Saint Duthac, Saint Irmgardis, San Bartolomeo all'Isola, Sancho III of Pamplona, Scandinavia, Science in the medieval Islamic world, Scythia Minor, September 9, Seuna (Yadava) dynasty, Shahriyar III, Silk, Slavník dynasty, Song dynasty, Stephen I of Hungary, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sweyn Forkbeard, Tabaristan, Tain, Theodorokanos, Tikal, Tiwanaku, Toltec, Tula (Mesoamerican site), Turkic migration, Tyra of Denmark, Ukhtanes of Sebastia, Uta von Ballenstedt, Uxmal, Veliki Preslav, Vietnam, Vikings, Vineyard, Waka (poetry), Wari culture, William V of Auvergne, World population, Wulfhilda of Barking, Yi Yuanji, Yucatán Peninsula, 1000s (decade), 1028, 1033, 1035, 1038, 1048, 1054, 1055, 1063, 1064, 1065, 1067, 1072, 1073, 1078, 10th century, 1800, 1st millennium, 2000, 950. Expand index (219 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
(ابوسهل بیژن کوهی Abusahl Bijan-e Koohi) was a Persian mathematician, physicist and astronomer.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
In Christianity, an abbess (Latin abbatissa, feminine form of abbas, abbot) is the female superior of a community of nuns, which is often an abbey.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Abū al-Wafāʾ, Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Yaḥyā ibn Ismāʿīl ibn al-ʿAbbās al-Būzjānī or Abū al-Wafā Būzhjānī (ابوالوفا بوزجانی or بوژگانی) (10 June 940 – 15 July 998) was a Persian mathematician and astronomer who worked in Baghdad.
Abu Nasri Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraq (ابو نصر منصور بن علی بن عراق; c. 960 – 1036) was a Persian Muslim mathematician.
Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani (ابو سهل عيسى بن يحيى مسيحی گرگانی) was a Persian physician, from Gorgan, east of the Caspian Sea, in Iran.
Abu'l Haret Ahmad (died ca. 1000) was the third Farighunid ruler of Guzgan from 982 to 1000.
Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn Khidr Khojandi (known as Abu Mahmood Khojandi, Alkhujandi or al-Khujandi, Persian: ابومحمود خجندی, c. 940 - 1000) was a Central Asian astronomer and mathematician who lived in the late 10th century and helped build an observatory, near the city of Ray (near today's Tehran), in Iran.
Adalbert (also Adelbert or Albert; c. 1000 – 16 March 1072) was Archbishop of Hamburg and Bishop of Bremen from 1043 until his death.
Adalbert (1000 – 11 November 1048 in Thuin) was the Duke of Upper Lorraine from 1047 until his death.
Ibn Fadlan (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, 921–22) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, known as his Risala ("account" or "journal") His account is most notable for providing a detailed description of the Volga Vikings, including an eyewitness account of a ship burial.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Al-Ahsa, Al-Hasa, or Hadjar (الأحساء al-Aḥsāʾ, locally al-Ahasā) is a traditional oasis historical region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Ahsa Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province.
(c. 953 – c. 1029) was a 10th-century Persian mathematician and engineer who flourished at Baghdad.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
The Kitab at-Tasrif (Arabic: كتاب التصريف لمن عجز عن التأليف) (The Method of Medicine) was an Arabic encyclopedia on medicine and surgery, written near the year 1000 by Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis).
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
ʿAlī ibn ʿĪsā al-Asṭurlābī (علي بن عيسى) was an Arab astronomer and geographer of the 9th century.
The Alþingi (parliament (Icelandic) and anglicised as Althingi or Althing) is the national parliament of Iceland.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Angkor (អង្គរ, "Capital City")Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang, Lim Hak; Chun, Chen.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Argyrus (or Argyros; c. 1000–1068) was a Lombard nobleman and Byzantine general, son of the Lombard hero Melus.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ælfthryth (– 1000 or 1001, also Alfrida, Elfrida or Elfthryth) was an English queen, the second or third wife of King Edgar of England.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Abū'l-Futūh Barjawān al-Ustādh (died March/April 1000) was a eunuch palace official who became the prime minister (wāsiṭa) and de facto regent of the Fatimid Caliphate in October 997, and held the position until his assassination.
Bartholomew (translit; Bartholomew Israelite origin Bartholomaeus; ⲃⲁⲣⲑⲟⲗⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus from ancient Jewish Israel.
The Battle of Svolder (Svold or Swold) was a naval battle fought in September 999 or 1000 in the western Baltic Sea between King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway and an alliance of his enemies.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia (c. 1000 – 6 November 1078), also known as Berthold I of Zähringen, was a progenitor of the Swabian House of Zähringen.
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.
The Book of Optics (Kitāb al-Manāẓir; Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965– c. 1040 AD).
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The medieval Byzantine Empire underwent revival during reign of the Macedonian emperors of the late 9th, 10th, and early 11th centuries, when it gained control over the Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and all of the territory of the Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
The Chachapoyas, also called the "Warriors of the Clouds", was a culture of Andes living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas Region of present-day Peru.
The Chaulukya dynasty, also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat, ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between and.
The Château de Goulaine is a former castle, now a château, in the Loire Valley located near Nantes, France.
Chichen Itza, Chichén Itzá, often with the emphasis reversed in English to; from Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha' (Barrera Vásquez et al., 1980.) "at the mouth of the well of the Itza people" was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.
The Chimú culture was centered on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
Cholula (Cholōllān) (Spanish) was an important city of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, dating back to at least the 2nd century BCE, with settlement as a village going back at least some thousand years earlier.
The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.
The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Wednesday, 1 January, and ends on Wednesday, 31 December.
The Congress of Gniezno (Zjazd gnieźnieński, Akt von Gnesen or Gnesener Übereinkunft) was an amical meeting between the Polish Duke Bolesław I the Brave and Emperor Otto III, which took place at Gniezno on March 11, 1000.
Constantine IX Monomachos, Latinized as Constantine IX Monomachus (translit; c. 1000 – 11 January 1055), reigned as Byzantine emperor from June 11, 1042 to January 11, 1055.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
It is known by a collection of names including: Saint Sylvester's Day, New Year's Eve or Old Years Day/Night, as the following day is New Year's Day.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Dominic of Silos, O.S.B., (Santo Domingo de Silos) (1000 – December 20, 1073) was a Spanish monk, to whom the Abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos, where he served as the abbot, is dedicated.
The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten; Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
Edgar (Ēadgār; 8 July 975), known as the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 until his death.
Esztergom (Gran, Ostrihom, known by alternative names), is a city in northern Hungary, northwest of the capital Budapest.
Fantinus (Fantino) (c. 927–1000) was an Italian saint.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings.
Friesland (official, Fryslân), also historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country.
García Sánchez II (Basque: Gartzea II.a Santxez; dead c. 1000), was King of Pamplona and Count of Aragon from 994 until his death c. 1000.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Gilbert (or Giselbert) de Brionne, 2nd Count of Eu, 2nd Count of Brionne (&ndash), was an influential Norman Nobleman in the Duchy of Normandy in Northern France.
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
Gosse Ludigman (elected 989 died in 1000) was a legendary potestaat (or elected governor) of Friesland, now a province of the Netherlands.
Guigues I (born c. 1000, died in 1070 at Cluny), was Count of Oisans, Grésivaudan, and Briançonnais.
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.
The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
The history of the Auvergne dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Huyan Zan (呼延贊) (died 1000) was a military general in the early years of imperial China's Song Dynasty.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Abu al-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Yunus al-Sadafi al-Misri (Arabic: ابن يونس; c. 950 – 1009) was an important Egyptian Muslim astronomer and mathematician, whose works are noted for being ahead of their time, having been based on meticulous calculations and attention to detail.
The Icelandic Commonwealth, Icelandic Free State, or Republic of Iceland (þjóðveldið or, less commonly, goðaveldið) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Alþingi (Althing) in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king with the Old Covenant in 1262.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
The Islamization of the Sudan region (Sahel) encompasses a prolonged period of religious conversion, through military conquest and trade relations, spanning the 8th to 16th centuries.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivar of Waterford (Ímar, rí Puirt Láirgi; Old Norse: Ívar) (died 1000) was the Norse king of Waterford from at least 969 until his death in the year 1000, and also reigned as King of Dublin, possibly from 989 to 993, and certainly again for less than a year between 994 and 995, returning after his expulsion from the city in 993 by Sigtrygg Silkbeard, who would expel him for good the next time.
Jacob ibn Jau (Hebrew Ya'akov ben Gau; Arab. Yakub ibn Jau) was a Jewish silk-manufacturer at Cordova, occupying a high position at the court of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham II.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
John Mauropous (Ἰωάννης Μαυρόπους, Iōánnēs Maurópous, lit. "John Blackfoot") was a Byzantine Greek poet, hymnographer, and author of letters and orations, who lived in the 11th century.
Judah ben David Hayyuj (Arabic: أبو زكريا يحيى بن داؤد حيوج Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Dawūd Hayyūj) was a Moroccan Jewish linguist.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
On this day the Summer solstice may occur in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Winter solstice may occur in the Southern Hemisphere.
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
The Kamboja-Pala dynasty ruled parts of Bengal in the 10th to 11th centuries CE, after invading during the reign of Gopala II, the Palas.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Vikings invaded the territory around Dublin in the 9th century, establishing the Norse Kingdom of Dublin, the earliest and longest-lasting Norse kingdom in Ireland.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) is a city in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in north-western Poland with about 47,000 inhabitants.
Kyiso (ကျဉ်စိုး,; c. 1000–1038) was king of Pagan dynasty from 1021 to 1038.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove"), is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Lý Thái Tông (chữ Hán: 李太宗) (1000–1054) was the posthumous title of Lý Phật Mã (李佛瑪), emperor of the Lý dynasty of Đại Việt (now Vietnam) from 1028 to 1054.
A leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December.
Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson (970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer from Iceland.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon.
This is a list of Archbishops of the Archdiocese of Gniezno, who are simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1418.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Pamplona, later Navarre.
Liudolf of Lotharingia, also Ludolf (c. 100010 April 1031), was Count of Zutphen and Waldenburg.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Mahipala (or Mahipala I) was a notable king of the Pala dynasty, which ruled over much of the Eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, between the 8th and 12th century.
Malfrida (died 1000) was probably the Bohemian wife of the grand prince of Kiev Vladimir I of Kiev.
Manfred I or Maginfred (died) was the second Arduinici marquis of Susa from 977 until his death.
The Margravate of Meissen (Markgrafschaft Meißen) was a medieval principality in the area of the modern German state of Saxony.
Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics (Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics (Aryabhata, Brahmagupta).
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen) is a town of approximately 30,000 about northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).
Michael I Cerularius, Cærularius, or Keroularios (Μιχαήλ Α΄ Κηρουλάριος; 1000 – 21 January 1059 AD) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 to 1059 AD, most notable for his mutual excommunication with Pope Leo IX that led to the Great Schism.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.
Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.
Minamoto no Shigeyuki (Japanese: 源 重之) (died 1000) was an early Heian waka poet and nobleman.
Mitla is the second most important archeological site in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, and the most important of the Zapotec culture.
Monte Albán is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site in the Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán Municipality in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca (17.043° N, 96.767°W).
Al-Mu'ayyad fid-din Abu Nasr Hibat Allah b. Abi 'Imran Musa b. Da'ud ash-Shirazi (1000 CE/390 AH - 1078 CE/470 AH) was an 11th-century Isma'ilism scholar, philosopher-poet, preacher and theologian of Persian origin.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mysia (UK, US or; Μυσία, Mysia, Misya) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey).
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Nikephoros Xiphias (Νικηφόρος Ξιφίας) was a Byzantine military commander during the reign of Emperor Basil II.
Nishapur or Nishabur (نیشابور, also Romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nišâpur, Nişapur, Nīshābūr, Neyshābūr, and Neeshapoor, from Middle Persian: New-Shabuhr, meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur", or "Perfect built of Shapur") is a city in Razavi Khorasan Province, capital of the Nishapur County and former capital of Province Khorasan, in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Olaf Tryggvason (960s – 9 September 1000) was King of Norway from 995 to 1000.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Otto Bolesławowic (1000–1033) was a Polish prince and member of the House of Piast.
Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.
The Kingdom of Pagan (ပုဂံခေတ်,, lit. "Pagan Period"; also commonly known as the Pagan Dynasty and the Pagan Empire) was the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern-day Burma (Myanmar).
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Palenque (Yucatec Maya: Bàakʼ /ɓàːkʼ/), also anciently known as Lakamha (literally: "Big Water"), was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century.
Patan, an ancient fortified city, was founded in 745 AD by Vanraj Chavda, the most prominent king of the Chavda Kingdom.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Pereyaslavets (Переяславец; East Slavic form) or Prislav (Romanian form) or Preslavets (Преславец; Bulgarian form) was a trade city located at the mouth of the Danube.
The Petén Basin is a geographical subregion of Mesoamerica, primarily located in northern Guatemala within the Department of El Petén, and into Campeche state in southeastern Mexico.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Pliska (Пльсковъ, romanized: Plĭskovŭ) is the name of both the first capital of the First Bulgarian Empire and a small town situated 20 km Northeast of the provincial capital Shumen.
Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities beginning in the later Middle Ages.
The Pontificia Fonderia Marinelli (or Marinelli Pontifical Foundry, Marinelli Bell Foundry) is the successor of a bell foundry already at work in Agnone, Italy in 1040.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Sylvester III or Silvester III (1000 – October 1063), born Giovanni dei Crescenzi–Ottaviani in Rome, was Pope from 20 January to March 1045.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Princess Masako (950–1000) was a princess and an Empress consort of Japan.
The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian calendar backward to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582.
The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.
Abu'l-Fawaris, better known by his regnal name Qawam al-Dawla (April 1000 – October/November 1028), was the Buyid ruler of Kerman (1012–1028).
Radim Gaudentius (Svatý Radim, Radzim Gaudenty) (c. 970 – c. 1020) was Archbishop of Gniezno and the first Polish archbishop.
Raja Raja Cholan I (or Rajaraja Cholan I) born as Arul Mozhi Varman known as Raja Raja Cholan was a Chola Emperor from present day South India who ruled over the Chola kingdom of Ancient Tamilnadu (parts of southern India), parts of northern India, two third's of Sri Lankan territory (Eezham), Maldives and parts of East Asia, between 985 and 1014 CE.
Ramwod or Ramwold (c. 900 in Trier (?) - † 17 May 1000 in Regensburg) was an abbot of St. Emmeram's Abbey in Regensburg.
Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Saint Robert de Turlande (c. 1000 - 17 April 1067) was a French Roman Catholic priest and professed member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
Robert the Magnificent (le Magnifique;He was also, although erroneously, said to have been called 'Robert the Devil' (le Diable). Robert I was never known by the nickname 'the devil' in his lifetime. 'Robert the Devil' was a fictional character who was confused with Robert I, Duke of Normandy sometime near the end of the Middle Ages. See: François Neveux, A Brief History of the Normans, trans. Howard Curtis (Constable & Robinson, Ltd. London, 2008), p. 97 & n. 5. 22 June 1000 – 1–3 July 1035), was the Duke of Normandy from 1027 until his death in 1035.
Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious (le Pieux) or the Wise (le Sage), was King of the Franks from 996 until his death.
The Archdiocese of Hamburg (Lat. Archidioecesis Hamburgensis; Ger. Erzbistum Hamburg) is a diocese in the north of Germany and covers the Federal States of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein as well as the Mecklenburgian part of the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Archdiocese of Paderborn is an Archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany; its seat is Paderborn.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rotho von Büren (c. 1000; - 7 November 1051, Paderborn) was from 1036 to 1051 Bishop of Paderborn.
Saeculum obscurum (the Dark Age) is a name given to a period in the history of the Papacy during the first half of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope John XII in 964.
The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of kingdoms or empires that were centered on the Sahel, the area of grasslands south of the Sahara.
Saint Duthac (or Duthus or Duthak) (1000–1065) is the patron saint of Tain in Scotland.
Saint Irmgardis, Saint Irmgard of Süchteln (1000 - † 1065 or 1082/1089, Cologne, Germany) was a medieval saint and sovereign Countess Irmgardis of Aspel (Germany) in 1013-1085.
The Basilica of St.
Sancho Garcés III (994 – 18 October 1035), also known as Sancho the Great (Sancho el Mayor, Antso Gartzez Nagusia), was the King of Pamplona from 1004 until his death in 1035.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.
Scythia Minor or Lesser Scythia (Mikrá Skythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, roughly corresponding to today's Dobrogea, with a part in Romania, a part in Bulgaria.
The Seuna, Sevuna or Yadavas of Devagiri (c. 850–1334) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in modern Maharashtra).
Shahriyar III (Persian: شهریار), was the sixteenth ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 986 to 987, and briefly in 998 after a short disruption during his reign.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Slavniks/Slavníks or Slavnikids (Slavníkovci; Slawnikiden; Sławnikowice) was a dynasty in the Duchy of Bohemia during the 10th century.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Stephen I, also known as King Saint Stephen (Szent István király; Sanctus Stephanus; Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; 975 – 15 August 1038 AD), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.
Tabaristan (from Middle Persian:, Tapurstān), also known as Tapuria (land of Tapurs), was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran.
Tain (Gaelic: Baile Dhubhthaich) is a royal burgh and parish in the County of Ross, in the Highlands of Scotland.
Theodorokanos (Θεοδωροκάνος) was a Byzantine general of Armenian origin active under Basil II both in the East and in the Balkans.
Tikal (Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is the ruin of an ancient city, which was likely to have been called Yax Mutal, found in a rainforest in Guatemala.
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia.
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).
Tula is a Mesoamerican archeological site, which was an important regional center which reached its height as the capital of the Toltec Empire between the fall of Teotihuacan and the rise of Tenochtitlan.
Turkic migration refers to the expansion and colonization of the Turkic tribes and Turkic languages into Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, mainly between the 6th and 11th centuries.
Tyra of Denmark (Tyri Haraldsdatter, Thyri and Thyra) was a 10th-century Danish princess.
Ukhtanes of Sebastia (Ուխտանես Սեբաստացի, Ukhtanes Sebastatsi) (c. 935-1000) was an Armenian historian and prelate.
Uta von Ballenstedt (— 23 October before 1046), a member of the House of Ascania, was Margravine of Meissen from 1038 until 1046, the wife of Margrave Eckard II.
Uxmal (Yucatec Maya: Óoxmáal) is an ancient Maya city of the classical period in present-day Mexico.
The modern Veliki Preslav or Great Preslav (Велики Преслав), former Preslav (until 1993), is a city and the seat of government of the Veliki Preslav Municipality (Great Preslav Municipality, new Bulgarian: obshtina), which in turn is part of Shumen Province.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature.
The Wari (Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.
William V (1000–1064) succeeded his father, Robert I, as count of Auvergne in 1032.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
Wulfhilda or Wulfhild was an Anglo-Saxon abbess and a saint in the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Yi Yuanji (Wade-Giles: I Yüan-chi) (c. 1000, Changsha, Hunan – c. 1064) was a Northern Song Dynasty painter, famous for his realistic paintings of animals.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
The 1000s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1000, and ended on December 31, 1009.
Year 1028 (MXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1033 (MXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1035 (MXXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1038 (MXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1048 (MXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1054 (MLIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1055 (MLV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1063 (MLXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1064 (MLXIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1065 (MLXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1067 (MLXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1072 (MLXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1073 (MLXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1078 (MLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The 10th century is the period from 901 to 1000 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium.
As of March 1 (O.S. February 18), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days until 1899.
The first millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, AD 1, and ended on December 31, AD 1000, of the Julian calendar.
2000 was designated as.
Year 950 (CML) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.