552 relations: Abd al-Mu'min, Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, Aelred of Rievaulx, Afghanistan, Afonso I of Portugal, Ajmer, Al-Adid, Alan IV, Duke of Brittany, Alans, Albert of Louvain, Albert of Vercelli, Alexander I of Scotland, Alexander Neckam, Alexios I Komnenos, Alexios II Komnenos, Alexios III Angelos, Alfonso II of Aragon, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Alfonso VII of León and Castile, Alfonso VIII of Castile, Ali ibn Yusuf, Allama Prabhu, Almohad Caliphate, Almoravid dynasty, Along the River During the Qingming Festival, Anatolia, Ancestral Puebloans, Andrey Bogolyubsky, Andronikos I Komnenos, Angkor Wat, Ani, Anselm of Canterbury, Anthelm of Belley, Antipope Anacletus II, Aragon, Armagh, Ars antiqua, Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, Assembly line, Averroes, Ayyubid dynasty, Bab Agnaou, Baldwin I of Jerusalem, Baldwin II of Jerusalem, Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, Basilica of St Denis, Battle of Alnwick (1174), Battle of Arsuf, Battle of Azaz (1125), Battle of Beroia, ..., Battle of Caishi, 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`Abd al Mu'min (c. 1094–1163) (عبد المؤمن بن علي or عبد المومن الــكـومي; full name: Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin ibn ʿAlī ibn ʿAlwī ibn Yaʿlā al-Kūmī) was a prominent member of the Almohad movement.
Abū Yūsuf Ya‘qūb al-Manṣūr (c. 1160 Morocco – 23 January 1199 Marrakesh, Morocco), also known as Moulay Yacoub, was the third Almohad Caliph.
Aelred of Rievaulx (Aelredus Riaevallensis); also Ailred, Ælred, and Æthelred; (1110 – 12 January 1167) was an English Cistercian monk, abbot of Rievaulx from 1147 until his death, and known as a writer.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afonso IOr also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence.
Ajmer (अजमेर) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Ḥāfiẓ (1149–1171), better known by his regnal name al-ʿĀḍid li-Dīn Allāh (العاضد لدين الله, "Support of God's Faith"), also known as al-Azid and al-Athid, was the fourteenth and last Caliph of the Fatimid dynasty, reigning from 1160 to 1171.
Alan IV (born circa 1063; died 13 October 1119) was Duke of Brittany from 1084 until his abdication in 1112.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Albert of Louvain (1166 – 24 November 1192) was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the Prince-Bishop of Liège.
Saint Albert of Jerusalem (Albertus Hierosolymitanus, also Blessed Albert, Albert of Vercelli or Alberto Avogadro; died 14 September 1214) was a canon lawyer.
Alexander I (medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Maíl Coluim; modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Mhaol Chaluim; c. 1078 – 23 April 1124), posthumously nicknamed The Fierce, was the King of Scotland from 1107 to his death.
Alexander Neckam(8 September 115731 March 1217) was an English scholar, teacher, theologian and abbot of Cirencester Abbey from 1213 until his death.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Alexios II Komnenos or Alexius II Comnenus (translit) (10 September 1169October 1183) was Byzantine emperor from 1180 to 1183.
Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (1211) was Byzantine Emperor from March 1195 to July 17/18, 1203.
Alfonso II (1–25 March 1157Benito Vicente de Cuéllar (1995),, p. 630-631; in Hidalguía. XLIII (252) pp. 619–632."Alfonso II el Casto, hijo de Petronila y Ramón Berenguer IV, nació en Huesca en 1157;". Cfr. Josefina Mateu Ibars, María Dolores Mateu Ibars (1980).. Universitat Barcelona, p. 546.,.Antonio Ubieto Arteta (1987).. Zaragoza: Anúbar, § "El nacimiento y nombre de Alfonso II de Aragón".. – 25 April 1196), called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and, as Alfons I, the Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Alfonso VII (1 March 110521 August 1157), called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126.
Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (El Noble) or the one of the Navas (el de las Navas), was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo.
Ali ibn Yusuf (Also known as "Ali Ben Youssef") (born 1084 died 26 January 1143) was the 5th Almoravid king.
Allama Prabhu (ಅಲ್ಲಮ ಪ್ರಭು) was a 12th-century mystic-saint and Vachana poet (called Vachanakara) of the Kannada language, propagating the unitary consciousness of Self and Shiva.
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
Along the River During the Qingming Festival, also known by its Chinese name as the Qingming Shanghe Tu, is a painting by the Song dynasty artist Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.
Andrei I Yuryevich, commonly known under his sobriquet Andrei the Pious (Андрей Боголюбский) (c. 1111 – June 28, 1174), was Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal from 1157 till his death.
Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Αʹ Κομνηνός, Andrónikos I Komnēnós; – 12 September 1185), usually Latinized as Andronicus I Comnenus, was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185.
Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.
Anthelm of Belley (1107–1178) was a prior of the Carthusian Grand Chartreuse and bishop of Belley.
Anacletus II (died January 25, 1138), born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled from 1130 to his death in opposition to Pope Innocent II.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
Armagh is the county town of County Armagh and a city in Northern Ireland, as well as a civil parish.
Ars antiqua, also called ars veterum or ars vetus, is a term used by modern scholars to refer to the Medieval music of Europe during the high Middle Ages, between approximately 1170 and 1310.
Arthur I (Arzhur Iañ; Arthur Ier de Bretagne) (29 March 1187 – probably 1203) was 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany between 1196 and 1203.
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Bab Agnaou (Arabic: باب اكناو; Berber: Bab Agnaw or Tawurt n Wegnaw) is one of the nineteen gates of Marrakesh, Morocco.
Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first King of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death.
Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Bourcq or Bourg (Baudouin; died 21 August 1131), was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.
Baldwin IV (Baudouin; Balduinus; 1161 – 16 March 1185), called the Leper, or The Leper King reigned as King of Jerusalem from 1174 until his death.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
The Battle of Alnwick (1174) is one of two battles fought near the town of Alnwick, in Northumberland, England.
The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated the forces of Ayyubid leader Saladin.
In the Battle of Azaz forces of the Crusader States commanded by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem defeated Aq-Sunqur il-Bursuqi's army of Seljuk Turks on 11 June 1125 and raised the siege of the town.
The Battle of Beroia (modern Stara Zagora) was fought in 1122 between the Pechenegs and the Byzantine Empire under Emperor John II Komnenos (r. 1118–1143) in what is now Bulgaria.
The Battle of Caishi (Battle of Ts'ai-shih) was a major naval engagement of the Jin–Song Wars of China that took place on November 26–27, 1161.
The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Great Seljuq Empire at the narrow place of Didgori, 40 km west of the Tbilisi, on August 12, 1121.
The Battle of Ertsukhi was fought, in the 12th century, between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Great Seljuq Empire in southeastern part of Georgia, near Ertsukhi.
The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.
The Battle of Hundsfeld or Battle of Psie Pole was allegedly fought on 24 August 1109 near the Silesian capital Wrocław between the Holy Roman Empire in aid of the claims of the exiled Piast duke Zbigniew against his ruling half-brother, Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland.
The Battle of Jaffa took place during the Crusades, as one of a series of campaigns between the army of Sultan Saladin (Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb) and the Crusader forces led by King Richard I of England (known as Richard the Lionheart).
The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League.
The Battle of Myriokephalon, also known as the Battle of Myriocephalum, or Miryokefalon Savaşı in Turkish, was a battle between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Turks in Phrygia on 17 September 1176.
The Battle of Nakło (1109) was fought between the forces of the Kingdom of Poland and Pomeranian tribes at Nakło nad Notecią.
The Battle of Ourique (25 July 1139: St. James Day) saw the forces of Portuguese Prince Afonso Henriques (of the House of Burgundy) defeat the Almoravid led by Ali ibn Yusuf.
The Battle of São Mamede (Batalha de São Mamede) took place on 24 June, 1128 near Guimarães and is considered the seminal event for the foundation of the Kingdom of Portugal and the battle that ensured Portugal's Independence.
Battle of Shamkor was fought on June 1, 1195 near the city of Shamkor, Arran.
The Battle of Tangdao (唐岛之战) was a naval engagement that took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty of China on the East China Sea.
The Battle of Tinchebray (alternate spellings Tinchebrai or Tenchebrai) was fought 28 September 1106, in Tinchebray (today in Orne département of France), Normandy, between an invading force led by King Henry I of England, and his elder brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy.
Béla the Blind (Vak Béla; Bela Slijepi; Belo Slepý; 1109 – 13 February 1141) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1131.
Béla III (III., Bela III, Belo III; 114823 April 1196) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
Bertha of Cornouaille (fl. 1125-55), also known as Bertha of Brittany (Berthe Breizh), was hereditary Duchess of Brittany between 1148 until her death and Dowager Countess of Richmond.
Berthold of Calabria (Berthold de Malifaye; Bertoldus Calabriensis; died 1195) was a Norman French crusader who established a hermit colony on Mount Carmel in 1185.
Bertrand of Toulouse (or Bertrand of Tripoli) (died 1112) was count of Toulouse, and was the first count of Tripoli to rule in Tripoli itself.
Bhāskara (also known as Bhāskarāchārya ("Bhāskara, the teacher"), and as Bhaskara II to avoid confusion with Bhāskara I) (1114–1185), was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
Bohemond I (3 March 1111) was the Prince of Taranto from 1089 to 1111 and the Prince of Antioch from 1098 to 1111.
Bolesław III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Bolesław III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138), was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138.
Bolesław IV the Curly (ca. 1125 – 5 January 1173) of the Piast dynasty was Duke of Masovia from 1138 and High Duke of Poland from 1146 until his death.
Saint Bruno di Segni (c. 1045 – 18 July 1123) was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate and professed member from the Order of Saint Benedict who served as the Bishop of Segni and the Abbot of Montecassino.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cabo Espichel is a cape situated on the western coast of the civil parish of Castelo, municipality of Sesimbra, in the Portuguese district of Setúbal.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Canute V Magnussen (Knud V Magnussen) (– 9 August 1157) was a King of Denmark from 1146 to 1157, as co-regent in shifting alliances with Sweyn III and Valdemar I. Canute was killed at the so-called Bloodfeast of Roskilde in 1157.
Canute VI (1163 – 12 November 1202) was King of Denmark (1182–1202).
Cape Arkona is a 45-metre-high cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The Palatine Chapel (Cappella Palatina), is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily situated on the first floor at the center of the Palazzo Reale in Palermo, southern Italy.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park hosting the densest and most exceptional concentration of pueblos in the American Southwest.
Chakhrukhadze (ჩახრუხაძე) is a Georgian poet of the late 12th/early 13th century traditionally credited to have written Tamariani (თამარიანი), a collection of twenty two odes and one elegy praising, often deifying Queen Tamar of Georgia (r. 1184-1213).
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
Chaouia (الشاوية.) is a historical and ethno-geographical region of Morocco.
, commonly shortened to is a famous set of four picture scrolls, or emakimono, belonging to Kōzan-ji temple in Kyoto, Japan.
Christian humanism is a philosophy that combines Christian ethics and humanist principles.
Christina of Markyate was born with the name Theodora in Huntingdon, England, about 1096–98 and died about 1155.
The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; Սուրբ Ծննդյան տաճար; Basilica Nativitatis) is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Clairvaux Abbey (Latin: Clara Vallis) is a Cistercian monastery in Ville-sous-la-Ferté, 15 km from Bar-sur-Aube, in the Aube department in northeastern France.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish (Könyves Kálmán; Koloman; Koloman Učený; 10703February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
Conan IV of Penthièvre (1138 – February 20, 1171), (Breton: Konan IV Penteur, and Konan Breizh) called "the Young", was duke of Brittany, from 1156 to 1166.
The Concordat of Worms (Concordatum Wormatiense), sometimes called the Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Callixtus II and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor on September 23, 1122, near the city of Worms.
Conrad of Montferrat (Italian: Corrado del Monferrato; Piedmontese: Conrà ëd Monfrà) (died 28 April 1192) was a north Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade.
Constance (Breton: Konstanza; 1161 – c. 5 September 1201) was Duchess of Brittany from 1166 to her death in 1201Judith Everard, Michael Jones, The Charters of Duchess Constance of Brittany and her Family (1171-1221), The Boydell Press, 1999, p. 38 and Countess of Richmond from 1171 to 1201.
Constance (2 November 1154 – 27 November 1198) was Queen regnant of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her spouse from 1194 to 1197, and with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198, as the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
"Les Croisades, Origines et consequences", Claude Lebedel, p.50--> The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century.
The County of Tripoli (1109–1289) was the last of the Crusader states.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.
David IV, also known as David the Builder (დავით აღმაშენებელი) (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125.
David Soslan (დავით სოსლანი) (died 1207) was a prince from Alania and second husband of Queen Tamar, whom he married in c. 1189.
David V (დავით V, Davit' V) (died 1155), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Georgia c. 1154/5.
Demetrius I (დემეტრე I) (1093 – 1156), from the Bagrationi dynasty, was King of Georgia from 1125 to 1156.
Diarmait Mac Murchada (Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, Dermot MacMorrogh or Dermot MacMorrow (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland.
() is a district of Zhoushan City made of 128 islands in Zhejiang province, China.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
The Donglin Academy (Wade–Giles Tung-lin), also known as the Guishan Academy (龜山書院 Guīshān Shūyuàn), was a former Chinese educational institution in Wuxi, China.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
Dunstable is a market town and civil parish located in Bedfordshire, England.
Edgar or Étgar mac Maíl Choluim (Modern Gaelic: Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim), nicknamed Probus, "the Valiant" (c. 1074 – 8 January 1107), was King of Scotland from 1097 to 1107.
Edmund of Abingdon (circa 1174 – 1240) was a 13th-century Archbishop of Canterbury in England.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Emperor Huizong of Song (7 June 1082 – 4 June 1135), personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
Count Engelbert II of Berg, also known as Saint Engelbert, Engelbert of Cologne, Engelbert I, Archbishop of Cologne or Engelbert I of Berg, Archbishop of Cologne (1185 or 1186, Schloss Burg – 7 November 1225, Gevelsberg) was archbishop of Cologne and a saint; he was notoriously murdered by a member of his own family.
Eric I (– 10 July 1103), also known as Eric the Good, (Erik Ejegod), was King of Denmark following his brother Olaf I Hunger in 1095.
Eric II the Memorable (Erik II Emune) (– 18 September 1137) was king of Denmark between 1134 and 1137.
Eric III Lamb (Erik III Lam) (– 27 August 1146) was the King of Denmark from 1137 until 1146.
Eric IX of Sweden, (Swedish: Erik Jedvardsson; Erik den helige; died 18 May 1160), also called Eric the Lawgiver, Erik the Saint, Eric the Holy, and, in Sweden, Sankt Erik, meaning Saint Eric, was a Swedish king c. 1156-60.
Erik Gnupsson or Eiríkr Gnúpsson, also known as Henricus (late 11th to early 12th centuries), was born in Iceland.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Eustathius of Thessalonica (or Eustathios of Thessalonike; Εὐστάθιος Θεσσαλονίκης; c. 1115 – 1195/6) was a Greek scholar and Archbishop of Thessalonica.
Eystein Magnusson (Old Norse: Eysteinn Magnússon, Norwegian: Øystein Magnusson; c. 1088 – 29 August 1123) was King of Norway (as Eystein I) from 1103 to 1123 together with his brothers Sigurd the Crusader and Olaf Magnusson, although since Olaf died before adulthood, only Eystein and Sigurd were effective rulers of the country.
Eystein Haraldsson (Old Norse: Eysteinn Haraldsson, Norwegian: Øystein Haraldsson); c.1125–1157) was king of Norway from 1142 to 1157. He ruled as co-ruler with his brothers, Inge Haraldsson and Sigurd Munn. He was killed in the power-struggle against his brother, Inge, in an early stage of the civil war era in Norway.
Eysteinn Erlendsson (Modern Norwegian Øystein Erlendsson, Latin Augustinus Nidrosiensis) (died 26 January 1188) was Archbishop of Nidaros from 1161 to his death in 1188.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Saint Felix of Valois (April 16, 1127 – November 4, 1212) was a hermit and a co-founder (with Saint John of Matha) of the Trinitarian Order.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
Saint Galdino della Sala (native Galdìn) (c. 1096 – 18 April 1176), or Saint Galdinus (or Galdimus), was a Roman Catholic saint from Milan in northern Italy.
Géza II (II.; Gejza II; Gejza II; 113031 May 1162) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1141 to 1162.
Gelati (გელათის მონასტერი) is a medieval monastic complex near Kutaisi, in the Imereti region of western Georgia.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The (1180–1185) was a conflict between the Taira and Minamoto clans during the late-Heian period of Japan.
Geoffrey II (Jafrez;, Anglo-Norman: Geoffroy; 23 September 1158 – 19 August 1186) was Duke of Brittany and 3rd Earl of Richmond between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance.
Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151) — called the Handsome or the Fair (le Bel) and Plantagenet — was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144.
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
George III (გიორგი III) (died 27 March 1184), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was the King of Georgia from 1156 to 1184. His reign was part of what would be called the Georgian Golden Age - a historical period in the High Middle Ages, during which the Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its military power and development. George was the father of Queen Tamar the Great.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sakartvelos samotsikulo avt’ok’epaluri martlmadidebeli ek’lesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Gilbert of Sempringham, CRSA (c. 1083 – 4 February 1190), the founder of the Gilbertine Order, was the only Englishman to found a conventual order, mainly because the Abbot of Cîteaux declined his request to assist him in organising a group of women who wanted to live as nuns, living with lay brothers and sisters, in 1148.
The Gilbertine Order of Canons Regular was founded around 1130 by Saint Gilbert in Sempringham, Lincolnshire, where Gilbert was the parish priest.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Grande Chartreuse is the head monastery of the Carthusian religious order.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Haakon II Sigurdsson (1147 – 7 July 1162), also known as Haakon Herdebrei, was King of Norway from 1157 until 1162 during the Civil war era in Norway.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Harald Fairhair (Old Norse: Haraldr Hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald Hårfagre, (literally "Harald Hair-pleasant"); 850 – 932) is remembered by medieval historians as the first King of Norway.
Harald Gille (Old Norse: Haraldr gilli or Haraldr gillikristr, died 14 December 1136) was king of Norway from 1130 until his death.
was the religious reformer and founder of the first independent branch of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism called.
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.
Henry (Henrik; Henrik; Henricus; died 20 January 1156.) was a medieval English clergyman.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
Henry V (Heinrich V.; 11 August 1081/86 – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
Henry (Portuguese: Henrique, French: Henri; 10661112), Count of Portugal, was the first member of the Capetian House of Burgundy to rule Portugal and the father of the country's first king, Afonso Henriques.
Hereford is a cathedral city, civil parish and county town of Herefordshire, England.
The Kingdom of Hereti (ჰერეთის სამეფო), was a medieval monarchy which emerged in Caucasus on the Iberian-Albanian frontier.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard von Bingen; Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Saint Hildegard and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, visionary, and polymath.
Histamenon (νόμισμα ἱστάμενον, "standard coin") was the name given to the gold Byzantine solidus when the slightly lighter tetarteron was introduced in the 960s.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The Holy Crown of Hungary (Szent Korona, also known as the Crown of Saint Stephen) was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence; kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
The House of Normandy is the usual designation for the family that were the Counts of Rouen, Dukes of Normandy and Kings of England which immediately followed the Norman conquest of England and lasted until the House of Plantagenet came to power in 1154.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
Hoysala architecture is the building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire between the 11th and 14th centuries, in the region known today as Karnataka, a state of India.
In Aztec legendary tradition Huemac (fl. c. 11th century), also spelled Hueymac or Huehmac, is described as being the last king of the (equally legendary and semi-mythical) Toltec state before the fall of Tula/Tollan.
Hugh II of Burgundy (1084 – c. 6 February 1143) was duke of Burgundy between 1103 and 1143.
Hugh III (1142 – August 25, 1192) was duke of Burgundy between 1162 and 1192.
Saint Hugh of Châteauneuf (1053 – 1 April 1132) was the Bishop of Grenoble from 1080 to his death.
Hugh of Lincoln (1135/40 – 16 November 1200), also known as Hugh of Avalon, was a French noble, Benedictine and Carthusian monk, bishop of Lincoln in the Kingdom of England, and Catholic saint.
Umberto III (1136, Avigliana, Piedmont – 4 March 1188, Chambéry, Savoy), surnamed the Blessed, was Count of Savoy from 1148 to 1188.
Hunac Ceel Cauich (fl. late 12th and early 13th centuries) was a Mayan general from Telchaquillo who conquered Chichen Itzá and founded the Cocom dynasty.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Ida of Lorraine (also referred to as Blessed Ida of Boulogne) (c. 1040 – 13 April 1113) was a saint and noblewoman.
Imre is a Hungarian masculine first name, which is also in Estonian use.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Inge Haraldsson (Old Norse: Ingi Haraldsson) (1135 – 3 February 1161) was king of Norway from 1136 to 1161.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Ἰσαάκιος Β’ Ἄγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos; September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204.
Isabella I (1172 – 5 April 1205) was Queen regnant of Jerusalem from 1190 to her death.
Ivan Asen I, also known as Asen I or John Asen I (Иван Асен I) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1187 or 1188 to 1196 as the co-ruler of his elder brother, Peter II.
Saint Ivo of Chartres (also Ives, Yves, or Yvo; Ivo Carnutensis; 1040 – 23 December 1115) was the Bishop of Chartres, France from 1090 until his death, and an important canonist during the Investiture Crisis.
The Kingdom of Janggala is one of the two Javanese kingdoms that was formed when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons in 1045.
Sri Mapanji Jayabaya, Varmesvara, or Jayabhaya, (Javanese spelled: Ratu Joyoboyo) was Javanese King of the Kediri in East Java from 1135 to 1179 CE.
Jayavarman VII, post-humous name of Mahaparamasaugata, (ជ័យវរ្ម័នទី៧, 1125–1218) was a king (reigned c.1181–1218) of the Khmer Empire in present-day Siem Reap, Cambodia.
, also known as Jōdo Buddhism, is a branch of Pure Land Buddhism derived from the teachings of the Japanese ex-Tendai monk Hōnen.
The Jebala (Jbala), is a group of Arabian Joseph Jacobs, Alfred Trübner Nutt, Arthur Robinson Wright, William Crooke Folklore Society, 1969, Volume 16.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Doña Jimena Díaz (also spelled Ximena) (before July 1046–c.1116) was the wife of El Cid, whom she married between July 1074 and 12 May 1076, and her husband's successor as ruler of Valencia from 1099 to 1102.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).
John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; 13 September 1087 – 8 April 1143) was Byzantine Emperor from 1118 to 1143.
Saint John of Matha (1160–1213), was a Christian saint of the 12th century and founder of the Order of the Most Holy Trinity, dedicated to ransoming captive Christians.
John Skylitzes, Latinized as Ioannes Scylitzes (Ἰωάννης Σκυλίτζης, also Σκυλλίτζης/Σκυλίτσης, Iōannēs Skylitzēs/Skyllitzēs/Skylitsēs; early 1040s – after 1101), was a Greek historian of the late 11th century.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
Kakheti (კახეთი) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti.
Kaloyan, also known as Kalojan, Johannitsa or Ioannitsa (Калоян; 1170 – October 1207) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1196 to 1207.
The Kamakura shogunate (Japanese: 鎌倉幕府, Kamakura bakufu) was a Japanese feudal military governmentNussbaum, Louis-Frédéric.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
A kasbah (qaṣbah, "central part of a town or citadel"; also known as qasaba, gasaba and quasabeh, in older English casbah or qasbah, in India qassabah and in Spanish alcazaba (remains of the Moorish Spain)) is a type of medina or fortress (citadel).
, officially, is a Buddhist temple of the Omuro sect of Shingon Buddhism in Umegahata Toganōchō, Ukyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan.
Kediri or Kadiri (also known as Panjalu) was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222.
Kente, known as nwentom in Akan, is a type of silk and cotton fabric made of interwoven cloth strips and is native to the Akan ethnic group of West Ghana.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Galicia (Reino de Galicia, or Galiza; Reino de Galicia; Reino da Galiza; Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
The Koutoubia Mosque or Kutubiyya Mosque is the largest mosque in Marrakesh, Morocco.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Lapphyttan or Lapphyttejarn in Norberg Municipality, Sweden, may be regarded as the type site for the Medieval Blast Furnace.
Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Patriarchatus Latinus Hierosolymitanus) is the title of the see of Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem.
Laudabiliter was a Papal Bull issued in 1155 by Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman to have served in that office.
Lausanne (Lausanne Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud.
The League of Mayapan (Yucatec Luub Mayapan Maya glyphs) was a confederation of Maya states in the post classic period of Mesoamerica on the Yucatan peninsula.
Leinster (— Laighin / Cúige Laighean — /) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland.
Saint Leopold III (Luitpold, 1073 – 15 November 1136), known as Leopold the Good, was the Margrave of Austria from 1095 to his death in 1136.
Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.
Lin Tinggui (fl. circa 1174–1189) (Japanese: Rin Teikei) was a Chinese painter of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279 AD).
This is a list of kings and queens of the kingdoms of Georgia under Bagrationi dynasty before Russian annexation in 1801–1810.
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Liuhe Pagoda, literally Six Harmonies Pagoda, is a multi-story Chinese pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China.
The Lombard League (Italian and Lombard: Lega Lombarda) was a medieval alliance formed in 1167, supported by the Pope, to counter the attempts by the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors to assert influence over the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Lorcán Ua Tuathail, also known as Saint Laurence O'Toole (1128 – 14 November 1180) was Archbishop of Dublin at the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland.
Lothair II or Lothair III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death.
Louis VI (c.1081 – 1 August 1137), called the Fat (le Gros) or the Fighter (le Batailleur), was King of the Franks from 1108 until his death (1137).
Louis VII (called the Younger or the Young; Louis le Jeune; 1120 – 18 September 1180) was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death.
Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Madrid Skylitzes is a richly illustrated illuminated manuscript of the Synopsis of Histories (Σύνοψις Ἱστοριῶν), by John Skylitzes, which covers the reigns of the Byzantine emperors from the death of Nicephorus I in 811 to the deposition of Michael VI in 1057.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Magnus Olafsson (Old Norse: Magnús Óláfsson, Norwegian: Magnus Olavsson; 1073 – 24 August 1103), better known as Magnus Barefoot (Old Norse: Magnús berfœttr, Norwegian: Magnus Berrføtt), was King of Norway (as Magnus III) from 1093 until his death in 1103.
Saint Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney, sometimes known as Magnus the Martyr, was Earl of Orkney from 1106 to about 1115.
Magnus IV Sigurdsson (ca. 1115 – 12 November 1139), also known as Magnus the Blind, was King of Norway from 1130 to 1135 and again from 1137 to 1139.
Magnus V Erlingsson (Old Norse: Magnús Erlingsson) (1156–1184) was a King of Norway during the Civil war era in Norway.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Malcolm IV (Mediaeval Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig), nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" (between 23 April and 24 May 11419 December 1165), King of Scots, was the eldest son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria (died 1152) and Ada de Warenne.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
Matilda of Tuscany (Italian: Matilde di Canossa, Latin: Matilda, Mathilda; 1046 – 24 July 1115) was a powerful feudal Margravine of Tuscany, ruler in northern Italy and the chief Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy; in addition, she was one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments, thanks to which she was able to dominate all the territories north of the Church States.
Mechtildis was Benedictine abbess and renowned miracle worker.
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
was one of the surnames bestowed by the Emperors of Japan upon members of the imperial family who were excluded from the line of succession and demoted into the ranks of the nobility.
was the founder and the first shōgun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Montferrat (Monfrà; Monferrato; Mons Ferratus) is part of the region of Piedmont in Northern Italy.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.
Mystery plays and miracle plays (they are distinguished as two different forms although the terms are often used interchangeably) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Nalanda was a Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.
The Nemanjić (Немањић, Nemanjići / Немањићи) was the most important dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Saint Nerses of Lambron (Nerses Lambronatsi) (1153–1198) was the Archbishop of Tarsus in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia who is remembered as one of the most significant figures in Armenian literature and ecclesiastical history.
Niels (Nicolaus, Engish exonym Nicholas; – 25 June 1134) was the King of Denmark from 1104 to 1134.
Norbert is a Germanic given name, from nord "north" and berht "bright".
Saint Norbert of Xanten (c. 1080 – 6 June 1134) (Xanten-Magdeburg), also known as Norbert Gennep, was a bishop of the Catholic Church, founder of the Premonstratensian order of canons regular, and is venerated as a saint.
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Norwegian Crusade, led by Norwegian King Sigurd I, was a crusade or a pilgrimage (sources differ) that lasted from 1107 to 1111, in the aftermath of the First Crusade.
The Norwegian Law of Succession (Tronfølgeloven av 1163) was first introduced in 1163 during the Civil war era in Norway.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
Odo I (1060 – 1102Constance Brittain Bouchard, Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980–1198, (Cornell University Press, 1987), 256.), also known as Eudes, surnamed Borel and called the Red, was Duke of Burgundy between 1079 and 1103.
Eudes II of Burgundy (1118 – June 27 or September 27, 1162Margot Elsbeth Fassler, The Virgin of Chartres: Making History Through Liturgy and the Arts, (Yale University Press, 2010), 457 note5) was Duke of Burgundy between 1143 and 1162.
Eudes III (1166 – July 6, 1218), commonly known in English as Odo III, was duke of Burgundy between 1192 and 1218.
Odo of Tournai, also known as Odoardus or Odo of Orléans (1060–1113), was a Benedictine monk, scholar and bishop of Cambrai (from 1105/6).
An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance travelled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car.
Olav Magnusson (1099 – 22 December 1115) was king of Norway in 1103–1115.
Saint Olegarius Bonestruga (from Germanic Oldegar, Ollegarius, Oligarius, Oleguer, Olegario; 1060 – 6 March 1137) was the Bishop of Barcelona from 1116 and Archbishop of Tarragona from 1118 until his death.
Omar Khayyam (عمر خیّام; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.
The Order of Calatrava (Orden de Calatrava Ordem de Calatrava) was the first military order founded in Castile, but the second to receive papal approval.
The Royal, Celestial and Military Order of Our Lady of Mercy and the Redemption of the Captives (Ordo Beatae Mariae de Mercede Redemptionis Captivorum, abbreviated O. de M.), also known as the Mercedarians, is a Catholic mendicant order established in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco in the city of Barcelona, at that time in the Principality of Catalonia (Crown of Aragon), for the redemption of Christian captives.
Saint Otto of Bamberg (Otto von Bamberg, Otton z Bambergu; 1060 or 1061 – 30 June 1139) was Bishop of Bamberg and a missionary who, as papal legate, converted much of medieval Pomerania to Christianity.
A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Panji (formerly spelled Pandji) was a legendary prince in East Java, Indonesia.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The papal election of 1130 (held February 14) was convoked after the death of Pope Honorius II and resulted in a double election.
The Peace of Constance of 1183 was signed in the city of Konstanz by the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa and representatives of the Italian Lombard League.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.
Peter II, born Theodor, also known as Theodor-Peter (Теодор-Петър; died in 1197) was the first emperor (or tsar) of the restored Bulgarian Empire from 1185 to 1197.
Saint Peter Nolasco (1189 – 6 May 1256), Pere Nolasc in Catalan, Pierre Nolasque in French and Pedro Nolasco in Spanish, is a Catholic saint, born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, Languedoc, today's France, although some historians claim he was born in Barcelona (see Encyclopædia Britannica).
Petronilla (29 June/11 August 1136 – 15 October 1173), whose name is also spelled Petronila or Petronella (Aragonese Peyronela or Payronella, and Peronella), was the Queen of Aragon from the abdication of her father in 1137 until her own abdication in 1164.
Philip I (23 May 1052 – 29 July 1108), called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
A piedfort or piefort (pied-fort or piéfort) is an unusually thick coin, often exactly twice the normal weight and thickness of other coins of the same diameter and pattern.
Polabian Slavs (Połobske Słowjany, Słowianie połabscy, Polabští Slované) is a collective term applied to a number of Lechitic (West Slavic) tribes who lived along the Elbe river in what is today Eastern Germany.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
The Pomeranians (Pomoranen; Pòmòrzónie; Pomorzanie) were a group of West Slavic tribes who lived along the shore of the Baltic Sea between the mouths of the Oder and Vistula Rivers (the latter Farther Pomerania and Pomerelia).
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
Pope Callixtus II or Callistus II (c. 1065 – 13 December 1124), born Guy of Burgundy, was pope of the western Christian church from 1 February 1119 to his death in 1124.
Pope Eugene III (Eugenius III; c. 1080 – 8 July 1153), born Bernardo Pignatelli, called Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153.
Pope Gelasius II (c. 1060/1064 – 29 January 1119), born Giovanni Caetani or Giovanni da Gaeta (also called Coniulo), was Pope from 24 January 1118 to his death in 1119.
Pope Honorius II (9 February 1060 – 13 February 1130), born Lamberto Scannabecchi,Levillain, pg.
Pope Innocent II (Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Lucius II (Lucius II; died 15 February 1145), born Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso, was Pope from 9 March 1144 to his death in 1145.
Pope Paschal II (Paschalis II; 1050 1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was Pope from 13 August 1099 to his death in 1118.
The Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa, also known as Marinha de Guerra Portuguesa or as Armada Portuguesa) is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defense of Portugal.
The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, also known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain and Ireland, as the White Canons (from the colour of their habit), are a religious order of Canons regular of the Catholic Church founded in Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Norbert of Xanten, who later became Archbishop of Magdeburg.
Prithvirāja III (reign. –1192 CE), popularly known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora in the folk legends, was an Indian king from the Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
Ramon Berenguer IV (c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.
Saint Raymond of Fitero (also known as Ramon Sierra, San Raimundo de Fitero) (*? - †Ciruelos, 1163) was a monk, abbot, and founder of the Order of Calatrava.
Raymond of Penyafort, O.P., (ca. 1175 – 6 January 1275) (Sant Ramon de Penyafort,; San Raimundo de Peñafort) was a Spanish Dominican friar in the 13th century, who compiled the Decretals of Gregory IX, a collection of canon laws that remained a major part of Church law until the 20th century.
Rügen (also lat. Rugia; Ruegen) is Germany's largest island by area.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages.
Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, The family name ‘de Clare’ was also rendered ‘of Clare’ in contemporary sources.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Richard of Chichester (1197 – 3 April 1253), also known as Richard de Wych, is a saint (canonized 1262) who was Bishop of Chichester.
Richard of Saint Victor, C.R.S.A. (died 1173) was a Medieval Scottish philosopher and theologian and one of the most influential religious thinkers of his time.
Robert Curthose (3 February 1134), sometimes called Robert II or Robert III, was the Duke of Normandy from 1087 until 1106 and an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of England.
Robert de Bethune (died 1148) was a medieval Bishop of Hereford.
Roger II (22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Modern Irish: Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, or, Ruairí Ó Conchúir; commonly anglicised as Rory O'Connor or Roderic O'Connor) (c. 1116 – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193.
Rustavi (რუსთავი) is a city in the southeast of Georgia, in the province of Kvemo Kartli, situated southeast of the capital Tbilisi.
Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán (8 August 1170 – 6 August 1221), was a Castilian priest and founder of the Dominican Order.
Saint Malachy (Máel Máedóc Ua Morgair; Modern Maelmhaedhoc Ó Morgair) (1094 – 2 November 1148) was an Irish saint and Archbishop of Armagh, to whom were attributed several miracles and an alleged vision of 112 Popes later attributed to the apocryphal (i.e. of doubtful authenticity) Prophecy of the Popes.
Saint Sava (Свети Сава / Sveti Sava,, 1174 – 14 January 1236), known as The Enlightener, was a Serbian prince and Orthodox monk, the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church, the founder of Serbian law, and a diplomat.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Sancho I, nicknamed "the Populator" ("o Povoador"), King of Portugal (Coimbra, 11 November 115426 March 1211) was the second but only surviving legitimate son and fifth child of Afonso I of Portugal by his wife, Maud of Savoy.
The Second Council of the Lateran is believed to have been the tenth ecumenical council held by the Roman Catholic Church.
The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
"Shahāb ad-Dīn" Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardī (شهابالدین سهروردی, also known as Sohrevardi) (1154-1191) was a PersianC.
Shao Yong (1011–1077), courtesy name Yaofu (堯夫), named Shào Kāngjié (邵康節) after death, was a Song dynasty Chinese philosopher, cosmologist, poet and historian who greatly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism in China.
The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Shota Rustaveli (შოთა რუსთაველი, c. 1160—after c. 1220), mononymously known simply as Rustaveli, was a medieval Georgian poet.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the crusader County of Edessa to Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.
The Siege of Lisbon, from 1 July to 25 October, 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords.
Sigtuna is a locality situated in Sigtuna Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 8,444 inhabitants in 2010.
Sigurd II Haraldsson (or Sigurd Munn) (Old Norse: Sigurðr Haraldsson) (1133–1155) was king of Norway from 1136 to 1155.
Sigurd I Magnusson (c. 1090 – 26 March 1130), also known as Sigurd the Crusader (Old Norse: Sigurðr Jórsalafari, Norwegian: Sigurd Jorsalfar), was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130.
Smaradahana is an old Javanese poem (Kakawin) written by Mpu Dharmaja as a eulogy for King Kameçvara of Kediri in early 12th century East Java.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The south-pointing chariot (or carriage) was an ancient Chinese two-wheeled vehicle that carried a movable pointer to indicate the south, no matter how the chariot turned.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Stefan Nemanja (Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Немања,; 1113 – 13 February 1199) was the Grand Prince (Veliki Župan) of the Serbian Grand Principality (also known as Rascia) from 1166 to 1196.
Stefan Nemanjić (Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Немањић) or Stefan the First-Crowned (Стефан Првовенчани / Stefan Prvovenčani,; around 1165 – 24 September 1228) was Grand Prince of Serbia from 1196, and the King of Serbia from 1217 until his death in 1228.
Stephen Harding, O.Cist., (Étienne Harding),(born 1060, Sherborne, Dorsetshire, England - died 28 March 1134) was an English-born monk and abbot, who was one of the founders of the Cistercian Order.
Stephen II (II István; Stjepan II; Štefan II; 1101 – early 1131), King of Hungary and Croatia, ruled from 1116 until 1131.
Stephen (Étienne; – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was King of England from 1135 to his death, as well as Count of Boulogne from 1125 until 1147 and Duke of Normandy from 1135 until 1144.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Suger (Sugerius; 1081 – 13 January 1151) was a French abbot, statesman, and historian.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Suryavarman II (សូរ្យវរ្ម័នទី២) posthumously named Paramavishnuloka, was a Khmer king of the Khmer Empire from 1113 AD to 1145-1150 AD and the builder of Angkor Wat, the largest religious monument in the world which he dedicated to the Hindu God Vishnu.
Suzdal (p) is a town and the administrative center of Suzdalsky District in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Kamenka River, north of the city of Vladimir, the administrative center of the oblast.
Sverker I or Sverker the Elder (Old Swedish: Swærkir konongær gambli), murdered 25 December 1156, was King of Sweden from about 1132 till his death.
Sverre Sigurdsson (Sverrir Sigurðarson) (c. 1145/1151 – 9 March 1202) was the King of Norway from 1184 to 1202.
Sweyn III Grathe (Svend III Grathe) (– 23 October 1157) was the King of Denmark between 1146 and 1157, in shifting alliances with Canute V and his own cousin Valdemar I. In 1157, the three agreed a tripartition of Denmark.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.
Tancred (1138 – 20 February 1194) was King of Sicily from 1189 to 1194.
Tétouan (تطوان, ⵜⵉⵟⵟⴰⵡⵉⵏ, Tétouan, Tetuán) is a city in northern Morocco.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Anarchy was a civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order.
The Knight in the Panther's Skin (ვეფხისტყაოსანი literally "one with a skin of a tiger") is a Georgian medieval epic poem, written in the 12th century by Georgia's national poet Shota Rustaveli.
The Theotokos of Vladimir (Θεοτόκος του Βλαντίμιρ), also known as Our Lady of Vladimir, Vladimir Mother of God, or Virgin of Vladimir (Владимирская Икона Божией Матери, Вишгородська ікона Божої Матері) is a medieval Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
(1053–1140), also known as for his priesthood, was a Japanese artist-monk, and the son of Minamoto no Takakuni.
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).
According to Mesoamerican historiography, the Toltec Empire, Toltec Kingdom or Altepetl TollanCe-Acatl: Revista de la cultura Anáhuac (1991) was a political entity in Mexico.
The Treaty of Alton was an agreement signed in 1101 between Henry I of England and his older brother Robert, Duke of Normandy in which Robert agreed to recognize Henry as king of England in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions.
The Treaty of Benevento was an important treaty between the papacy of Adrian IV and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily.
The Treaty of Cazola (or Cazorla) was signed in 1179 in Soria between Alfonso II of Aragon and Alfonso VIII of Castile.
The Treaty of Devol (συνθήκη της Δεαβόλεως) was an agreement made in 1108 between Bohemond I of Antioch and Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, in the wake of the First Crusade.
The Treaty of Mignano of 1139 was the treaty which ended more than a decade of constant war in the Italian Mezzogiorno following the union of the mainland duchy of Apulia and Calabria with the County of Sicily in 1127.
The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of Arsuf of September 1191.
The Treaty of Sahagún ended a state of war between the Castile and León, establishing pacem et ueram amiciciam (peace and true friendship) between their respective monarchs, Sancho III and Ferdinand II, who called themselves boni fratres et boni amici (good brothers and good friends).
The Treaty of Sahagún was signed in Sahagún on 4 June 1170 between Alfonso VIII of Castile and Alfonso II of Aragon.
The Treaty of Shaoxing was the agreement that ended the military conflicts between the Jin dynasty and the Southern Song dynasty.
The Treaty of Tudilén (or Treaty of Tudején) was signed between Alfonso VII of León and Castile and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona in 1151 at Tudilén, near Aguas Caldas in Navarre, modern Baños de Fitero, then just Fitero.
The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was a peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor.
The Treaty of Windsor (1175) was a territorial agreement made during the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland.
The Treaty of Zamora (5 October 1143) recognized Portuguese independence from the Kingdom of León.
A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.
The State Tretyakov Gallery (Государственная Третьяковская Галерея, Gosudarstvennaya Tretyâkovskaya Galereya; abbreviated ГТГ, GTG) is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world.
The Order of the Most Holy Trinity and of the Captives (Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis et captivorum), often shortened to The Order of the Most Holy Trinity (Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis), or Trinitarians, is a Catholic religious order that was founded in the area of Cerfroid, some 80 km northeast of Paris, at the end of the twelfth century.
Trouvère, sometimes spelled trouveur, is the Northern French (langue d'oïl) form of the langue d'oc (Occitan) word trobador.
The Tui Tonga Empire, or Tongan Empire, are descriptions sometimes given to Tongan expansionism and projected hegemony in Oceania which began around 950 CE, reaching its peak during the period 1200–1500.
Tula is a Mesoamerican archeological site, which was an important regional center which reached its height as the capital of the Toltec Empire between the fall of Teotihuacan and the rise of Tenochtitlan.
The Uprising of Asen and Peter (Въстание на Асен и Петър) was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase.
Urbnisi (ურბნისი) is a village in Georgia’s Shida Kartli region, in the district of Kareli.
Urraca (April 1079 – 8 March 1126) called the Reckless (la Temeraria), was Queen of León, Castile, and Galicia from 1109 until her death in childbirth.
Vachana sahitya is a form of rhythmic writing in Kannada (see also Kannada poetry) that evolved in the 11th century CE and flourished in the 12th century, as a part of the Sharana movement.
Valdemar I of Denmark (14 January 1131 – 12 May 1182), also known as Valdemar the Great (Valdemar den Store), was King of Denmark from 1146 until his death in 1182.
The Venetian Arsenal (Arsenale di Venezia) is a complex of former shipyards and armories clustered together in the city of Venice in northern Italy.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vladimir II Monomakh (Old East Slavic: Володимѣръ Мономахъ, Volodimer Monomakh; Christian name: Vasiliy, or Basileios) (1053 – 19 May 1125) reigned as Grand Prince of Kievan Rus' from 1113 to 1125.
Władysław I Herman (1044 – 4 June 1102) was a Duke of Poland from 1079 until his death.
The Wendish Crusade (Wendenkreuzzug) was a military campaign in 1147, one of the Northern Crusades and a part of the Second Crusade, led primarily by the Kingdom of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs (or "Wends").
Wends (Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, Wenden, Winden, vendere, vender, Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.
The White Ship (real name: la Blanche-Nef, Latin documents Candida navis) was a vessel that sank in the English Channel near the Normandy coast off Barfleur, on 25 November 1120.
William Ætheling (5 August 1103 – 25 November 1120), commonly called Adelin, sometimes Adelinus, Adelingus, A(u)delin or other Latinised Norman-French variants of Ætheling, was the son of Henry I of England by his wife Matilda of Scotland, and was thus heir apparent to the throne.
William I (1120 or 1121 – May 7, 1166), called the Bad or the Wicked (Gugghiermu lu Malu, was the second King of Sicily, ruling from his father's death in 1154 to his own in 1166. He was the fourth son of Roger II and Elvira of Castile. William's title "the Bad" seems little merited and expresses the bias of the historian Hugo Falcandus and the baronial class against the king and the official class by whom he was guided.
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 or 1147 – 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Norman French: Williame li Mareschal), was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman.
William of Malmesbury (Willelmus Malmesbiriensis) was the foremost English historian of the 12th century.
William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric (i.e. William, son of Henry); Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yue Fei (24 March 1103 – 27 January 1142), courtesy name Pengju, was a Han Chinese military general who lived during the Southern Song dynasty.
Yusuf ibn Tashfin also, Tashafin, Teshufin; or Yusuf (full name: Yûsuf bnu Tâšfîn Nâçereddîn bnu Tâlâkâkîn aç-Çanhâjî, يوسف بن تاشفين ناصر الدين بن تالاكاكين الصنهاجي; reigned c. 1061 – 1106) was leader of the Berber Moroccan Almoravid empire.
Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145), alias Zheng Dao, was a Chinese painter of the Song Dynasty.
Zhou Jichang, Japanese: Shuu Kijou) (active late twelfth century) was a Chinese painter of the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 AD). His artwork featured many central themes of Chinese Buddhism and Buddhist folklore. His contemporary and associate was Lin Tinggui (see article for more details), as they were both responsible for the completion of the artistic project known as the Five Hundred Luohan in 1178 AD. In the United States, his artwork is housed in the Smithsonian Freer Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., as well as the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Many of his other works of art are also located at the Daitoku-ji Temple in Kyoto, Japan. His most famous painting is Rock Bridge at Tiantai Mountain.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
Zhu Yu was a Chinese author and historian of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD).
Year 1100 (MC) was a century leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1101 (MCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1102 (MCII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1103 (MCIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1104 (MCIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1106 (MCVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1107 (MCVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1108 (MCVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1109 (MCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1111 (MCXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1113 (MCXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1115 (MCXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1116 (MCXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1119 (MCXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1120 (MCXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1121 (MCXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1122 (MCXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1123 (MCXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1124 (MCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1125 (MCXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1127 (MCXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1128 (MCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1130 (MCXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1132 (MCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1135 (MCXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1136 (MCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1137 (MCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1138 (MCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The 1138 Aleppo earthquake was among the deadliest earthquakes in history.
Year 1139 (MCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1140 (MCXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1141 (MCXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1143 (MCXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1144 (MCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1145 (MCXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1147 (MCXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1148 (MCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1150 (MCL) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1151 (MCLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1153 (MCLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1154 (MCLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1155 (MCLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1156 (MCLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1158 (MCLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1161 (MCLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1162 (MCLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1163 (MCLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1165 (MCLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1168 (MCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1169 (MCLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1170 (MCLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1171 (MCLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1174 (MCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1175 (MCLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1176 (MCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1177 (MCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1178 (MCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1179 (MCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1180 (MCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1182 (MCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1183 (MCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1184 (MCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1185 (MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1186 (MCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1187 (MCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1188 (MCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1189 (MCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1190 (MCXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1191 (MCXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1192 (MCXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1193 (MCXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1194 (MCXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1195 (MCXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1198 (MCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1199 (MCXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1200 (MCC) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
12 Century, 12 century C.E., 12th Century, 12th centuries, 12th century AD, 12th century CE, 12th-century, Twelfth Century, Twelfth century, Twelfth-century, Twelth century, Twelveth century, XII Century, XII century, XIIth century, Year in Review 12th Century.