245 relations: Adolf of Nassau (1540–1568), Alabama, Alboran Island, Alfonso Carafa, Amago Yoshihisa, Ana de Mendoza, Princess of Eboli, Andrea Andreani, Angela Merici, Anne of Cleves, Antwerp, April 21, April 3, April 8, Arequipa, August 15, August 23, August 24, August 25, August 28, August 4, August 5, Barbary pirates, Barnabe Googe, Bartholomäus Scultetus, Battle of Alborán, Bernardino de Mendoza, Bernardino de Mendoza (Captain General), Bernhard VII, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Cardinal-Infante Afonso of Portugal, Caspar Schwenckfeld, Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, Catherine Howard, Charles I, Duke of Mecklenburg, Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Charles V Wall, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Christopher Hatton, Conquistador, Copernican heliocentrism, Countess Palatine Anna of Veldenz, Countess Palatine Elisabeth of Simmern-Sponheim, Dawit II, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, December 21, December 28, December 31, December 8, Dissolution of the Monasteries, Duarte of Portugal, 4th Duke of Guimarães, Dunstable Priory, ..., Dysentery, Edmund Campion, Elizabeth Blount, Emperor of Ethiopia, Enrique de Borja y Aragón, Enrique de Guzmán, 2nd Count of Olivares, Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Europe, February 12, February 14, February 23, February 25, Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, François Viète, Francesco Guicciardini, Francis Drake, Francisco de Ulloa, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Garcí Manuel de Carbajal, Görlitz, Gdańsk, Gelawdewos, Georg Joachim Rheticus, George Hastings, 4th Earl of Huntingdon, Ghent, Gibraltar, Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, Guillaume Budé, Habsburg Spain, Hawikuh Ruins, Hedwig of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Helius Eobanus Hessus, Henry Cheyne, 1st Baron Cheyne, Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton, Henry VIII of England, Hernando de Soto, James, Duke of Rothesay (born 1540), January, January 18, January 24, January 27, January 28, January 6, Japan, Johann Georg Faust, Johann Jakob Grynaeus, John Sigismund Zápolya, John VII, Count of Oldenburg, Joseph Justus Scaliger, Juan Luis Vives, Julian calendar, July 11, July 16, July 19, July 28, July 30, July 7, July 9, June 11, June 16, June 29, June 3, June 30, June 9, Konrad von Thüngen, Lady Katherine Grey, Leap year starting on Thursday, Ludolph van Ceulen, Ludowika Margaretha of Zweibrücken-Bitsch, Maarten van Rossum, Mabila, Magnus, Duke of Holstein, Maharana Pratap, March, March 1, March 17, March 30, Maria de' Medici (1540–1557), Martin Luther, Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg, May 14, May 17, May 22, May 31, May 6, May 9, Morocco, Mughal Empire, Musket, Narratio Prima, Nicolaus Copernicus, November 12, November 16, October 1, October 18, October 5, Ottoman Empire, Paolo Paruta, Paracelsus, Paramount chief, Parmigianino, Paschal Baylon, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peru, Pierre Jeannin, Pope Paul III, Princess Cecilia of Sweden, Priory, Queen consort, Regimini militantis Ecclesiae, Rhine, Robert Barnes (martyr), Roman numerals, Sardinia, Seine, September, September 16, September 2, September 20, September 27, September 3, September 5, September 9, Sher Shah Suri, Shima Sakon, Silesia, Silvio Antoniano, Sisto Fabri, Society of Jesus, Sur Empire, Thomas Abel, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Schweicker, Toyotomi Hidenaga, Treason, Tristão da Cunha, Turncoat, Tuskaloosa, Villach, Waltham Abbey Church, Würzburger Stein, William Byrd, Won Gyun, Zuni-Cibola Complex, 1460, 1466, 1467, 1469, 1470, 1474, 1480, 1483, 1485, 1488, 1492, 1495, 1497, 1500, 1501, 1502, 1503, 1509, 1515, 1518, 1541, 1557, 1565, 1568, 1569, 1570, 1571, 1580, 1581, 1583, 1586, 1587, 1590, 1591, 1592, 1594, 1596, 1597, 1598, 1600, 1602, 1603, 1604, 1607, 1609, 1610, 1614, 1617, 1622, 1623, 1627. Expand index (195 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf of Nassau (Dillenburg, 11 July 1540 – Heiligerlee, 23 May 1568) was a count of Nassau, also known as Adolphus of Nassau.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Alboran Island (Isla de Alborán) is a small islet in the Alboran Sea, part of the western Mediterranean, about 50 km (31 mi) north of the Moroccan coast and 90 kilometres (56 miles) south of the Spanish province of Almería.
Alfonso Carafa (16 July 1540 - 29 August 1565) was a member of one of the oldest noble families of Naples and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
was a daimyō (lord) of Izumo Province.
Ana de Mendoza de la Cerda y de Silva Cifuentes, Princess of Eboli, Duchess of Pastrana, (in full, Ana de Mendoza y de la Cerda), (29 June 1540 – 2 February 1592) was a Spanish aristocrat, suo jure 2nd Princess of Mélito, 2nd Duchess of Francavilla and 3rd Countess of Aliano.
Andrea Andreani (1540–1623) was an Italian engraver on wood, who was among the first printmakers in Italy to use chiaroscuro, which required multiple colours.
Angela Merici, or Angela de Merici (21 March 1474 – 27 January 1540), was an Italian religious educator, who is honoured as a saint by the Catholic Church.
Anne of Cleves (Anna von Kleve; 22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was Queen of England from 6 January to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
Barnabe Googe or Goche (11 June 15407 February 1594) (also spelled Barnaby Goodge) was a poet and translator, one of the earliest English pastoral poets.
Bartholomäus Scultetus (born Barthel Schulze; 14 May 1540, Görlitz – 21 June 1614, Görlitz) was a mayor of Görlitz, astronomer, cartographer and compiler of biblical chronologies.
The battle of Alboran (batalla de Alborán) took place on 1 October 1540 off the isle of Alboran during the Ottoman-Habsburg struggle for the control of the Mediterranean when a Spanish fleet under the command of Bernardino de Mendoza destroyed an Ottoman fleet commanded by Ali Hamet, sinking a galley and capturing 10 other ships.
Bernardino de Mendoza (c. 1540 – 3 August 1604) was a Spanish military commander, a diplomat and a writer on military history and politics.
Bernardino de Mendoza (Granada, 1501 – Saint-Quentin 1557), was a Spanish aristocrat from the House of Mendoza and Captain General of the Galleys of Spain.
Bernhard VII of Anhalt-Zerbst (17 March 1540 – 1 March 1570), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Cardinal-Infante Afonso (23 April 1509–21 April 1540) was a Portuguese infante (prince), son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon.
Caspar (or Kaspar) Schwen(c)kfeld von Ossig (1489 or 1490 – 10 December 1561) was a German theologian, writer, and preacher who became a Protestant Reformer and spiritualist.
Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, Duchess of Braganza by marriage (Portuguese: Catarina;, 18 January 1540 – 15 November 1614) was a Portuguese infanta (princess) claimant to the throne following the death of King Henry of Portugal in 1580.
Catherine Howard (– 13 February 1542) was Queen of England from 1540 until 1541, as the fifth wife of Henry VIII.
Charles I, Duke of Mecklenburg (28 December 1540 in Neustadt – 22 July 1610 in Güstrow), was the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg in the Mecklenburg-Güstrow part of the country.
Charles II Francis of Austria (Karl II.) (3 June 1540 – 10 July 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola and Carinthia) from 1564.
The Charles V Wall is a 16th-century defensive curtain wall that forms part of the fortifications of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Sir Christopher Hatton KG (1540 – 20 November 1591) was an English politician, Lord Chancellor of England and a favourite of Elizabeth I of England.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543.
Countess Palatine Anna of Veldenz (12 November 1540 – 30 March 1586) was Margravine of Baden-Durlach by marriage to Charles II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, and co-regent of the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach during the minority of her son Ernest Frederick from 1577 to 1584.
Elisabeth of the Palatinate (German: Elisabeth von der Pfalz, born 30 June 1540 in Birkenfeld; died: 8 February 1594 in Wiener Neustadt) was the second wife of Duke John Frederick II of Saxony.
Dawit II (ዳዊት), also known as Wanag Segad (wanag sagad, 'to whom lions bow'), better known by his birth name Lebna Dengel (ልብነ ድንግል; 1501 – September 2, 1540), was nəgusä nägäst (1508–1540) of the Ethiopian Empire.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
In the Northern Hemisphere, December 21 is usually the shortest day of the year and is sometimes regarded as the first day of winter.
It is known by a collection of names including: Saint Sylvester's Day, New Year's Eve or Old Years Day/Night, as the following day is New Year's Day.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.
Duarte of Portugal, 4th Duke of Guimarães (October 7, 1515 in Lisbon – September 20, 1540 in Lisbon) was a Portuguese infante (prince); the sixth son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon.
The Priory Church of St Peter with its monastery (Dunstable Priory) was founded in 1132 by Henry I for Augustinian Canons in Dunstable, Bedfordshire, England.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Saint Edmund Campion, S.J., (24 January 1540 – 1 December 1581) was an English Roman Catholic Jesuit priest and martyr.
Elizabeth Blount (// – 1539/1540), commonly known during her lifetime as Bessie Blount, was a mistress of Henry VIII of England.
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
Enrique de Borja y Aragón (b. December 19, 1518, Gandía - d. September 16, 1540, Viterbo), was a Spanish noble of the House of Borgia.
Enrique de Guzmán y Ribera, 2nd Count of Olivares (Spanish: Don Enrique de Guzmán y Ribera, segundo Conde de Olivares; 1 March 1540–1607) was a Spanish nobleman and statesman.
Eric I, the Elder (Erich I., der Ältere; 1470 – 1540) was Duke of Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1495 and the first reigning prince of Calenberg-Göttingen.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Federico II of Gonzaga (May 17, 1500 – August 28, 1540) was the ruler of the Italian city of Mantua (first as Marquis, later as Duke) from 1519 until his death.
François Viète (Franciscus Vieta; 1540 – 23 February 1603), Seigneur de la Bigotière, was a French mathematician whose work on new algebra was an important step towards modern algebra, due to its innovative use of letters as parameters in equations.
Francesco Guicciardini (6 March 1483 – 22 May 1540) was an Italian historian and statesman.
Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
Francisco de Ulloa (died 1540) was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of present-day Mexico under the commission of Hernán Cortés.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
Don Garcí Manuel de Carbajal was a Spanish lieutenant and occasional soldier who founded the city of Arequipa in Peru on August 15, 1540, calling it "La Villa Hermosa de Arequipa." Carbajal was born in Placencia, Extremadura, Spain and explored present-day Arequipa as an emissary of Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro.
Görlitz (Upper Lusatian dialect: Gerlz, Gerltz, and Gerltsch, Zgorzelec, Zhorjelc, Zgórjelc, Zhořelec) is a town in the German federal state of Saxony.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gelawdewos (ገላውዴዎስ galāwdēwōs, modern gelāwdēwōs, "Claudius"; 1521/1522 – 23 March 1559) was Emperor (throne name Asnaf Sagad I (አጽናፍ ሰገድ aṣnāf sagad, modern āṣnāf seged, "to whom the horizon bows" or "the remotest regions submit "; September 3, 1540 – March 23, 1559) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was a younger son of Dawit II by Sabla Wengel.
Georg Joachim de Porris, also known as Rheticus (16 February 1514 – 4 December 1574), was a mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, navigational-instrument maker, medical practitioner, and teacher.
Sir George Hastings, 4th Earl of Huntingdon (1540 – 30 December 1604) was an English nobleman.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga (1540–1591) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.
Guillaume Budé (Guilielmus Budaeus; 26 January 146723 August 1540) was a French scholar.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Hawikuh (Hawikku, "gum leaves" in ZuniLanmon, Dwight P. and Harlow, Francis, "A brief history of the Ashiwi (Zuni) pueblos", in The pottery of Zuni Pueblo, 2008, Museum of New Mexico Press.), was one of the largest of the Zuni pueblos at the time of the Spanish entrada.
Hedwig of Brandenburg (23 February 1540 – 21 October 1602), a member of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1568 to 1589, by her marriage with the Welf duke Julius.
Helius Eobanus Hessus (6 January 1488 – 5 October 1540) was a German Latin poet and later a Lutheran humanist.
Henry Cheyne, 1st Baron Cheyne (31 May 1540 – 3 September 1587) was an English politician.
Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton (25 February 1540 – 15 June 1614) was an important English aristocrat and courtier.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Hernando de Soto (1495 – May 21, 1542) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States (through Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and most likely Arkansas).
James Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (22 May 1540 – 21 April 1541) was a short-lived heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland.
January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Johann Georg Faust (c. 1480 or 1466 – c. 1541), also known in English as John Faustus, was an itinerant alchemist, astrologer, and magician of the German Renaissance (or possibly of two such individuals using the Faustus moniker, one called Johann and the other Georg).
Johann Jakob Grynaeus or Gryner (October 1, 1540 – August 13, 1617) was a Swiss Protestant divine.
John Sigismund Zápolya or Szapolyai (Szapolyai János Zsigmond; 7 July 1540 – 14 March 1571) was King of Hungary as John II from 1540 to 1551, and from 1556 to 1570, and the first Prince of Transylvania from 1570 to his death.
Count John VII of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst (nicknamed "the Dike Builder"; 9 September 1540 in Oldenburg – 12 November 1603 in Oldenburg) was a member of the House of Oldenburg and was the ruling Count of County of Oldenburg from 1573 until his death.
Joseph Justus Scaliger (5 August 1540 – 21 January 1609) was a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history.
Juan Luis Vives (Ioannes Lodovicus Vives; Joan Lluís Vives i March; Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spanish (Valencian) scholar and Renaissance humanist who spent most of his adult life in the Southern Netherlands.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The terms 7th July, July 7th, and 7/7 (pronounced "Seven-seven") have been widely used in the Western media as a shorthand for the 7 July 2005 bombings on London's transport system.
It is the last day of the first half of the year.
Konrad von Thüngen (c. 1466 – 16 June 1540) was the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg from 1519 until his death in 1540.
Katherine Seymour, Countess of Hertford (25 August 1540 – 26 January 1568), born Lady Katherine Grey, was the younger sister of Lady Jane Grey.
A leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday 1 January, and ends on Friday 31 December.
Ludolph van Ceulen (28 January 1540 – 31 December 1610) was a German-Dutch mathematician from Hildesheim.
Ludowika Margaretha of Zweibrücken-Bitsch (19 July 1540, Ingwiller – 15 December 1569, Bouxwiller), was the only child and heiress of Count James of Zweibrücken-Bitsch (born: 19 July 1510; died: 22 March 1570) by his wife Catherine, born Countess of Honstein zu Klettenberg.
Maarten van Rossum (c. 1478 – June 7, 1555) was a Dutch military tactician who became field marshal in the service of Charles, Duke of Guelders.
The town of Mabila (or Mavila, Mavilla, Mauvilla) was a small fortress town known to Chief Tuskaloosa in 1540, in a region of present-day central Alabama.
Magnus of Denmark or Magnus of Holstein (–) was a Prince of Denmark, Duke of Holstein, and a member of the House of Oldenburg.
Pratap Singh I (9 May 1540 – 19 January 1597) popularly known as Maharana Pratap, was a Rajput king of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan.
March is the third month of the year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Maria de' Medici (April 3, 1540 – November 19, 1557) was the eldest daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Eleonora di Toledo.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg (1469 – 30 March 1540) was a statesman of the Holy Roman Empire, a Cardinal and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1519 to his death.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
De libris revolutionum Copernici narratio prima, usually referred to as Narratio Prima (First Account), is an abstract of Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric theory, written by Georg Joachim Rheticus in 1540.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Paolo Paruta (14 May 1540 – 6 December 1598) was a Venetian historian and statesman.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
A paramount chief is the English-language designation for the highest-level political leader in a regional or local polity or country administered politically with a chief-based system.
Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola (also known as Francesco Mazzola or, more commonly, as Parmigianino ("the little one from Parma"); 11 January 150324 August 1540) was an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker active in Florence, Rome, Bologna, and his native city of Parma.
Saint Paschal Baylón (16th of May 1540 – 17th of May 1592) was a Spanish Roman Catholic lay professed religious from the Order of Lay Brothers Minor.
Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera (Berber language: Badis; Arabic: جزيرة غمارة jazīrat ghumara), in ancient times Badis or Bades, is a Spanish rock (plaza de soberanía) in the west of the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the Moroccan shore by a sandy isthmus.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pierre Jeannin (1540–1622) was a French statesman.
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
Cecilia of Sweden, (Swedish: Cecilia Gustavsdotter Vasa) (16 November 1540 in Stockholm – 27 January 1627 in Brussels), was Princess of Sweden as the daughter of King Gustav I and his second queen, Margaret Leijonhufvud, and Margravine of Baden-Rodemachern through marriage with Christopher II, Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern.
A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
Regimini militantis Ecclesiae (Latin for To the Government of the Church Militant) was the papal bull promulgated by Pope Paul III on September 27, 1540, which gave a first approval to the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits, but limited the number of its members to sixty.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Robert Barnes (c. 1495 – 30 July 1540) was an English reformer and martyr.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
September is the ninth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the third of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the fourth of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.
Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.
, also known as, Shima Tomoyuki & Shima Katsutake, was a Japanese samurai of the late Sengoku period.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silvio Antoniani (31 December 1540, Rome - 16 August 1603, Rome) was a musician, canon lawyer, writer on education, priest and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, who spent most of his career in the Roman Curia.
Sisto Fabri (4 August 1540 – 1594) was a theologian and canon lawyer of the Dominican Order who was appointed Master of the Sacred Palace by Pope Gregory XIII serving from 1580 to 1583, and Master of the Order of Preachers from 1583 to 1589.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.
The Blessed Thomas Abel (or Abell) (ca. 1497 – 30 July 1540) was an English priest who was martyred during the reign of Henry VIII.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
Thomas Schweicker (December 21, 1540 – October 7, 1602) was a German artist and calligrapher.
, formerly known as.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Tristão da Cunha (sometimes misspelled Tristão d'Acunha;; c. 1460 – c. 1540) was a Portuguese explorer and naval commander.
A turncoat is a person who shifts allegiance from one loyalty or ideal to another, betraying or deserting an original cause by switching to the opposing side or party.
Tuskaloosa (Tuskalusa, Tastaluca, Tuskaluza) (died 1540) was a paramount chief of a Mississippian chiefdom in what is now the U.S. state of Alabama.
Villach (German pronunciation:; Beljak, Villaco, Vilac) is the seventh-largest city in Austria and the second-largest in the federal state of Carinthia.
The Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross and St Lawrence is the parish church of the town of Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
Würzburger Stein is a vineyard in the German wine region of Franconia that has been producing a style of wine, known as Steinwein since at least the 8th century.
William Byrd (birth date variously given as c.1539/40 or 1543 – 4 July 1623), was an English composer of the Renaissance.
Won Gyun (Korean: 원균, hanja:元均; 12 February 1540 – 27 August 1597) was a Korean general and admiral during the Joseon Dynasty.
The Zuni-Cibola Complex is a collection of prehistoric and historic archaeological sites on the Zuni Pueblo in western New Mexico.
Year 1460 (MCDLX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1466 (MCDLXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1467 (MCDLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1469 (MCDLXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1470 (MCDLXX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1474 (MCDLXXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1480 (MCDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1483 (MCDLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar).
Year 1485 (MCDLXXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1488 (MCDLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1492 (MCDXCII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1495 (MCDXCV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar).
Year 1497 (MCDXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1500 (MD) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1501 ('''MDI''') was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1502 ('''MDII''') was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1509 (MDIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1515 (MDXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1518 (MDXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1541 (MDXLI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1557 (MDLVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1565 (MDLXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1568 (MDLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1569 (MDLXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1570 (MDLXX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1571 (MDLXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1580 (MDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.
Year 1581 (MDLXXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.
Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene, or the 'Age of Man', marking a fundamental change in the relationship between humans and the Earth system, but earlier starting dates (ca. 1000 C.E.) have received broader consensus, based on high resolution pollution records that show the massive impact of human activity on the atmosphere.