765 relations: A Description of New England, Abbas I of Persia, Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns, Acadia, Acapulco, Action off La Goulette (1615), Adam Hieronim Sieniawski (1576–1616), Agnes Hedwig of Anhalt, Ahmad Ibn al-Qadi, Ahmed I, Ajmer, Alchemy, Aleixo de Abreu, Aleksander Józef Lisowski, Alexander Morus, Alexander von Bournonville, Alexander Whitaker, Amazon River, Ambrose Barlow, Amsterdam, An English Expositor, Anders Sørensen Vedel, Andreas Gryphius, Andreas Libavius, Anglican Communion, Angola, Anna de' Medici, Archduchess of Austria, Anna of Nassau-Dillenburg (1541–1616), Anna of Württemberg, Anne of Denmark, António Vieira, Antoinette Bourignon, Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra, Antwerp, April 1, April 19, April 2, April 22, April 23, April 24, April 25, April 27, April 5, April 7, Archbishop, Archduke Maximilian Ernest of Austria, Archibald Primrose, Lord Carrington, Armenia, Atlas, August 12, ..., August 18, August 27, August 3, August 30, August 31, August 6, August 7, August 8, Baffin Bay, Baghdad, Bahia, Barberini family, Belém, Belgrade, Ben Jonson, Ben Jonson folios, Bermuda, Bernardino Realino, Bhutan, Bibliographical Society, Biddeford, Maine, Birgitta Durell, Biscay, Bismarck Sea, Blackfriars Theatre, Bologna, Brazil, Cabinet of curiosities, Caesar van Everdingen, Camillo Astalli, Canon law, Cape Horn, Cardinal Richelieu, Carlo Dolci, Catholic Church, Cádiz, Charles Albanel, Charles de Ligne, 2nd Prince of Arenberg, Charles I of England, Charles Philippe de Rodoan, Chihuahua (state), Christen Aagaard, Christian Günther II, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen-Arnstadt, Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau, Christian IV of Denmark, Christina Magdalena of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken, Christmas, His Masque, Christoph Scheiner, Christopher Newport, Church (congregation), Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz, Circulatory system, Civil law (legal system), Coffee, Collegium Musicum, Colonial Brazil, Colonialism, Colony, Colony of Virginia, Comptroller, Copenhagen, Cornelis Ketel, Cornelis Schuyt, Countess Maria of Nassau (1556–1616), Court of King's Bench (England), Credential, Croatia, Daimyō, Dalmatia, Danube, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, December, December 10, December 12, December 13, December 14, December 17, December 18, December 22, December 24, December 25, December 31, December 6, December 7, Delaware River, Devon Island, Dictionary of National Biography, Diplomacy, Diplomat, Dirk Hartog, Dirk Hartog Island, Discovery (1602 ship), Douai, Durango, Dutch East India Company, Earl of Buckingham, Earl of Pembroke, East India Company, Edinburgh, Edo period, Edward Chamberlayne, Edward Coke, Edward Sexby, Eendracht (1615 ship), El Dorado, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabethan era, Elspeth Reoch, Embryo, Enfield Town, English overseas possessions, Epidemic typhus, Essequibo (colony), Essequibo River, Familia Caritatis, Father Christmas, Feast of Fools, February, February 1, February 12, February 13, February 14, February 15, February 18, February 19, February 2, February 24, February 25, February 27, February 28, Ferdinand Bol, Ferdinando Gorges, Flight of the Earls, Florence, Fort Kyk-Over-Al, Fortunio Liceti, François de Vendôme, Duc de Beaufort, Frances Carr, Countess of Somerset, Francesco Albani, Francesco Barbaro (patriarch of Aquileia), Franche-Comté, Francis Beaumont, Francis de Sales, Francisco Caldeira Castelo Branco, Frankfurt, Frascati, Frederick III, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Frederick of Hesse-Darmstadt, Frederick, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, French America, Galileo Galilei, Geneva, Genoa, George Carey (c. 1541–1616), George Courthope, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, George Wild, Georgians, Giacomo Castelvetro, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, Giovan Battista Nani, Giulio Cesare Casseri, Great Lakes, Greenwich, Guido Reni, Guillaume Fouquet de la Varenne, Gunpowder Plot, Gustav of Vasaborg, Guyana, György Thurzó, Habsburg Monarchy, Hanged, drawn and quartered, Hanging, Hans Meinhard von Schönberg, Hartog Plate, Heliocentrism, Hendrick Christiaensen, Henry Bard, 1st Viscount Bellomont, Henry Baynton (died 1616), Henry Briggs (mathematician), Henry Clinton, 2nd Earl of Lincoln, Henry F. 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A Description of New England (in full: A description of New England, or, Observations and discoveries in the north of America in the year of Our Lord 1614, with the success of six ships that went the next year, 1615) is a work written by John Smith and published in 1616 as a propaganda piece advertising the fertile land, abundant resources and general plenitude that was to be found in the New World.
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns refers to the four campaigns Safavid king Abbas I led between 1614-1617, in his East Georgian vassal kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18).
Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.
Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City.
This battle took place on December 1615 off La Goulette, Tunisia, and was a victory for a Spanish privateer squadron under Francisco de Ribera over a Tunisian fleet.
Adam Hieronim Sieniawski (ca. 1576–1616) was a Polish–Lithuanian noble.
Agnes Hedwig of Anhalt (12 March 1573, Dessau – 3 November 1616, Sønderborg) was a Princess of Anhalt by birth, an Abbess of Gernrode, and by marriage Electress of Saxony and later Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön.
Ahmad ibn al-Qadi or Ibn al-Qadi,(December 18, 1552December 6, 1616), fully Shihab al-Din abu l-‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Mohammed ibn Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn Ali ibn 'Abd er-Rahman ibn Abi'l-' Afiyya el-Miknasi ez-Zanati, was the leading writer from Ahmad al-Mansur's court in Morocco next to Abd al-Aziz al-Fishtali.
Ahmed I (احمد اول; I.; 18 April 1590 – 22 November 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.
Ajmer (अजमेर) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Aleixo de Abreu (Alcáçovas do Alentejo, Portugal, 1568–Lisbon, Portugal, 1630) was a Portuguese physician and tropical pathologist.
Aleksander Józef Lisowski HNG (c. 1580 – October 11, 1616) was a Polish–Lithuanian noble (szlachcic), commander of a mercenary group that after his death adopted the name "Lisowczycy." His coat of arms was ''Jeż'' (Hedgehog).
Alexander Morus (or Moir or More) (25 September 1616, Castres - 28 September 1670, Paris) was a Franco-Scottish Calvinist preacher.
Alexander von Bournonville, Alexander de Bournonville, Alexander II Hyppolite, Prince of Bournonville and third Count of Hénin-Liétard (Brussels, 5 January 1616 – Pamplona, 20 August 1690) was a Flemish military man.
Alexander Whitaker (1585–1616) was an English Anglican theologian who settled in North America in Virginia Colony in 1611 and established two churches near the Jamestown colony, and was known as "The Apostle of Virginia" by contemporaries.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
Ambrose Edward Barlow, O.S.B., (1585 – 10 September 1641) was an English Benedictine monk who is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
An English Expositor: teaching the interpretation of the hardest words used in our language, with sundry explications, descriptions and discourses is a dictionary of hard words compiled by John Bullokar and first published in London in 1616.
Anders Sørensen Vedel (9 November 1542 – 13 February 1616) at Kalliope.org was a Danish priest and historian.
Andreas Gryphius (2 October 161616 July 1664) was a German lyric poet and dramatist.
Andreas Libavius or Andrew Libavius (c. 1555 – 25 July 1616) was a German physician and chemist.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anna de' Medici (21 July 1616 – 11 September 1676) was a daughter of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his wife Maria Maddalena of Austria.
Anna of Nassau-Dillenburg (21 September 1541 in Dillenburg – 12 February 1616 in Weilburg) was a daughter of Count William "the Rich" of Nassau-Dillenburg and his second wife, Juliana of Stolberg.
Anna of Württemberg (Anna Wirtemberska; 12 June 1561 in Stuttgart – 7 July 1616 in Chojnów), was a German princess, member of the House of Württemberg, and by her two marriages Duchess of Oława-Wołów and Legnica.
Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 15 and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven.
Father António Vieyra (6 February 1608, Lisbon, Portugal18 July 1697, Bahia, Portuguese Colony of Brazil) was a Portuguese diplomat, orator, preacher, philosopher, writer, and member of the Royal Council to the King of Portugal.
Antoinette Bourignon de la Porte (13 January 161630 October 1680) was a French-Flemish mystic and adventurer.
Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra (July 10, 1616 – February 2, 1668) was a Spanish Baroque painter, sculptor, and poet.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
Maximilian Ernest of Austria (17 November 1583 – 18 February 1616), was a German prince member of the House of Habsburg and by birth Archduke of Austria.
Sir Archibald Primrose, 1st Baronet, Lord Carrington (16 May 1616 – 27 November 1679) was a notable Scottish lawyer, judge, and Cavalier.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or a region of Earth.
It is the peak of the Perseid meteor shower.
This day marks the approximate midpoint of summer in the Northern Hemisphere and of winter in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the June solstice).
Baffin Bay (Inuktitut: Saknirutiak Imanga; Avannaata Imaa; Baie de Baffin), located between Baffin Island and the southwest coast of Greenland, is a marginal sea of the North Atlantic Ocean.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
The Barberini were a family of the Italian nobility that rose to prominence in 17th century Rome.
Belém (Portuguese for Bethlehem), is a Brazilian city, the capital and largest city of the state of Pará in the country's north.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
The folio collections of Ben Jonson's works published in the seventeenth century were crucial developments in the publication of English literature and English Renaissance drama.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Bernardino Realino (1 December 1530 – 2 July 1616) was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Jesuits.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Founded in 1892, The Bibliographical Society is the senior learned society dealing with the study of the book and its history in the United Kingdom.
Biddeford is a city in York County, Maine, United States.
Brechtgien "Birgitta" Durell, née von Crakow or von Cracauw (1619 in Hoorn, the Netherlands – 1683 in Sweden) was a Swedish (originally Dutch) industrialist.
Biscay (Bizkaia; Vizcaya) is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay.
The Bismarck Sea (Bismarcksee) lies in the southwestern Pacific Ocean within the nation of Papua New Guinea.
Blackfriars Theatre was the name given to two separate theatres located in the former Blackfriars Dominican priory in the City of London during the Renaissance.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Cabinets of curiosities (also known in German loanwords as Kunstkabinett, Kunstkammer or Wunderkammer; also Cabinets of Wonder, and wonder-rooms) were encyclopedic collections of objects whose categorical boundaries were, in Renaissance Europe, yet to be defined.
Cesar Pietersz, or Cesar Boetius van Everdingen (1616/17 – buried 13 October 1678), older brother of Allart van Everdingen and Jan van Everdingen, was a Dutch Golden Age portrait and history painter.
Camillo Astalli (21 October 1616 – 21 December 1663) was an Italian Catholic Cardinal and Cardinal-Nephew of Pope Innocent X who served Cardinal Priest of San Pietro in Montorio (1653–1662), Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1661–1662), and Archbishop (personal title) of Catania (1661–1663). Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Cape Horn (Cabo de Hornos) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.
Carlo (or Carlino) Dolci (25 May 1616 – 17 January 1686) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in Florence, known for highly finished religious pictures, often repeated in many versions.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Charles Albanel (1616 – 11 January 1696), born in Ardes or Auvergne, was a French missionary explorer in Canada, and a Jesuit priest.
Princely Count Charles of Arenberg, duke of Aarschot (jure uxoris), baron of Zevenbergen, knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, (Vollenhove, 22 February 1550 – Enghien, 18 January 1616) was the second Princely Count of Arenberg and a leading aristocrat of the Habsburg Netherlands, who served as a courtier, soldier, minister and diplomat.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles Philippe de Rodoan, or in Dutch Karel Filips de Rodoan (1552–1616), was the third bishop of Middelburg and the fourth bishop of Bruges.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
Christen Lauritsen Aagaard (27 or 28 January 1616, Viborg, Denmark — 5 February 1664, Ribe), was a Danish poet.
Christian Günther II, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen-Arnstadt (1 April 1616 – 10 September 1666) was Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershousen.
Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau (baptised December 25, 1616 – April 4, 1679) was a German poet of the Baroque era.
Christian IV (Christian den Fjerde; 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648), sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648.
Countess Palatine Christina Magdalena of Kleeburg (27 May 1616– 14 August 1662) of the House of Wittelsbach, Margravine of Baden-Durlach.
Christmas, His Masque, also called Christmas His Show, was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and performed at the English royal court at Christmas of 1616.
Christoph Scheiner SJ (25 July 1573 (or 1575) – 18 June 1650) was a Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer in Ingolstadt.
Christopher Newport (1561–1617) was an English seaman and privateer.
A church is a Christian religious organization or congregation or community that meets in a particular location.
The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz (Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosencreutz anno 1459) is a German book edited in 1616 in Strasbourg.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
The Collegium Musicum was one of several types of musical societies that arose in German and German-Swiss cities and towns during the Reformation and thrived into the mid-18th century.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
A comptroller is a management level position responsible for supervising the quality of accounting and financial reporting of an organization.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Cornelis or Cornelius Ketel (18 March 1548 – 8 August 1616) was a Dutch Mannerist painter, active in Elizabethan London from 1573 to 1581, and in Amsterdam from 1581 to the early 17th century, now known essentially as a portrait-painter, though he was also a poet and orator, and from 1595 began to sculpt as well.
Cornelis Floriszoon Schuyt (1557 – 9 June 1616) was a Dutch organist and Renaissance composer.
Countess Maria of Nassau (7 February 1556, Breda – 10 October 1616, Buren) was the second daughter of William the Silent by his first wife Anna of Egmond and Buren.
The Court of King's Bench (or Court of Queen's Bench during the reign of a female monarch), formally known as The Court of the King Before the King Himself, was an English court of common law in the English legal system.
Examples of credentials include academic diplomas, academic degrees, certifications, security clearances, identification documents, badges, passwords, user names, keys, powers of attorney, and so on.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
December is the twelfth and final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and is the seventh and last of seven months to have a length of 31 days.
It is known by a collection of names including: Saint Sylvester's Day, New Year's Eve or Old Years Day/Night, as the following day is New Year's Day.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
Devon Island (Inuit: Tatlurutit) is an island in Canada and the largest uninhabited island on Earth.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
Dirk Hartog (baptized 30 October 1580, Amsterdam – buried 11 October 1621, Amsterdam) was a 17th-century Dutch sailor and explorer.
Dirk Hartog Island is an island off the Gascoyne coast of Western Australia, within the Shark Bay World Heritage Area.
Discovery or Discoverie was a small 20-ton, 38 foot (12 m) long "fly-boat" of the British East India Company, launched before 1602.
Douai (Dowaai; historically "Doway" in English) is a commune in the Nord département in northern France.
Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango (Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango) (Tepehuan: Korian) (Nahuatl: Tepēhuahcān), is a Mexican state.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The peerage title Earl of Buckingham was created several times in the Peerage of England.
The Earldom of Pembroke is a title in the Peerage of England that was first created in the 12th century by King Stephen of England.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
Edward Chamberlayne (13 December 1616 – May 1703) was an English writer, known as the author of The Present State of England.
Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
Colonel Edward Sexby or Saxby (1616 – 13 January 1658) was an English Puritan soldier and Leveller in the army of Oliver Cromwell.
The Eendracht (Concord) was an early 17th Century Dutch wooden-hulled 700 tonne East Indiaman, launched in 1615 in the service of the Dutch East India Company(VOC).
El Dorado (Spanish for "the golden one"), originally El Hombre Dorado ("The Golden Man") or El Rey Dorado ("The Golden King"), was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca native people of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Elspeth Reoch (died Kirkwall 1616) was an alleged Scottish witch.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Enfield Town, also known as Enfield, is the historic centre of the London Borough of Enfield.
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters.
Essequibo (Dutch: Essequebo) was a Dutch colony on the Essequibo River in the Guiana region on the north coast of South America from 1616 to 1814.
The Essequibo River (Río Esequibo) is the largest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon.
The Familia Caritatis, also known as the Familists, was a mystic religious sect founded in the sixteenth century by Henry Nicholis, also known as Niclaes.
Father Christmas is the traditional English name for the personification of Christmas.
The Feast of Fools (festum fatuorum, festum stultorum) is the name given to a specific feast day celebrated by the clergy in Europe, initially in Northern France, but later more widely.
February is the second and shortest month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day.
For superstitious reasons, when the Romans began to intercalate to bring their calendar into line with the solar year, they chose not to place their extra month of Mercedonius after February but within it.
Ferdinand Bol (24 June 1616 – 24 August 1680) was a Dutch painter, etcher and draftsman.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges (– 24 May 1647) was a naval and military commander and governor of the important port of Plymouth in England.
The Flight of the Earls (Irish: Imeacht na nIarlaí) took place on 4 September 1607, when Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone and Red Hugh O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, and about ninety followers left Ulster in Ireland for mainland Europe.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Fort Kyk-Over-Al was a Dutch fort in the colony of Essequibo, in what is now Guyana.
Fortunio Liceti (Latin: Fortunius Licetus; October 3, 1577 – May 17, 1657), was an Italian physician and philosopher.
François de Vendôme, Duc de Beaufort (16 January 1616 – 15 June 1669) was the son of César de Vendôme and Françoise de Lorraine.
Frances Carr, Countess of Somerset (31 May 1590 – 23 August 1632), born Frances Howard, was an English noblewoman who was the central figure in a famous scandal and murder during the reign of King James I. She was found guilty but spared execution, and was eventually pardoned by the King and released from the Tower of London in early 1622.
Francesco Albani or Albano (17 March or 17 August 1578 – 4 October 1660) was an Italian Baroque painter who was active in Bologna (1591–1600), Rome (1600–1609), Bologna (1609), Viterbo (1609–1610), Bologna (1610), Rome (1610–1617), Bologna (1618–1660), Mantova (1621–1622), Roma (1623–1625) and Florence (1633).
Francesco Barbaro (March 16, 1546 in Venice – April 27, 1616 in Udine) was a Venetian diplomat and an Italian Catholic bishop He was the great-grandson of Francesco Barbaro and son of Marcantonio Barbaro.
Franche-Comté (literally "Free County", Frainc-Comtou dialect: Fraintche-Comtè; Franche-Comtât; Freigrafschaft; Franco Condado) is a former administrative region and a traditional province of eastern France.
Francis Beaumont (1584 – 6 March 1616) was a dramatist in the English Renaissance theatre, most famous for his collaborations with John Fletcher.
Francis de Sales (François de Sales; Francesco di Sales); 21 August 156728 December 1622) was a Bishop of Geneva and is honored as a saint in the Catholic Church. He became noted for his deep faith and his gentle approach to the religious divisions in his land resulting from the Protestant Reformation. He is known also for his writings on the topic of spiritual direction and spiritual formation, particularly the Introduction to the Devout Life and the Treatise on the Love of God.
Francisco Caldeira Castelo Branco (1566–1619) was a Portuguese Captain-major, founder of the city of Belém, capital of Pará (Brazil), on January 12, 1616.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frascati is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Lazio region of central Italy.
Frederick III, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1 May 1616, Ansbach – 6 September 1634, Nördlingen) was a German nobleman.
Frederick of Hesse-Darmstadt (28 February 1616 – 19 February 1682) was a German protestant and soldier who converted to Catholicism, became a Cardinal and was appointed Crown-cardinal of Austria.
Frederick (Friedrich) (5 April 1616 – 9 July 1661) was the Duke of Zweibrücken from 1635 until 1661.
French America is the French-speaking community of people and their diaspora, notably those tracing back origins to New France, the early French colonization of the Americas.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Sir George Cary (c. 1541 – 15 February 1616), of Cockington in the parish of Tor Mohun in Devon, was an English administrator and Member of Parliament who held various offices in Ireland.
Sir George Courthorpe (3 June 1616 – 18 November 1685) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1656 and 1679.
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628), was an English courtier, statesman, and patron of the arts.
George Wyldemonumental inscriptions, church of St Peter de Witton Droitwich (1550 – 27 March 1616).
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Giacomo Castelvetro (25 March 1546 – 21 March 1616) was an Italian refugee, humanist, teacher and travel writer.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.
Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, 7th Earl of Waterford, KG (20 November 1552 – 8 May 1616) was a peer in the peerage of England.
Giovan Battista Nani (30 August 1616, Venice – 5 November 1678, Venice), in French Jean Baptiste Felix Gaspard Nani, was a Venetian ambassador, librarian, archivist, amateur botanist and historian, born into a patrician family.
Giulio Cesare Casseri (1552, Piacenza, Italy – 8 March 1616, Padua, Italy), also written as Giulio Casser, Iulius Casserius, Giulio Casserio, Giulio Casserio of Piacenza, was an Italian anatomist.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.
Guido Reni (4 November 1575 – 18 August 1642) was an Italian painter of high-Baroque style.
Guillaume Fouquet de la Varenne (1560 in La Flèche – 7 December 1616) was a French chef who became an important statesman in the service of Henry IV.
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.
Count Gustav Gustavsson of Vasaborg, 1st Count of Nystad (April 24, 1616 – October 25, 1653) was an illegitimate son of King Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav II Adolf) and his mistress Margareta Slots.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
György Thurzó (Juraj Turzo, 2 September 1567 – 24 December 1616) was a powerful Hungarian magnate, who served as the Palatine of Hungary between 1609 and 1616.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272).
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.
Count Hans Meinhard von Schönberg auf Wesel (German: Graf Hans Meinhard von Schönberg auf Wesel) (August 28, 1582 – August 3, 1616) was a German nobleman and soldier, who served as hofmeister of Frederick V, Elector Palatine.
Hartog Plate or Dirk Hartog's Plate is either of two plates, although primarily the first, which were left on Dirk Hartog Island during a period of European exploration of the western coast of Australia prior to European settlement there.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Hendrick Christiaensen (died 1619) was a Dutch explorer who was involved in the earlier exploration of what became the colony of New Netherland.
Henry Bard, 1st Viscount Bellomont (1616 – June 20, 1656) was an English Royalist.
Sir Henry Baynton or Bayntun (c. 1571 – 24 September 1616) was an English politician.
Henry Briggs (February 1561 – 26 January 1630) was an English mathematician notable for changing the original logarithms invented by John Napier into common (base 10) logarithms, which are sometimes known as Briggsian logarithms in his honour.
Henry Clinton or Fiennes, 2nd Earl of Lincoln, KB (1539 – 29 September 1616) was an English peer, styled 10th Baron Clinton from 1572 to 1585.
Henry Farmer Dobyns, Jr. (July 3, 1925 – June 21, 2009) was an anthropologist, author and researcher specializing in the ethnohistory and demography of native peoples in the American hemisphere.
Henry Lennard, 12th Baron Dacre (25 March 1570 – 8 August 1616) was an English baron and politician.
Sir Henry Mainwaring (1587–1653), was an English lawyer, soldier, author, seaman and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1621 to 1622.
Sir Henry Poole (1541 – 31 August 1616) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1593.
Henry Robinson (c. 1553 – 19 June 1616) was an English cleric who served as Bishop of Carlisle from 1598 to 1616.
Herbert Morley (2 April 1616 – 29 September 1667) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1640 and 1667.
Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".
, historically known as Firando is a city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
was a commander and daimyō in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu in Japan during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Hortus Botanicus is a botanical garden in the Plantage district of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
(October 15, 1616 – July 2, 1700) was a Japanese daimyō of the Edo period, who ruled the Iino Domain.
Hugh O'Neill (Irish: Aodh Mór Ó Néill; literally Hugh The Great O'Neill; c. 1550 – 20 July 1616), was an Irish Gaelic lord, Earl of Tyrone (known as the Great Earl) and was later created The Ó Néill.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
In canon law, commendam (or in commendam) was a form of transferring an ecclesiastical benefice in trust to the custody of a patron.
Garcilaso de la Vega (12 April 1539 – 23 April 1616), born Gómez Suárez de Figueroa and known as El Inca or Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, was a chronicler and writer born in the Spanish Empire's Viceroyalty of Peru.
The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, or contrary to morality by the Sacred Congregation of the Index (a former Dicastery of the Roman Curia) and thus Catholics were forbidden to read them.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant English architect (of Welsh ancestry) in the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings.
The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Isaac Beeckman (10 December 1588 – 19 May 1637) was a Dutch philosopher and scientist, who, through his studies and contact with leading natural philosophers, may have "virtually given birth to modern atomism".
Isaack Luttichuys (25 February 1616 (baptized) – 6 March 1673 (buried)) was a Dutch Golden Age painter.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Count István Esterházy de Galántha (Count Stephen Esterházy of Galántha; 27 February 1616 – 4 July 1641) was a member of the wealthy Hungarian Esterházy family, eldest son of Palatine Nicholas Esterházy and his first wife, Baroness Orsolya Dersffy.
was an old province of Japan in the area that is today the western part of Shimane Prefecture.
Jacob Le Maire (c. 1585, Antwerp or Amsterdam - 22 December 1616, at sea) was a Dutch mariner who circumnavigated the earth in 1615 and 1616.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
James Livingstone, 1st Viscount Kilsyth (25 June 1616 – 7 September 1661), was a devoted Scottish Royalist who was raised to the peerage of Scotland as Viscount Kilsyth and Lord Campsie in 1661.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jan Kazimierz Chodkiewicz (1616–1660) was a Polonized Lithuanian nobleman (szlachcic).
Jan Szczęsny Herburt (12 January 1567 – 31 December 1616) was a Polish political writer, diplomat and a member of the Polish Sejm.
January 1 is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar.
In the ancient astronomy, it is the cusp day between Capricorn and Aquarius.
Perihelion, the point during the year when the Earth is closest to the Sun, occurs around this date.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jeremias Felbinger (27 April 1616 – c. 1690) was a German Socinian writer, teacher, and lexicographer.
Prince Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski (20 January 1616 – 31 December 1667) was a Polish noble (szlachcic), magnate, politician and military commander.
In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter (also known as jewry, juiverie, Judengasse, Jewynstreet, or proto-ghetto) is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews.
Johann Erasmus Kindermann (29 March 1616 – 14 April 1655) was a German Baroque organist and composer.
Johann Jakob Froberger (baptized 19 May 1616 – 7 May 1667) was a German Baroque composer, keyboard virtuoso, and organist.
Johann Klaj (Latinized Clajus) (161616 February 1656) is a German poet.
Johann Paul Freiherr von Hocher (12 August 1616 Freiburg (then in Austria) - 28 February 1683 Vienna) was an Austrian jurist and Supreme Court Chancellor (Hofkanzler) to the Emperor Leopold I.
Johann Goldsmid, better known by his Latinized name Johann(es) Fabricius (8 January 1587 – 19 March 1616), eldest son of David Fabricius (1564–1617), was a Frisian/German astronomer and a discoverer of sunspots (in 1610), independently of Galileo Galilei.
Johannes Gysius (born about 1583 – died 1652) was a Dutch historian and minister.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Johann Richter or Johannes Praetorius (1537 – 27 October 1616) was a Bohemian German mathematician and astronomer.
Johannes Valentinus Andreae (17 August 1586 – 27 June 1654), a.k.a. Johannes Valentinus Andreä or Johann Valentin Andreae, was a German theologian, who claimed to be the author of an ancient text known as the Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosencreutz anno 1459 (published in 1616, Strasbourg, as the Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz).
Johann Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (27 February 1575 – 31 March 1616) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.
Sir John Birkenhead or Berkenhead (c.1617 – 4 December 1679) was a British political writer and journalist, imprisoned several times during the Commonwealth for his obtrusive royalism.
John Bullokar (1574–1627) was an English physician and lexicographer.
Sir John Coke (5 March 1563 – 8 September 1644) was an English office holder and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1629.
John Cotta (1575–1650) was a physician in England and author of books and other texts on medicine and witchcraft.
John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.
John Fletcher (1579–1625) was a Jacobean playwright.
John Hervey (18 August 1616 – 18 January 1680) was an English courtier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1661 to 1679.
John Higginson (born Claybrooke, Leicester, England, 6 August 1616; died Salem, Massachusetts, 9 December 1708) was a clergyman.
John Leverett (baptized 7 July 1616 – 16 March 1678/9In the Julian calendar, then in use in England, the year began on March 25. To avoid confusion with dates in the Gregorian calendar, then in use in other parts of Europe, dates between January and March were often written with both years. Dates in this article are in the Julian calendar unless otherwise noted.) was an English colonial magistrate, merchant, soldier and the penultimate governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
John Maitland, 1st Duke and 2nd Earl of Lauderdale, 3rd Lord Thirlestane KG PC (24 May 1616, Lethington, East Lothian – 24 August 1682), was a Scottish politician, and leader within the Cabal Ministry.
John Napier of Merchiston (1550 – 4 April 1617); also signed as Neper, Nepair; nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston) was a Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He was the 8th Laird of Merchiston. His Latinized name was Ioannes Neper. John Napier is best known as the discoverer of logarithms. He also invented the so-called "Napier's bones" and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics. Napier's birthplace, Merchiston Tower in Edinburgh, is now part of the facilities of Edinburgh Napier University. Napier died from the effects of gout at home at Merchiston Castle and his remains were buried in the kirkyard of St Giles. Following the loss of the kirkyard there to build Parliament House, he was memorialised at St Cuthbert's at the west side of Edinburgh.
John Owen (161624 August 1683) was an English Nonconformist church leader, theologian, and academic administrator at the University of Oxford.
John Pitts (also Pits, Pitseus) (1560 – 17 October 1616) was an English Roman Catholic scholar and writer.
John Rolfe (1585–1622) was one of the early English settlers of North America.
Sir John Scott (1570 – 24 September 1616), of Scot's Hall in Kent, was an English soldier, Member of Parliament (MP) and an early investor in the Colony of Virginia.
John Smith (bapt. 6 January 1580 – 21 June 1631) was an English soldier, explorer, colonial governor, Admiral of New England, and author.
John Speed (1551 or 1552 – 28 July 1629) was an English cartographer and historian.
John Thurloe (June 1616 – 21 February 1668) of Great Milton in Oxfordshire and of Lincoln's Inn, was a secretary to the council of state in Protectorate England and spymaster for Oliver Cromwell.
John Vaughan, 1st Earl of Carbery (1574 or 1575 – 6 May 1634) was a Welsh courtier and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1601 and from 1621 to 1622.
John Wallis (3 December 1616 – 8 November 1703) was an English clergyman and mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.
Joseph Beaumont (13 March 1616 – 23 November 1699) was an English clergyman, academic and poet.
Joseph Le Caron, O.M.R., (c. 1586 near Paris – March 29, 1632 in Gisors, France) was one of the four pioneer missionaries of Canada, (together with Father Denis Jamet, Father Jean Dolbeau, and Brother Pacifique du Plessis, all Recollect friars), and was the first missionary to the Hurons.
Juan de Silva (died April 19, 1616, Malacca) was a Spanish military commander and governor of the Philippines, from April 1609 until his death on April 19, 1616.
This day is the midpoint of a common year because there are 182 days before and 182 days after it in common years, and 183 before and 182 after in leap years.
The terms 7th July, July 7th, and 7/7 (pronounced "Seven-seven") have been widely used in the Western media as a shorthand for the 7 July 2005 bombings on London's transport system.
In common years it is always in ISO week 26.
Kamalakara (1616–1700), an Indian astronomer and mathematician, came from a learned family of scholars from Golagrāma, a village on the northern bank of the river Godāvarī.
Kaspar Förster (also Caspar Foerster) (baptized 28 February 1616 in Danzig – 2 February 1673 in Oliva, near Danzig) was a German singer and composer.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
King James's School is located on King James Road, Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, England.
The King's Men was the acting company to which William Shakespeare (1564–1616) belonged for most of his career.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
Knaresborough is an historic market town, spa town and civil parish in the Borough of Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England.
Krzysztof Klabon (c. 1550 – c. 1616) was a Polish Renaissance composer, lutenist, and singer.
Kuzma (Kozma) Minin (Кузьма́ (Козьма́) Ми́нин; full name Kuzma Minich Zakhariev-Sukhoruky, Кузьма́ Ми́нич Заха́рьев Сухору́кий; died 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early 17th century.
Lake Sevan (Սևանա լիճ, Sevana lič̣) is the largest body of water in Armenia and the Caucasus region.
Lancaster Sound (Inuktitut "Tallurutiup Imanga") is a body of water in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada.
Lancelot Andrewes (155525 September 1626) was an English bishop and scholar, who held high positions in the Church of England during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. During the latter's reign, Andrewes served successively as Bishop of Chichester, of Ely, and of Winchester and oversaw the translation of the King James Version of the Bible (or Authorized Version).
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leonhard Hutter (also Hütter, Latinized as Hutterus; 19 January 1563 – 23 October 1616) was a German Lutheran theologian.
The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in London to which barristers of England and Wales belong and where they are called to the Bar.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the head of the judiciary and President of the Courts of England and Wales.
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation.
Louis IV of Legnica (Ludwik IV legnicki; Brzeg, 19 April 1616 – Legnica, 24 November 1663) was a Duke of Brzeg from 1633 (together with his brothers until 1654), of Wołów (during 1653-1654 with his brothers) and of Legnica from 1653 (until 1654 with his brothers, after this alone).
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
Lucas Franchoys the Younger or Lucas Franchoys II (alternative spellings of name: Lucas Franchois, Lucas François, Louis Franchoys) (28 June 1616 in Mechelen – 3 April 1681 in Mechelen) was a Flemish Baroque painter from Mechelen, who painted numerous altarpieces and portraits in a style reminiscent of Anthony van Dyck.
Homage to Giulio Cesare Vanini at the place of his death. Lucilio Vanini (15859 February 1619), who, in his works, styled himself Giulio Cesare Vanini, was an Italian philosopher, physician and free-thinker, who was one of the first significant representatives of intellectual libertinism.
The Lumleian Lectures are a series of annual lectures started in 1582 by the Royal College of Physicians of London and currently run by the Lumleian Trust.
Macbeth (full title The Tragedy of Macbeth) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606.
Magdalene of Brandenburg, also Magdalene and Magdalen, (7 January 1582 – 4 May 1616) was the daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and his third wife Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
Maranhão is a northeastern state of Brazil.
Marc Restout (14 February 1616, Caen - 3 April 1684, Caen) was a French painter.
March is the third month of the year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
In astrology, the day of the equinox is the first full day of the sign of Aries.
Marco Antonio de Dominis (Markantun de Dominis) (1560September 1624) was a Dalmatian ecclesiastic, Catholic archbishop, adjudged heretic of the Catholic Faith, and man of science.
Margaret Clifford (née Russell), Countess of Cumberland (7 July 1560 – 24 May 1616) was an English noblewoman and maid of honor to Elizabeth I. Lady Margaret was born in Exeter, England to Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford and Margaret St John.
Margareta Slots or Margareta Cabiljau (died 1669) was the royal mistress of king Gustav II Adolf of Sweden and the mother of his illegitimate son Gustav of Vasaborg.
Maria Anna of Bavaria (18 December 1574 – 8 March 1616), was German princess member of the House of Wittelsbach by birth and Archduchess of Inner Austria by marriage.
The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations.
Martin Lluelyn (1616–1682) (alias Llewellin) was a poet and physician of probable Welsh ancestry.
The masque was a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy, in forms including the intermedio (a public version of the masque was the pageant).
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, still is) a position of varying importance in several European nations.
was a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period through early Edo period who was the daimyō of Ezochi (Hokkaidō).
Mathias de l'Obel, Mathias de Lobel or Matthaeus Lobelius (1538 – 3 March 1616) was a Flemish physician and botanist who was born in Lille, Flanders, in what is now Nord-Pas de Calais, France, and died at Highgate, London, England.
Matthias Weckmann (Weckman) (probably 161624 February 1674) was a German musician and composer of the Baroque period.
Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611.
Maurizio Cazzati (1 March 1616 – 28 September 1678) was a northern Italian composer of the seventeenth century.
Mayon (Bulkan Mayon, Bulkang Mayon, Monte Mayón), also known as Mayon Volcano or Mount Mayon, is an active stratovolcano in the province of Albay in Bicol Region, on the large island of Luzon in the Philippines.
The mechanical philosophy is a natural philosophy describing the universe as similar to a large-scale mechanism.
Meir Lublin or Meir ben Gedalia (1558 – 1616) was a Polish rabbi, Talmudist and Posek ("decisor of Jewish law").
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
Middelburg is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middlesex (abbreviation: Middx) is an historic county in south-east England.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Mikalojus Kristupas Radvila Našlaitėlis) (2 Augustus 1549 – 28 February 1616) and nicknamed "the Orphan" (Sierotka, Našlaitėlis), was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman (szlachcic), Ordynat of Nieśwież from 1586, Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1569, Grand Marshal of Lithuania from 1579, castellan of Trakai from 1586, voivode of Trakai Voivodeship from 1590, voivode of Vilnius Voivodeship from 1604 and governor of Šiauliai.
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.
Minaret (مناره, minarə, minare), from منارة, "lighthouse", also known as Goldaste (گلدسته), is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques.
Mocha (المخا Yemeni pronunciation) is a port city on the Red Sea coast of Yemen.
Mohammad Baqer Majlesi (1627–1699) (علامه مجلسی Allameh Majlesi; also Romanized as: Majlesi, Majlessi, Majlisi, Madjlessi), known as Allamah Majlesi or Majlesi Al-Thani (Majlesi the Second), was a renowned and very powerful Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric, during the Safavid era.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
was a Japanese daimyō of the early Edo period, who ruled the Hasunoike Domain in Hizen Province (modern-day Saga Prefecture).
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Nathaniel Courthope (born 1585;– died October 20 est., 1620) his name was sometimes written as Courthopp and was an English East India Company officer involved in the wars with the Netherlands and Dutch over the spice trade.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Ngawang Namgyal (later granted the honorific Zhabdrung Rinpoche approximately at whose feet one submits) (alternate spellings include Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyel; 1594–1651) and known colloquially as the Bearded Lama, was a Tibetan Buddhist lama and the unifier of Bhutan as a nation-state.
Nicholas Culpeper (probably born at Ockley, Surrey, 18 October 1616 – died at Spitalfields, London, 10 January 1654) was an English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer.
Nicholas Dennys (13 November 1616 – 31 May 1692) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1678.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nicolás de Villacis (9 September 1616 – 8 April 1694) was a Spanish Baroque painter from Murcia, a disciple of Diego Velázquez.
The Northwest Passage (abbreviated as NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Nueva Vizcaya (Probinsia ti Nueva Vizcaya; Probinsia na Nueva Vizcaya; Lalawigan ng Nueva Vizcaya) is a province of the Philippines located in Cagayan Valley region in Luzon, though it is geographically and culturally part of the Cordilleras.
Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Obadiah Walker (161621 January 1699) was an English academic and Master of University College, Oxford from 1676 to 1688.
October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.
The Odawa (also Ottawa or Odaawaa), said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who primarily inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada.
Ole Worm (13 May 1588 – 31 August 1654), who often went by the Latinized form of his name Olaus Wormius, was a Danish physician, natural historian and antiquary.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Orlando Gibbons (baptised 25 December 1583 – 5 June 1625) was an English composer, virginalist and organist of the late Tudor and early Jacobean periods.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
() is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
Papist is a pejorative term referring to the Roman Catholic Church, its teachings, practices, or adherents.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
The Tabacco people, Tobacco nation, the Petun, or Tionontati in their Iroquoian language, were a historical First Nations band government closely related to the Huron Confederacy (Wendat).
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy.
Philip Henslowe (c. 1550 – 6 January 1616) was an Elizabethan theatrical entrepreneur and impresario.
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Philipp Christoph Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (24 June 1616 in Hechingen – 24 January 1671 in Hechingen) was a German nobleman.
Philippe Balthazar de Gand (4 October 1616 - 27 February 1680), Count of Isenghien, was a French nobleman and Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pierre Vernier (19 August 1580 at Ornans, Franche-Comté, Spanish Habsburgs (now France) – 14 September 1637, same location) was a French mathematician and instrument inventor.
Pietro della Valle (2 April 1586 – 21 April 1652) was an Italian composer, musicologist, and author who traveled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Pocahontas (born Matoaka, known as Amonute, 1596 – March 1617) was a Native American woman notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.
The British Poet Laureate is an honorary position appointed by the monarch of the United Kingdom on the advice of the Prime Minister.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope Paul V (Paulus V; Paolo V) (17 September 1550 – 28 January 1621), born Camillo Borghese, was Pope from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621.
The Powhatan People (sometimes Powhatans) (also spelled Powatan) are an Indigenous group traditionally from Virginia.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quarto (abbreviated Qto, 4to or 4°) is a book or pamphlet produced from full "blanksheets", each of which is printed with eight pages of text, four to a side, then folded twice to produce four leaves (that is, eight book pages).
Queen's House is a former royal residence built between 1616 and 1635 in Greenwich, a few miles down-river from the then City of London and now a London Borough.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Richard Hakluyt (1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer.
The Rijksmuseum (National Museum) is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam.
Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs.
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Robert Bylot was a 17th-century explorer who made four voyages to the Arctic.
Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset (c. 1587 – 17 July 1645), was a politician, and favourite of King James VI and I.
Robert Dormer, 1st Baron Dormer (26 January 1551 – 8 November 1616) was a 17th-century English peer.
Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus (17 January 1574 – 8 September 1637), was a prominent English Paracelsian physician with both scientific and occult interests.
Robert Giguère dit Despins (March 9, 1616 – August 1709) was an early pioneer in New France, one of the founders of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, Quebec and the progenitor of virtually all the Giguères in North America.
Sir Roger L'Estrange (17 December 1616 – 11 December 1704) was an English pamphleteer, author and staunch defender of Royalist claims.
Sir Roger Wilbraham (4 November 1553 – 31 July 1616) was a prominent English lawyer who served as Solicitor-General for Ireland under Elizabeth I and held positions at court under James I, including Master of Requests and surveyor of the Court of Wards and Liveries.
Rosicrucianism is a spiritual and cultural movement which arose in Europe in the early 17th century after the publication of several texts which purported to announce the existence of a hitherto unknown esoteric order to the world and made seeking its knowledge attractive to many.
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).
Run (also known as Pulau Run, Pulo Run, Puloroon, or Rhun) is one of the smallest islands of the Banda Islands, which are a part of Moluccas, Indonesia.
The Saco River is a river in northeastern New Hampshire and southwestern Maine in the United States.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
(1563 – October 21, 1616) was a Japanese daimyō of the early Edo period, who served as lord of the Tsuwano Domain.
Salvador, also known as São Salvador, Salvador de Bahia, and Salvador da Bahia, is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia.
Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
São Luís (Saint Louis) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão.
Sébastien Bourdon (2 February 1616 – 8 May 1671) was a French painter and engraver.
The School Establishment Act 1616 was an Act of the Scottish Privy Council dated 10 December 1616.
Scipione Gentili (Latin: Scipio Gentilis) (1563 – August 7, 1616) was an Italian law professor and a legal writer.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
(May 26, 1597 – March 11, 1666) was the eldest daughter of the shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada and his wife Oeyo.
September is the ninth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the third of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the fourth of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.
Shah Shuja (شاہ شُجاع), (23 June 1616 – unknown) was the second son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and Empress Mumtaz Mahal.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).
(1551–1616) was a monk of the Hongan-ji.
Simeon Bekbulatovich (Симеон Бекбулатович; born Sain-Bulat, Саин-Булат; died 5 January 1616) was a Muslim-born Khan of the Khanate of Qasim.
Sir Edward Bagot, 2nd Baronet (23 May 1616 – 30 May 1673) was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1660.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Smith Sound is an uninhabited Arctic sea passage between Greenland and Canada's northernmost island, Ellesmere Island.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
was a Buddhist monk of the Obaku Zen sect, and was also an accomplished poet and calligrapher.
Sophie Elisabeth of Brandenburg (1 February 1616 at Moritzburg Castle in Halle – 16 March 1650 at Altenburg Castle) was a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.
The States of Holland and West Frisia (Staten van Holland en West-Friesland) were the representation of the two Estates (standen) (Nobility and Commons) to the court of the Count of Holland.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque or Sultan Ahmet Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii) is a historic mosque located in Istanbul, Turkey.
A sundial is a device that tells the time of day when there is sunlight by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky.
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.
The Suwannee River (also spelled Suwanee River) is a major river that runs through South Georgia southward into Florida in the southern United States.
Swiss Guards (Gardes Suisses; Schweizergarde) are the Swiss soldiers who have served as guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tang Xianzu (September 24, 1550 – July 29, 1616), courtesy name Yireng (義仍), was a Chinese playwright of the Ming Dynasty.
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Tepehuán Revolt broke out in Mexico in 1616.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Devil Is an Ass is a Jacobean comedy by Ben Jonson, first performed in 1616 and first published in 1631.
The Golden Age Restored was a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones; it was performed on 1 January and 6 January 1616, almost certainly at Whitehall Palace.
The Scornful Lady is a Jacobean era stage play, a comedy written by Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, and first published in 1616, the year of Beaumont's death.
The Witch is a Jacobean play, a tragicomedy written by Thomas Middleton.
Thomas Atkinson (died 11 March 1616) was an English Roman Catholic priest.
Thomas Bartholin (Latinized: Thomas Bartholinus; 20 October 1616 – 4 December 1680) was a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian.
Thomas Bilson (1547 – 18 June 1616) was an Anglican Bishop of Worcester and Bishop of Winchester.
Sir Thomas Dale (died 19 August 1619) was an English naval commander and deputy-governor of the Virginia Colony in 1611 and from 1614 to 1616.
Thomas Hopkins (1616–1684) was an early settler of Providence Plantations and the great grandfather of Stephen Hopkins who was many times colonial governor of Rhode Island and a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Thomas Jervoise (16 March 1616 – 13 May 1693) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons on two occasions between 1680 and 1689.
Thomas Middleton (baptised 18 April 1580 – July 1627; also spelled Midleton) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet.
Sir Thomas Overbury (baptized 1581 – 14 September 1613) was an English poet and essayist, also known for being the victim of a murder which led to a scandalous trial.
Sir Thomas Parry (1541 – 30 May 1616) was an English politician and diplomat during the Tudor period.
Sir Thomas Roe (c. 1581 – 6 November 1644) was an English diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods.
Thomas Rolfe (January 30, 1615 – 1680?) was the only child of Pocahontas and her English husband, John Rolfe.
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
"To Celia" is a poem first published after March 1616 by Ben Jonson.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
Tommaso Campanella OP (5 September 1568 – 21 May 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was a Dominican friar, Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.
Uttamatomakkin, known as Tomocomo for short, was a Powhatan holy man who accompanied Pocahontas (real name Matoaka, later given the name Rebecca Rolfe) when she was taken to London in 1616.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The was a Japanese clan that ruled over Japan before the Edo period.
The Treaty of Loudun was signed on May 3, 1616, in Loudun, France, and ended the war that originally began as a power struggle between queen mother Marie de Medici's favorite Concino Concini (recently made Marquis d'Ancre) and Henry II de Condé, the next in line for Louis XIII's throne.
Treviso (Venetian: Trevixo) is a city and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.
Trijntje Cornelisdochter Keever (April 10 or 16, 1616 – July 22, 1633), nicknamed De Groote Meid (in English, The Big Girl), is alleged to be the tallest female person in recorded history, standing 9 Amsterdam feet or tall at the time of her death at age seventeen.
The was a Japanese domain of the Edo period.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Udine (Udin, Weiden in Friaul, Utinum, Videm) is a city and comune in northeastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche).
The Copenhagen Zoological Museum (Danish: Zoologisk Museum) is a part of the Natural History Museum of Denmark which consist of four natural science museums.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Poitiers (Université de Poitiers) is a university in Poitiers, France.
The University of Sassari (Università degli Studi di Sassari, UniSS) is a university located in Sassari, Italy.
Urbano Barberini (1664 – 27 September 1722) was an Italian nobleman of the House of Barberini, third hereditary Prince of Palestrina and last legitimate male heir of the Barberini line from Pope Urban VIII.
The Uskok War, also known as the War of Gradisca, was fought by the Austrians and Spanish on one side and the Venetians, Dutch and English on the other.
Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Via del Corso (ancient Via Lata, the urban stretch of Via Flaminia), is a main street in the historical centre of Rome.
A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Sir Vincent Skinner (1543 – 28 February 1616) was an English politician, who sat in Parliament for numerous constituencies.
Vincenz Fettmilch (died 1616) was a grocer and gingerbread baker who led the Fettmilch uprising of the guilds in 1612-1616 to get rid of foreigners (mainly Jews) in the city, whom they viewed as competition and usurers.
Vincenzo Scamozzi (2 September 1548 – 7 August 1616) was an Italian architect and a writer on architecture, active mainly in Vicenza and Republic of Venice area in the second half of the 16th century.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Virginia Company refers collectively to two joint stock companies chartered under James I on 10 April 1606 with the goal of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.
A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.
Willem Cornelisz Schouten (– 1625) was a Dutch navigator for the Dutch East India Company.
William Baffin (– 23 January 1622) was an English navigator and explorer.
William Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Hamilton KG (14 December 1616 – 12 September 1651) was a Scottish nobleman who supported both Royalist and Presbyterian causes during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Sir William Harris (21 September 1556 – 14 November 1616) was an English knight, land owner, and a notable incorporator in the third Virginia Company of London.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
William Holder FRS (1616 – 24 January 1698) was an English clergyman and music theorist of the 17th century.
William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford KG PC (August 1616 – 7 September 1700) was an English nobleman and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he inherited his Peerage as 5th Earl of Bedford and removed to the House of Lords.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
The period of witch trials in Early Modern Europe were a widespread moral panic suggesting that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom during the 16th to 18th centuries.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
Zierikzee is a small city in the southwest Netherlands, 30 km southwest of Rotterdam.
Year 1530 (MDXXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1537 (MDXXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1538 (MDXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1539 (MDXXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1540 (MDXL) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1541 (MDXLI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1542 (MDXLII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1543 (MDXLIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1546 (MDXLVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1547 (MDXLVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1548 (MDXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1549 (MDXLIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1550 (MDL) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1551 (MDLI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1552 (MDLII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1553 (MDLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1555 (MDLV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1556 (MDLVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1557 (MDLVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1558 (MDLVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1559 (MDLIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1560 (MDLX) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1561 (MDLXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1562 (MDLXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1563 (MDLXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1564 (MDLXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1566 (MDLXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1567 (MDLXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1570 (MDLXX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1571 (MDLXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1573 (MDLXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1574 (MDLXXIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1575 (MDLXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1576 (MDLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1580 (MDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.
Year 1582 (MDLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.
1641 is the generally accepted year of the birth of the modern timepiece.
It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+500(D)+100(C)+50(L)+10(X)+(-1(I)+5(V)).
This is the first year to be designated as an Annus mirabilis, in John Dryden's 1667 poem so titled, celebrating England's failure to be beaten either by the Dutch or by fire.
The first year of the ascending Dvapara Yuga.
As of March 1 (O.S. February 19), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 11 days until 1799.
In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Thursday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Friday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Friday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
A highlight was the race for the South Pole.