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1666

Index 1666

This is the first year to be designated as an Annus mirabilis, in John Dryden's 1667 poem so titled, celebrating England's failure to be beaten either by the Dutch or by fire. [1]

274 relations: Abraham van der Hulst, Al-Rashid of Morocco, Alaouite dynasty, Albert VI, Duke of Bavaria, Alexander Brome, Alexandrine von Taxis, Amsterdam, Anne of Austria, Annus mirabilis, Annus Mirabilis (poem), Anton Günther I, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Apostasy, April 12, April 25, Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, Arthur Chichester, 3rd Earl of Donegall, August 10, August 13, August 15, August 19, August 20, August 23, August 24, August 26, August 4, August 5, August 6, August 9, Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Aurangzeb, Battle of Rullion Green, Bengal, Bible translations into Armenian, Calculus, Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphili, Carlo de' Medici (cardinal), Census, Chair of Saint Peter, Chittagong, Christian Günther II, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen-Arnstadt, City of London, Connections (TV series), Cornelis Evertsen the Elder, December 1, December 12, December 20, December 22, December 26, December 30, December 8, ..., Declared death in absentia, Dhaka, Dirk Graswinckel, Divine light, Dutch Republic, Ecaterina Cercheza, Edmund Calamy the Elder, February 1, February 12, February 24, February 26, February 27, February 9, Fez, Morocco, Four Days' Battle, François Mansart, Francis Erdmann, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, Francisco Manuel de Mello, Frans Hals, French Academy of Sciences, Gaspar Schott, Georg Albrecht, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach, George Bähr, George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Girolamo Colonna, Gottfried Arnold, Great Fire of London, Great Plague of London, Guercino, Guru Gobind Singh, Gustav Evertsson Horn, Henri, Count of Harcourt, Henry Hastings, 1st Baron Loughborough, Holmes's Bonfire, Isaac Newton, Istanbul, Ivan V of Russia, James Burke (science historian), James Howell, James Shirley, James Ware (historian), Jan Albertsz Rotius, Jan van Vliet, January 10, January 13, January 17, January 2, January 20, January 22, January 24, January 28, János Szalárdi, Jean Talon, Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, Johan Evertsen, Johann Adam Schall von Bell, Johann Andreas Herbst, Johann Reinhard II, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, Johann Rudolf Wettstein, Johannes Hoornbeek, Johannes Vermeer, John Dryden, John Ernest Grabe, John Holles, 2nd Earl of Clare, John Ogilby, John Strangways (died 1666), Julian calendar, July, July 10, July 18, July 23, July 25, July 26, July 30, July 5, June 1, June 11, June 12, June 14, June 16, June 17, June 28, June 30, June 4, Kingdom of England, Light, London Bridge, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Luisa de Guzmán, Lund, Lund University, Manuel António of Portugal, March 1, March 11, March 15, March 18, Marie Thérèse de Bourbon, Mary Astell, May 13, May 14, May 22, May 3, May 6, Michiel de Ruyter, Mildmay Fane, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, Mile, Moldavia, Molière, Morocco, Mughal emperors, Mughal Empire, Nicholas Lanier, North America, North Foreland, North Sea, November 1, November 12, November 28, October 12, October 27, October 29, Old Believers, Old St Paul's Cathedral, Paris, Parliament of England, Patriarch Nikon of Moscow, Paul Siefert, Pentland Hills, Philip Fruytiers, Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois, Pier Francesco Mola, Piteå, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Pudding Lane, Rakhine State, Robert Holmes (Royal Navy officer), Rome, Russian Orthodox Church, Sabbatai Zevi, Samuel Pepys, Scotland, Second Anglo-Dutch War, September 10, September 16, September 17, September 2, September 23, September 27, September 4, September 5, September 6, September 7, Shah Jahan, Shaista Khan, Sikhism, Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet, Sir John Bowyer, 1st Baronet, Sir Richard Fanshawe, 1st Baronet, Song Yingxing, St. James's Day Battle, St. Peter's Basilica, St. Peter's Church, Riga, Sweden, Terschelling, Théâtre du Palais-Royal (rue Saint-Honoré), The Art of Painting, The Misanthrope, Thomas Parker, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, Tjerk Hiddes de Vries, Tommaso Dingli, Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, Visible spectrum, Vlie, West-Terschelling, William Strode (of Barrington), William Wotton, 1579, 1580, 1584, 1585, 1586, 1587, 1588, 1589, 1591, 1592, 1594, 1595, 1596, 1598, 1600, 1601, 1602, 1604, 1608, 1610, 1612, 1613, 1614, 1616, 1617, 1619, 1620, 1622, 1623, 1624, 1627, 1628, 1629, 1664, 1666 census of New France, 1696, 1706, 1708, 1711, 1714, 1727, 1731, 1732, 1737, 1738. Expand index (224 more) »

Abraham van der Hulst

Abraham van der Hulst (Amsterdam, 11 April 1619 – 12 June 1666) was a Dutch admiral in the 17th century.

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Al-Rashid of Morocco

Mulai al-Rashid (also spelt Mulay, Moulay or Mawlay) (1631 – 9 April 1672) (مولاي الرشيد) was Sultan of Morocco from 1666 to 1672.

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Alaouite dynasty

The Alaouite dynasty, or Alawite dynasty (سلالة العلويين الفيلاليين, Sulālat al-ʿAlawiyyīn al-Fīlālīyn), is the current Moroccan royal family.

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Albert VI, Duke of Bavaria

Albert VI of Bavaria (Albrecht VI., der Leuchtenberger, Landgraf von Bayern-Leuchtenberg; 26 February 1584 – 5 July 1666) son of William V, Duke of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine, born and died in Munich.

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Alexander Brome

Alexander Brome (1620 – 30 June 1666) was an English poet.

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Alexandrine von Taxis

Alexandrine von Taxis (1 August 1589 - 26 December 1666), was a German business person.

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Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Anne of Austria

Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651.

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Annus mirabilis

Annus mirabilis (pl. anni mirabiles) is a Latin phrase that means "wonderful year", "miraculous year" or "amazing year".

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Annus Mirabilis (poem)

Annus Mirabilis is a poem written by John Dryden published in 1667.

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Anton Günther I, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

Count Anton Günther I of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (9 January 1620 – 19 August 1666) was the ruling Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen from 1642 until his death.

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Apostasy

Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.

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April 12

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April 25

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Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti

Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti (11 October 162926 February 1666) was a French nobleman, the younger son of Henri II, Prince of Condé and Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, daughter of Henri I, Duke of Montmorency.

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Arthur Chichester, 3rd Earl of Donegall

Arthur Chichester, 3rd Earl of Donegall (1666 – 10 April 1706) was an Irish nobleman and soldier.

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August 10

The term 'the 10th of August' is widely used by historians as a shorthand for the Storming of the Tuileries Palace on the 10th of August, 1792, the effective end of the French monarchy until it was restored in 1814.

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August 13

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August 15

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August 19

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August 20

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August 23

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August 24

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August 26

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August 4

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August 5

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August 6

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August 9

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Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Augustus II (10 April 1579 – 17 September 1666), called the Younger (August der Jüngere), a member of the House of Welf was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

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Aurangzeb

Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگ‌زیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.

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Battle of Rullion Green

The Battle of Rullion Green in the Pentland Hills, in Lothian, Scotland on 28 November 1666 was the culmination of the brief Pentland Rising (15–28 November 1666).

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Bengal

Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Bible translations into Armenian

The Armenian Bible is due to Saint Mesrob's early-5th-century translation.

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Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphili

Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphili (21 February 1622 – 26 July 1666) was an Italian Catholic Cardinal and later nobleman of the Pamphili family.

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Carlo de' Medici (cardinal)

Carlo de' Medici (March 19, 1595 – June 17, 1666) was the son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Christina of Lorraine.

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Census

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

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Chair of Saint Peter

The Chair of Saint Peter (Cathedra Petri), also known as the Throne of Saint Peter, is a relic conserved in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the sovereign enclave of the Pope inside Rome, Italy.

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Chittagong

Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.

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Christian Günther II, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen-Arnstadt

Christian Günther II, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen-Arnstadt (1 April 1616 – 10 September 1666) was Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershousen.

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City of London

The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.

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Connections (TV series)

Connections is a 10-episode documentary television series and 1978 book (Connections, based on the series) created, written, and presented by science historian James Burke.

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Cornelis Evertsen the Elder

Cornelis Evertsen the Elder (4 August 1610 – 11 June 1666) was a Dutch admiral.

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December 1

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December 12

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December 20

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December 22

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December 26

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December 30

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December 8

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Declared death in absentia

A person may be legally declared death in absentia or legal presumption of death despite the absence of direct proof of the person's death, such as the finding of remains (e.g., a corpse or skeleton) attributable to that person.

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Dhaka

Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.

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Dirk Graswinckel

Theodorus Johannes "Dirk" Graswinckel (1 October 1600 (or 1601) -12 October 1666) was a Dutch jurist, a significant writer on the freedom of the seas.

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Divine light

In theology, divine light (also called divine radiance or divine refulgence) is an aspect of divine presence, specifically an unknown and mysterious ability of God, angels, or human beings to express themselves communicatively through spiritual means, rather than through physical capacities.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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Ecaterina Cercheza

Doamna Ecaterina Cercheza (c. 1620 – 1 March 1666) was a Circassian noblewoman who became Princess consort of Moldavia by marriage to Vasile Lupu.

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Edmund Calamy the Elder

Edmund Calamy (February 1600 – October 29, 1666) was an English Presbyterian church leader and divine.

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February 1

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February 12

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February 24

For superstitious reasons, when the Romans began to intercalate to bring their calendar into line with the solar year, they chose not to place their extra month of Mercedonius after February but within it.

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February 26

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February 27

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February 9

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Fez, Morocco

Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.

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Four Days' Battle

The Four Days' Battle was a naval battle of the Second Anglo–Dutch War.

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François Mansart

François Mansart (23 January 1598 – 23 September 1666) was a French architect credited with introducing classicism into Baroque architecture of France.

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Francis Erdmann, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg

Francis Erdmann of Saxe-Lauenburg (Theusing, 25 February 1629 – 30 July 1666, Schwarzenbek), was duke of Saxe-Lauenburg between 1665 and 1666.

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Francisco Manuel de Mello

Francisco Manuel de Mello (23 November 160824 August 1666), was a Portuguese writer.

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Frans Hals

Frans Hals the Elder (– 26 August 1666) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, normally of portraits, who lived and worked in Haarlem.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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Gaspar Schott

Gaspar Schott (German: Kaspar (or Caspar) Schott; Latin: Gaspar Schottus; 5 February 1608 – 22 May 1666) was a German Jesuit and scientist, specializing in the fields of physics, mathematics and natural philosophy, and known for his industry.

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Georg Albrecht, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach

Georg Albrecht of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Bayreuth, 20 March 1619 – Schretz, 27 September 1666), was a German prince and member of the House of Hohenzollern.

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George Bähr

George Bähr (15 March 1666 – 16 March 1738) was a German architect.

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George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney

Field Marshal George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, KT (9 February 1666 – 29 January 1737), styled Lord George Hamilton from 1666 to 1696, was a British soldier and Scottish nobleman and the first British Army officer to be promoted to the rank of field marshal.

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George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle

George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG (6 December 1608 – 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician, and a key figure in the Restoration of the monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.

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Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.

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Girolamo Colonna

Girolamo Colonna (23 March 1604 – 4 September 1666) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and member of the noble Colonna family.

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Gottfried Arnold

Gottfried Arnold (5 September 1666 in Annaberg, Erzgebirge – 30 May 1714 in Perleberg) was a German Lutheran theologian and historian.

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Great Fire of London

The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.

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Great Plague of London

The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.

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Guercino

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 – December 22, 1666), best known as Guercino, or il Guercino, was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna.

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Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.

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Gustav Evertsson Horn

Baron Gustav Evertsson Horn of Marienburg (May 28, 1614 – February 27, 1666) was a Finnish-Swedish military and politician.

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Henri, Count of Harcourt

Henri de Lorraine (20 March 1601 – 25 July 1666, Royaumont Abbey), known as Cadet la Perle, was a French nobleman.

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Henry Hastings, 1st Baron Loughborough

Henry Hastings, 1st Baron Loughborough (28 September 1610 – 10 January 1666/1667) was an English Royalist army commander in the Midlands during the English Civil War.

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Holmes's Bonfire

Holmes's Bonfire was a raid on the Vlie estuary in the Netherlands, executed by the English Fleet during the Second Anglo-Dutch War on 19 and 20 August 1666 (New Style, 9 and 10 August Old Style).

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Ivan V of Russia

Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, &ndash) was a joint Tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696.

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James Burke (science historian)

James Burke (born 22 December 1936) is a British broadcaster, science historian, author, and television producer, who is known, among other things, for his documentary television series Connections (1978), and for its more philosophically oriented companion series, The Day the Universe Changed (1985), which is about the history of science and technology.

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James Howell

James Howell (c. 1594 – 1666) was a 17th-century Anglo-Welsh historian and writer who is in many ways a representative figure of his age.

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James Shirley

James Shirley (or Sherley) (September 1596 – October 1666) was an English dramatist.

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James Ware (historian)

Sir James Ware II (26 November 1594 – 1 December 1666) was an Anglo-Irish historian.

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Jan Albertsz Rotius

Jan Albertsz.

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Jan van Vliet

Jan van Vliet (April 11, 1622 – March 18, 1666), also known as Janus Ulitius, was one of the 17th century pioneers of Germanic philology.

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January 10

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January 13

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January 17

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January 2

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January 20

In the ancient astronomy, it is the cusp day between Capricorn and Aquarius.

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January 22

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January 24

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January 28

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János Szalárdi

János Szalárdi (23 July 1601 – 27 September 1666) was a Hungarian historian in the Principality of Transylvania.

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Jean Talon

Jean Talon, Count d'Orsainville (January 8, 1626 – November 23, 1694) was the first Intendant of New France.

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Jean-Baptiste Tavernier

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler.

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Johan Evertsen

Johan Evertsen (1 February 1600 – 5 August 1666) was an admiral who was born in the 17th century.

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Johann Adam Schall von Bell

Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1 May 1591 – 15 August 1666) was a German Jesuit and astronomer.

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Johann Andreas Herbst

Johann Andreas Herbst (baptized June 9, 1588 – January 24, 1666) was a German composer and music theorist of the early Baroque era.

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Johann Reinhard II, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg

Count Johann Reinhard II of Hanau-Lichtenberg (in Bouxwiller – 25 April 1666 in Bischofsheim am Hohen Steg) was a younger son of Count Philipp Wolfgang of Hanau-Lichtenberg (1595–1641) and Countess Johanna of Oettingen-Oettingen (d. 1639).

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Johann Rudolf Wettstein

Johann Rudolf Wettstein (27 October 1594 – 12 April 1666) was a Swiss diplomat and one-time mayor of Basel, who achieved fame through his diplomatic skills, culminating in Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire in 1648.

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Johannes Hoornbeek

Johannes Hoornbeek (4 November 1617, Haarlem – 23 August 1666, Leiden), was a Dutch Reformed theologian.

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Johannes Vermeer

Johannes Vermeer (October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life.

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John Dryden

John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.

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John Ernest Grabe

John Ernest Grabe (July 10, 1666 – November 3, 1711), Anglican divine, was born at Königsberg, where his father, Martin Sylvester Grabe, was professor of theology and history.

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John Holles, 2nd Earl of Clare

John Holles, 2nd Earl of Clare (13 June 1595 – 2 January 1666) was an English nobleman.

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John Ogilby

John Ogilby (also Ogelby, Oglivie; November 1600 – 4 September 1676) was a Scottish translator, impresario and cartographer.

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John Strangways (died 1666)

Sir John Strangways (27 September 1585 – 30 December 1666) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1614 and 1666.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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July

July is the seventh month of the year (between June and August) in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

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July 10

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July 18

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July 23

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July 25

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July 26

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July 30

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July 5

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June 1

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June 11

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June 12

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June 14

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June 16

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June 17

No description.

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June 28

In common years it is always in ISO week 26.

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June 30

It is the last day of the first half of the year.

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June 4

No description.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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London Bridge

Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London.

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Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Luisa de Guzmán

Luisa María Francisca de Guzmán y Sandoval (Luísa Maria Francisca de Gusmão; 13 October 1613 – 27 February 1666) was a queen consort of Portugal.

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Lund

Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden.

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Lund University

Lund University (Lunds universitet) is a public university, consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities.

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Manuel António of Portugal

Manuel António of Portugal (24 February 1600 in Delft – 27 October 1666 in Schagen) was a Portuguese nobleman.

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March 1

No description.

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March 11

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March 15

In the Roman calendar, March 15 was known as the Ides of March.

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March 18

No description.

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Marie Thérèse de Bourbon

Marie Thérèse de Bourbon (1 February 1666 – 22 February 1732) was the titular Queen consort of Poland in 1697.

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Mary Astell

Mary Astell (Newcastle upon Tyne, 12 November 1666 – London, 11 May 1731) was an English feminist writer and rhetorician.

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May 13

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May 14

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May 22

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May 3

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May 6

No description.

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Michiel de Ruyter

Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) was a Dutch admiral.

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Mildmay Fane, 2nd Earl of Westmorland

Mildmay Fane, 2nd Earl of Westmorland (24 January 1602 – 12 February 1666), styled Lord le Despenser between 1624 and 1628, was an English nobleman, politician, and writer.

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Mile

The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.

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Moldavia

Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.

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Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mughal emperors

The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Nicholas Lanier

Nicholas Lanier, sometimes Laniere (baptised at Greenwich 10 September 1588 – 24 February 1666) was an English composer and musician; the first to hold the title of Master of the King's Music from 1625 to 1666, an honour given to musicians of great distinction.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North Foreland

North Foreland is a chalk headland on the Kent coast of southeast England.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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November 1

No description.

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November 12

No description.

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November 28

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October 12

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October 27

No description.

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October 29

No description.

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Old Believers

In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.

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Old St Paul's Cathedral

Old St Paul's Cathedral was the medieval cathedral of the City of London that, until 1666, stood on the site of the present St Paul's Cathedral.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parliament of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Patriarch Nikon of Moscow

Nikon (Ни́кон, Old Russian: Нїконъ), born Nikita Minin (Никита Минин; 7 May 1605 – 17 August 1681) was the seventh Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus' of the Russian Orthodox Church, serving officially from 1652 to 1666.

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Paul Siefert

Paul Siefert (variants: Syfert, Sivert, Sibert) (23 May 1586 – 6 May 1666) was a German composer and organist associated with the North German school.

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Pentland Hills

The Pentland Hills are a range of hills to the south-west of Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Philip Fruytiers

Philip Fruytiers (alternative spellings: Philip Fruijtiers, Philip Fruitiers) (1610 in Antwerp – 1666 in Antwerp) was a Flemish Baroque painter and engraver.

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Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois

Philippe Charles d'Orléans, petit-fils de France, Duke of Valois (16 July 1664 – 8 December 1666) was a French prince and Grandson of France.

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Pier Francesco Mola

Pier Francesco Mola, called Il Ticinese (9 February 1612 – 13 May 1666) was an Italian painter of the High Baroque, mainly active around Rome.

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Piteå

Piteå is a locality and the seat of Piteå Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden.

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Prince Rupert of the Rhine

Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century.

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Pudding Lane

Pudding Lane is a minor street in London widely known for being the location of Thomas Farriner's bakery where the Great Fire of London started in 1666.

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Rakhine State

Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).

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Robert Holmes (Royal Navy officer)

Sir Robert Holmes (ca. 1622 – 18 November 1692) was an English Admiral of the Restoration Navy.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Sabbatai Zevi

Sabbatai Zevi (other spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September 17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire, who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah.

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Samuel Pepys

Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Second Anglo-Dutch War

The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.

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September 10

No description.

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September 16

No description.

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September 17

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September 2

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September 23

It is frequently the day of the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the day of the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere.

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September 27

No description.

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September 4

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September 5

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September 6

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September 7

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Shah Jahan

Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.

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Shaista Khan

Mirza Abu Talib, (?–1694) better known as Shaista Khan (শায়েস্তা খান) was a subahdar and a general in the Mughal army.

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Sikhism

Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.

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Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet

Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet, K.B. (25 November 1587 – 28 June 1666) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1666.

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Sir John Bowyer, 1st Baronet

Sir John Bowyer, 1st Baronet (21 September 1623 – 18 July 1666) was a 17th-century English soldier and politician.

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Sir Richard Fanshawe, 1st Baronet

Sir Richard Fanshawe, 1st Baronet PC (June 1608 – 16 June 1666) was an English poet and translator.

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Song Yingxing

Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese: 宋應星; Simplified Chinese: 宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).

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St. James's Day Battle

The naval St James' Day Battle (also known as the St James' Day Fight), the Battle of the North Foreland and the Battle of Orfordness) took place on 25 July 1666 — St James' day in the Julian calendar then in use in England (4 August 1666 in the Gregorian calendar), during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. It was fought between fleets of England, commanded jointly by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, and the United Provinces commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. In the Netherlands, the battle is known as the Two Days' Battle.

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St. Peter's Basilica

The Papal Basilica of St.

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St. Peter's Church, Riga

St.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Terschelling

Terschelling (Skylge; Terschelling dialect: Schylge) is a municipality and an island in the northern Netherlands, one of the West Frisian Islands.

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Théâtre du Palais-Royal (rue Saint-Honoré)

The Théâtre du Palais-Royal (or Salle du Palais-Royal) on the rue Saint-Honoré in Paris was a theatre in the east wing of the Palais-Royal, which opened on 14 January 1641 with a performance of Jean Desmarets' tragicomedy Mirame.

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The Art of Painting

The Art of Painting, also known as The Allegory of Painting, or Painter in his Studio, is a 17th-century oil on canvas painting by Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer.

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The Misanthrope

The Misanthrope, or the Cantankerous Lover (Le Misanthrope ou l'Atrabilaire amoureux) is a 17th-century comedy of manners in verse written by Molière.

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Thomas Parker, 1st Earl of Macclesfield

Thomas Parker, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, (23 July 1666 – 28 April 1732) was an English Whig politician.

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Tjerk Hiddes de Vries

Tjerk Hiddes de Vries (Sexbierum, 6 August 1622 - Flushing, 6 August 1666) was a naval hero and Dutch admiral from the seventeenth century.

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Tommaso Dingli

Tommaso Dingli (Tumas Dingli, 22 December 1591 – 28 January 1666) was a Maltese architect and sculptor.

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Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia

Victor Amadeus II (Vittorio Amedeo Francesco; 14 May 1666 – 31 October 1732) was Duke of Savoy from 1675 to 1730.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Vlie

The Vlie or Vliestroom is the seaway between the Dutch islands of Vlieland, to its southwest, and Terschelling, to its northeast.

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West-Terschelling

West-Terschelling (West-Skylge) is the largest village on Terschelling in the province Friesland, the Netherlands.

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William Strode (of Barrington)

Colonel William Strode, Jr (11 January 1589, Shepton Mallet, Somerset – 20 December 1666, Barrington Court, Somerset) — called William Strode of Barrington to distinguish him from contemporaries of the same name, principally the Strodes of Newnham in Devon — was an English Parliamentarian officer and Member of Parliament (Ilchester; 1640, 1646–48).

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William Wotton

William Wotton (13 August 1666 – 13 February 1727) was an English theologian, classical scholar and linguist.

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1579

Year 1579 (MDLXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Monday of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.

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1580

Year 1580 (MDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.

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1584

No description.

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1585

No description.

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1586

No description.

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1587

No description.

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1588

No description.

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1589

No description.

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1591

No description.

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1592

No description.

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1594

No description.

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1595

No description.

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1596

No description.

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1598

No description.

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1600

No description.

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1601

January 1 of this year (1601-01-01) is used as the base of file dates and of Active Directory Logon dates by Microsoft Windows.

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1602

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1604

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1608

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1610

Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene, or the 'Age of Man', marking a fundamental change in the relationship between humans and the Earth system, but earlier starting dates (ca. 1000 C.E.) have received broader consensus, based on high resolution pollution records that show the massive impact of human activity on the atmosphere.

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1612

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1613

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1614

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1616

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1617

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1619

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1620

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1622

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1623

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1624

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1627

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1628

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1629

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1664

It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+500(D)+100(C)+50(L)+10(X)+(-1(I)+5(V)).

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1666 census of New France

The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and also North America).

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1696

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1706

In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Monday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

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1708

In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

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1711

In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Sunday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

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1714

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1727

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1731

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1732

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1737

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1738

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Redirects here:

1666 (year), 1666 AD, 1666 CE, AD 1666, Births in 1666, Deaths in 1666, Events in 1666, Year 1666.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1666

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