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1860 Mount Lebanon civil war

Index 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war

The 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war (also called the 1860 Civil War in Syria) was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus. [1]

126 relations: Aaiha, Aammiq, Abadiyeh, Lebanon, Abdulmejid I, Acre, Israel, Ain Dara, Lebanon, Ainab, Al-Atrash, Al-Bassa, Al-Midan, Aleppo, Alexandria, Ammatour, Anti-Lebanon Mountains, Aqil Agha, Armenians, Austria, Baabda, Baakleen, Baalbek, Bashir III, Bashir Shihab II, Baskinta, Bedouin, Beirut, Beirut Vilayet, Beit ed-Dine, Beit Lahia, Lebanon, Beit Mery, Beqaa Valley, Bethlehem, Bikfaya, Brummana, Btekhnay, Charles Henry Churchill, Châlons-en-Champagne, Chebaa (Hasbaiya), Chouf District, Christianity in Lebanon, Citadel of Damascus, Constantinople, Dahr El Ahmar, Damascus, Damascus Eyalet, Deir al-Qamar, Deir Mimas, Druze, Ehden, Emir, Emir Abdelkader, ..., Europe, Feudalism, France, Galilee, Great Britain, Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, Haifa, Hama, Harfush dynasty, Hasbaya, Hauran, Hazmiyeh, History of Lebanon, Homs, Humanitarian intervention, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Ismail al-Atrash, Jaffa, Jan-Baptist Huysmans, Jdaideh, Jerusalem, Jezzine, Jumblatt family, Kafr Bir'im, Kaymakam, Keserwan District, Kfar Qouq, Khazen, Latakia, Lebanese people (Maronite Christians), Lebanon, List of conflicts in the Near East, Majdal Shams, Malta, Maronites, Massacre of Aleppo (1850), Matn District, Mehmed Fuad Pasha, Moukhtara, Mount Lebanon, Mount Lebanon Emirate, Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, Nablus, Naccache, Napoleon III, Nazareth, Omar Pasha, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Peasants' revolt in Palestine, Protestantism, Prussia, Qabb Ilyas, Qaraoun, Qarnayel, Rashaya, Rayfoun, Russia, Safed, Salima, Lebanon, Second French Empire, Shia Islam, Shihab dynasty, Sidon, Sidon Eyalet, Sunni Islam, Syria (region), Tanyus Shahin, Tobia Aoun, Tripoli, Lebanon, Tyre, Lebanon, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Wadi al-Taym, Youssef Bey Karam, Zahlé, 1843 and 1846 massacres in Hakkari. Expand index (76 more) »

Aaiha

Aaiha (or Aiha) (عيحا) is a village, plain, lake, and temporary wetland situated in the Rashaya District and south of the Beqaa Governorate in Lebanon.

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Aammiq

Aamiq or Aammiq II is an archaeological site southwest of Zahle in the Aammiq Wetland, Beqaa Valley, Lebanon.

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Abadiyeh, Lebanon

Abadiyeh (العبادية; also spelled al-Abadiyah or Aabadiyeh) is a municipality in the Baabda District of Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Abdulmejid I

Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 182325 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.

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Acre, Israel

Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.

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Ain Dara, Lebanon

Ain Dara (عين داره), is a village about from Beirut, in the governorate of Mount Lebanon, in the Aley District.

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Ainab

Ainab (عيناب), is a town on the western slopes of Mount Lebanon overlooking Beirut.

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Al-Atrash

The al-Atrash (الأطرش&lrm), also known as Bani al-Atrash, is a Druze clan based in Jabal Hauran in southwestern Syria.

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Al-Bassa

al-Bassa' (البصة), also known as Betzet in בצת, was a Palestinian Arab village in the Mandatory Palestine's Acre Subdistrict.

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Al-Midan

Al-Midan (حي الميدان) is a neighbourhood and municipality in Damascus, Syria, just south of the old walled city and very near the modern city centre.

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Ammatour

Ammatour (عمّاطور) is a town and municipality in the Shouf (Al-Shouf) District in Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon.

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Anti-Lebanon Mountains

The Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Jibāl Lubnān ash-Sharqiyyah, "Eastern Mountains of Lebanon"; Lebanese Arabic:, Jbel esh-Shar'iyyeh, "Eastern Mountains") are a southwest-northeast-trending mountain range that forms most of the border between Syria and Lebanon.

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Aqil Agha

Aqil Agha al-Hasi (عقيل آغا الحاسي, given name also spelled Aqil, Aqila, Akil or Akili; military title sometimes spelled Aga) (died 1870) was the strongman of northern Palestine in the mid-19th century, during Ottoman rule.

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Armenians

Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Baabda

Baabda (بعبدا) is the capital city of Baabda District as well as the capital of Mount Lebanon Governorate, western Lebanon.

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Baakleen

Baakline is a major Druze town located in Mount Lebanon, Chouf District, 45 kilometers southeast of Beirut.

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Baalbek

Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.

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Bashir III

Prince Bashir Chehab III was a ruler of the Mount Lebanon Emirate (7th Emir, reigned 1840–1842).

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Bashir Shihab II

Bashir Shihab II (also spelt "Bachir Chehab II"; 2 January 1767–1850.) was a Lebanese emir who ruled Lebanon in the first half of the 19th century.

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Baskinta

Baskinta (بسكنتا) is a Lebanese village situated at an altitude ranging from 1250 metres above sea level and climes up to appropproximatly 1800 meters of height at Qanat Bakish, making it one of the highest villages of Lebanon.

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Bedouin

The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.

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Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Beirut Vilayet

The Vilayet of Beirut was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.

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Beit ed-Dine

Beit ed-Dine (بيت الدين), also known as Btaddine (بتدين) is a small town and the administrative capital of the Chouf District in the Mount Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon.

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Beit Lahia, Lebanon

Beit Lahia (or Beit Lahya) (بيت لهيا) is a village situated in the Rashaya District and south of the Beqaa Governorate in Lebanon.

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Beit Mery

Beit Mery (بيت مري) is a Lebanese town overlooking the capital Beirut.

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Beqaa Valley

The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.

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Bethlehem

Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.

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Bikfaya

Bikfaya (بكفيا, also spelled Bickfaya, Beckfayya, or Bekfaya) is a town in the Matn District region of Mount Lebanon.

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Brummana

Brummana (برمانا) is a town in the Matn District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon.

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Btekhnay

Btekhnay (بتخنيه; also spelled Btekhnai) is a municipality in the Baabda District of Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Charles Henry Churchill

Colonel Charles Henry Churchill (1807–1869), also known as "Churchill Bey", was a British army officer and diplomat.

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Châlons-en-Champagne

Châlons-en-Champagne is a city in the Grand Est region of France.

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Chebaa (Hasbaiya)

Chebaa (also transliterated Shebaa) is a town on the south-eastern tip of Lebanon.

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Chouf District

Chouf (also spelled Shouf, Shuf or Chuf, in Jebel ash-Shouf) is a historic region of Lebanon, as well as an administrative district in the governorate (mohafazat) of Mount Lebanon.

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Christianity in Lebanon

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Citadel of Damascus

The Citadel of Damascus (Qalʿat Dimašq) is a large medieval fortified palace and citadel in Damascus, Syria.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Dahr El Ahmar

Dahr El Ahmar is a village in Lebanon, situated in the Rashaya District and south of the Beqaa Governorate.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Damascus Eyalet

Damascus Eyalet (ایالت شام; Eyālet-i Šām) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.

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Deir al-Qamar

Deir al-Qamar (دير القمر), meaning "Monastery of the Moon" is a village south-east of Beirut in south-central Lebanon.

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Deir Mimas

Deir Mimas (also spelled Deirmimas, Deir Mamas, and Deir Mimmas) (دير ميماس) is a town 88 km south of Beirut in Lebanon.

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Druze

The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).

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Ehden

Ehden (اٍهدن) is a mountainous town situated in the heart of the northern mountains of Lebanon and on the southwestern slopes of Mount Makmal in the Mount Lebanon Range.

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Emir

An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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Emir Abdelkader

Abdelkader ibn Muhieddine (6 September 1808 – 26 May 1883; عبد القادر ابن محيي الدين), known as the Emir Abdelkader or Abdelkader El Djezairi, was an Algerian religious and military leader who led a struggle against the French colonial invasion in the mid-19th century.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Galilee

Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch

The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

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Haifa

Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.

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Hama

Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.

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Harfush dynasty

The Harfush dynasty (or Harfouche dynasty) was a dynasty that originated from the Khuza'a tribe, which helped, under the reign of Muhammad, in the conquest of Syria.

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Hasbaya

Hasbeya or Hasbeiya (حاصبيا) is a town in Lebanon, situated at the foot of Mount Hermon, overlooking a deep amphitheatre from which a brook flows to the Hasbani.

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Hauran

Hauran (حوران / ALA-LC: Ḥawrān), also spelled Hawran, Houran and Horan, known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans as Auranitis, is a volcanic plateau, a geographic area and a people located in southwestern Syria and extending into the northwestern corner of Jordan.

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Hazmiyeh

Hazmiyeh (also Romanized as Hazmiyé, Hazmie, Hasmiyeh, Al Ḩāzimīyah, and El Hâzmîyé) is a town in Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon, and a suburb of Beirut, part of Greater Beirut.

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History of Lebanon

The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.

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Homs

Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.

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Humanitarian intervention

Humanitarian Intervention has been defined as a state's use of "military force (publicly stated that its use is for ending the violation of human rights) against another state."Marjanovic, Marko (2011-04-04), Mises Institute This definition may be too narrow as it precludes non-military forms of intervention such as humanitarian aid and international sanctions.

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Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt

Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ismail al-Atrash

Ismail al-Atrash (died November 1869) was the preeminent Druze sheikh (chieftain) of Jabal Hauran, a mountainous region southeast of Damascus, in the mid-19th century.

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Jaffa

Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.

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Jan-Baptist Huysmans

Jan-Baptist Huysmans or Jean Baptiste Huysmans (25 April 1826 in Antwerp – May 1906 in Hove, Belgium), was a Belgian painter known for his Orientalist scenes.

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Jdaideh

Jdaideh (الجديدة) is a Lebanese village in the Chouf District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jezzine

Jezzine (Jizzīn) is a town in Lebanon, located from Sidon and south of Beirut.

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Jumblatt family

The Jumblatt family (originally Kurdish Canpolad, meaning "steel-bodied" or "soul of steel"), also transliterated as Joumblatt, Junblat and Junblatt) is a Kurdish family who settled in the Kurdistan Lebanon mountains (coming from Syria) around the 15-16th century, fleeing persecution from an Ottoman governor. Tradition holds the Jumblatt family to be the leaders of the Kaysi Arabs, who fought a bitter war with the Yemeni Druze in the Battle of Ain Darra of 1711. Although Lebanese Druze leader Walid Jumblatt is the most known and influential figure of the family in modern Lebanon, there are other Jumblatt family members from this lineage who contribute to the cultural, economic and social life in Lebanon, and not restricted to the Chouf and Mount Lebanon, but also having a visible presence in mansions and villas within the distinguished Clemenceau area of Beirut and in the north-west area of Sidon.

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Kafr Bir'im

Kafr Bir'im, also Kefr Berem (كفر برعم, כְּפַר בִּרְעָם), was a Palestinian Arab village in Mandatory Palestine, located in modern-day northern Israel, south of the Lebanese border and northwest of Safed.

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Kaymakam

Qaim Maqam, Qaimaqam or Kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam; قائم مقام, "sub-governor") is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and in Lebanon; additionally, it was a title used for roughly the same official position in the Ottoman Empire.

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Keserwan District

Keserwan District (قضاء كسروان, transliteration: Qadaa Keserwan) is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon, to the northeast of Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Kfar Qouq

Kfar Qouq (and variations of spelling) is a village in Lebanon, situated in the Rashaya District and south of the Beqaa Governorate.

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Khazen

Khazen (also "El-Khazen", and in some cases Al Khazen or De Khazen, Arabic: الخازن) is the name of a prominent noble Levantine family and clan based in Keserwan District, Lebanon, Damascus, Syria, Nablus, Palestine, as well as other districts around the Levant, predominantly in the Galilee.

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Latakia

Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.

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Lebanese people (Maronite Christians)

Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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List of conflicts in the Near East

The area known as the "Near East" is usually referred to as Middle East in modern contexts.

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Majdal Shams

Majdal Shams (مجدل شمس.; מַגְ'דַל שַׁמְס) is a Druze town in the southern foothills of Mt. Hermon, north of the Golan Heights (also known as the capital of Golan Heights).

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Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Maronites

The Maronites are a Christian group who adhere to the Syriac Maronite Church with the largest population around Mount Lebanon in Lebanon.

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Massacre of Aleppo (1850)

The Aleppo Massacre (قومة حلب), often referred to simply as The Events, was a riot perpetrated by Muslim residents of Aleppo, largely from the eastern quarters of the city, against Christian residents, largely located in the northern suburbs of Judayde (Jdeideh) and Salibeh.

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Matn District

Matn (قضاء المتن), sometimes spelled Metn, is a district (qadaa) in the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon, east of the Lebanon's capital Beirut.

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Mehmed Fuad Pasha

Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1814 – February 12, 1869), sometimes known as Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha and commonly known as Fuad Pasha, was an Ottoman statesman known for his prominent role in the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-19th-century Ottoman Empire, as well as his leadership during the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war in Syria.

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Moukhtara

Moukhtara (المختارة) is a small town in the Chouf District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon.

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Mount Lebanon

Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.

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Mount Lebanon Emirate

The Emirate of Mount Lebanon was an autonomous subdivision in the Ottoman Empire.

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Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate

The Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (متصرفية جبل لبنان; Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı) was one of the Ottoman Empire's subdivisions following the Tanzimat reform.

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Nablus

Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.

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Naccache

Naccache (نقاش) is a suburban area located on the northern edge of Beirut, Lebanon.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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Nazareth

Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.

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Omar Pasha

Omar Pasha, also known as Omar Pasha Latas (Ömer Paşa, Омер-паша Латас/Omer-paša Latas; 1806–1871) was an Ottoman field marshal and governor.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.

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Peasants' revolt in Palestine

The Peasants' Revolt was a rebellion against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies in Palestine.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Qabb Ilyas

Qabb Ilyas (قب الياس; ALA-LC: Qab Ilyās / Lebanese Arabic) also spelled Kab Elias, Qab Elias, Qob Elias, Qoub Elias) is a municipality in Zahle District, in eastern Lebanon. Qabb Ilyas is 15 kilometers from Zahleh and from the Lebanese capital Beirut. Its average elevations is above sea level. Its area is approximately 32 km².http://www.kabelias.org/Info.aspx Qabb Ilyas is the third largest city in the Beqaa Valley, after Zahleh and Baalbek in terms of area size and geography. The majority of the residents are Sunni Muslims.

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Qaraoun

Qaraoun is a Lebanese village, 85 km from Beirut, known for its Lake Qaraoun in the Beqaa Valley formed by the El Wauroun Dam built in 1959.

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Qarnayel

Qarnayel (قرنايل) is a village and municipality in the Baabda District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon.

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Rashaya

Rashaya, Rachaya, Rashaiya, Rashayya or Rachaiya (Arabic: راشيا), also known as Rashaya al-Wadi or Rachaya el-Wadi (and variations), is a town of the Rashaya District in the south of the Beqaa Governorate of Lebanon.

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Rayfoun

Rayfoun (ريفون; also spelled Reifun or Raifoun) is a village and municipality located in the Keserwan District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Safed

Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.

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Salima, Lebanon

Salima (صليما; also spelled Salimeh) is a municipality in the Baabda District of Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Second French Empire

The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shihab dynasty

The Shihab dynasty (alternatively spelled Chehab; شهابيون, ALA-LC: Shihābiyūn) were a prominent noble family during the Ottoman era in Mount Lebanon.

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Sidon

Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.

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Sidon Eyalet

The Eyalet of Sidon (ایالت صیدا, Eyālet-i Ṣaydā) was an eyalet (also known as a beylerbeylik) of the Ottoman Empire.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Syria (region)

The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.

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Tanyus Shahin

Tanyus Shahin Saadeh al-Rayfouni (also spelled Tanios Chahine Saadé Al Rayfouné, given name also spelled Taniyus or Tanius) (1815–1895) was a Maronite muleteer and peasant leader from Mount Lebanon.

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Tobia Aoun

Tobia Aoun (December 1803 – 4 April 1871) (Tubiya, Tobias, Tubiyya, Aun, Awn) was an Assistant to the Pontifical Throne, Archbishop of Beirut, Count of Rome, Bishop of Saint-John-Acre, Knight of the French Legion of Honour, Knight of the Ottoman Order of the Medjidie, and Council Father of the First Vatican Council.

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Tripoli, Lebanon

Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.

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Tyre, Lebanon

Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Wadi al-Taym

Wadi al-Taym, also transliterated as Wadi el-Taym is a wadi (dry river) that forms a large fertile valley in southern Lebanon, near Hasbaya on the western slopes of Mount Hermon.

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Youssef Bey Karam

Youssef Bey Boutros Karam (also Joseph Bey Karam) (May 15, 1823 – April 7, 1889) (Arabic يوسف بك كرم), was a Lebanese Maronite notable who fought in the 1860 civil war and led a rebellion in 1866-1867 against the Ottoman Empire rule in Mount Lebanon.

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Zahlé

Zahlé (زحلة) is the capital and the largest city of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon.

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1843 and 1846 massacres in Hakkari

A series of massacres in Hakkari in the years 1843 and 1846 of Assyrians were carried out by the Kurdish emirs of Bohtan and Hakkari, Bedr Khan Bey and Nurallah.

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Redirects here:

1860 Civil War in Syria, 1860 Druze-Christian conflict in Lebanon, 1860 Druze–Maronite conflict, 1860 Lebanon and Damascus conflict, 1860 Lebanon conflict, 1860 conflict in Lebanon, 1860 strife between Druze and Maronites in Lebanon, Maronite/Druze conflict of 1860.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1860_Mount_Lebanon_civil_war

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