314 relations: Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Abd al-Rahim al-Hajj Muhammad, Abdallah al-Asbah, Abu Ibrahim al-Kabir, Acre Prison, Acre, Israel, Administrative detention, Admiral, Adolf Hitler, Aerial bombing of cities, Afrika Korps, Ahmad Muhammad Hasan, Air commodore, Air officer commanding, Air vice-marshal, Al-Bassa, Al-Husayni clan, Al-Midan, Albert Hourani, Aliyah, Amin al-Husseini, Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, Anita Shapira, Anti-imperialism, Anti-Zionism, Arab general strike (Mandatory Palestine), Arab Higher Committee, Arab Investigation Centres, Arab Legion, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Arms trafficking, Arraba, Jenin, Arthur Grenfell Wauchope, Auja al-Hafir, Axis powers, Balfour Declaration, Baruch Kimmerling, Battle of Anabta, Battle of Hattin, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment, Beit She'an, Benny Morris, Bernard Montgomery, Bernard Wasserstein, Black Hand (Mandatory Palestine), Black Sunday, 1937, Black Watch, BP, British Army, British Empire, ..., Cement Incident, Central Committee of National Jihad in Palestine, Chaim Weizmann, Charles Tegart, Charles Townshend (historian), Chief Justice, Civil society, Close air support, Coldstream Guards, Collective punishment, Colony, Commander-in-chief, Community ransom, Concession (politics), Consul (representative), Criminal investigation department, Cruiser, Damascus, David Ben-Gurion, David Petrie, Defence (Emergency) Regulations, Denailing, Destroyer, Dobermann, Druze, Dudley Pound, Dunam, Egged (company), Egypt, Eliahu Sacharoff, Eliyahu Golomb, Emirate of Transjordan, Erwin Rommel, Ethiopian Empire, Farhan al-Sa'di, Fawzi al-Qawuqji, Fellah, Foot whipping, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Fortification, Fosh (Haganah unit), Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence, Frederick Kisch, Gelignite, General officer commanding, General Zionists, George Antonius, Gilbert Mackereth, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Great Syrian Revolt, Guard Corps (Haganah), Haavara Agreement, Haganah, Haifa, Haim Arlosoroff, Halhul, Hama, Hamad Sa'b, Hanging, Harold MacMichael, Harvard University Press, Hasan Salama, Havlagah, Hebrew language, Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel, High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan, Hillel Cohen, Hish (Haganah corps), Histadrut, HMS Emerald (D66), HMS Malaya, HMS Repulse (1916), HMS Warspite (03), Homs, Howitzer, Hugh Foot, Baron Caradon, I.B. Tauris, Ian Black (journalist), Ibrahim Nassar, Independence Party (Mandatory Palestine), Indian National Congress, Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine, Internment, Iraq, Irgun, Irish War of Independence, Iron Wall (essay), Israel, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Issa Battat, Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, Izzat Darwaza, J. Bowyer Bell, Jaffa, Jaffa Road, Jenin, Jeremy Black (historian), Jerusalem, Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, Jewish National Council, Jewish National Fund, Jewish Settlement Police, Jewish Supernumerary Police, John Dill, John Laffin, Jordan River, Joseph Klausner, Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Kirkuk–Haifa oil pipeline, Labor Zionism, Lajjun, League of Nations, Lebanese people, Lebanon, Lewis Yelland Andrews, List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, Lubya, Ma'an, Malcolm MacDonald, Manchester Regiment, Mandatory Palestine, Mapai, Martial law, Martin Gilbert, Mediterranean Fleet, Mediterranean Sea, Metonymy, Mi'ar, MI5, Michael McDonnell, Middle East Command, Military of the Ottoman Empire, Mizrachi (religious Zionism), Mobile Guards, Mobile units (Haganah unit), Moshe Sharett, Mossad, Mossad LeAliyah Bet, Mount Carmel, Mount Hebron, Muhammad al-Ashmar, Mukhtar, Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, Nabi Musa, Nablus, Nashashibi clan, National Bloc (Mandatory Palestine), National Defense Party (Mandatory Palestine), Nazareth, Nazi Germany, Negev, Neville Chamberlain, Nuri al-Said, Oil field, Old City (Jerusalem), One-state solution, Operation Compass, Order in Council, Ottoman Empire, Palestine Arab Party, Palestine Police Force, Palestinian Jews, Palestinian nationalism, Palestinian Scout Association, Palestinians, Palmach, Pan-Arabism, Peel Commission, Petah Tikva, Peulot Meyuhadot, Philip Mattar, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Pro–Wailing Wall Committee, Qalqilya, QF 2-pounder naval gun, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment, Quran, RAF Intelligence, RAF Regiment, Raghib al-Nashashibi, Ralph Cairns, Ran (Haganah unit), Raphael Patai, Rashid Khalidi, Reform Party (Mandatory Palestine), Rekhesh, Reuven Shiloah, Revisionist Maximalism, Revisionist Zionism, Revolution, Richard O'Connor, Richard Peirse, Roadblock, Robert Haining, Roderic Hill, Rolls-Royce Armoured Car, Royal Air Force, Royal Commission, Royal Dutch Shell, Royal Engineers, Royal Marines, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, Royal Ulster Rifles, Sa'id al-'As, Safed, Saladin, Sanitation, Sanur, Jenin, Saudi Arabia, Scars of War, Wounds of Peace, Sea of Galilee, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Self-determination, Seychelles, Shai (Haganah unit), Shanty town, Shaul Avigur, Shlomo Ben-Ami, Silat al-Harithiya, Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet, Society for the Defense of Palestine, Solel Boneh, Spanish Civil War, Special Night Squads, St James's Palace, Suez Canal, Suffolk Regiment, Supreme Muslim Council, Syria, Ta'as, Tarab Abdul Hadi, Tayibe, Tegart fort, Tegart's Wall, Tel Aviv, The Baltimore Sun, The Bloody Day in Jaffa, Tom Segev, Tulkarm, Upper Galilee, Walid Khalidi, Wall and tower, Waterboarding, White Paper of 1939, Woodhead Commission, World Zionist Congress, Ya'bad, Yatta, Hebron, Yehuda Arazi, Yishuv, Young Men's Muslim Association, Youth Congress Party, Yusuf Abu Durra, Yusuf Hamdan, Ze'ev Jabotinsky, 11th Hussars, 1929 Palestine riots, 1936 Tulkarm shooting, 1938 Tiberias massacre, 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1948 Palestine war, 8th Infantry Division (United Kingdom). Expand index (264 more) » « Shrink index
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni (عبد القادر الحسيني, also spelled Abd al-Qader al-Husseini) (1907 – 8 April 1948) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and fighter who in late 1933 founded the secret militant group known as the Organization for Holy Struggle (Munathamat al-Jihad al-Muqaddas), which he and Hasan Salama commanded as the Army of the Holy War (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas) during the 1936–39 Arab revolt and during the 1948 war.
Abd al-Rahim al-Hajj Muhammad Al Seif (عبد الرحيم الحج محمد ال سيف;1892 – 23 March 1939), also known by his kunya Abu Kamal, was a prominent Palestinian Arab commander of rebel forces during the 1936–39 Arab revolt against British Mandate rule and increased Jewish settlement in Palestine.
Abdallah al-Asbah) (عبد الله الأصبح, also known as Abu al-Abed) (March 1910–April 1938) was a Palestinian rebel commander who participated in the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. He was killed by British forces near the border with Lebanon. He was born in the village of al-Ja'una near Safad.
Khalil Muhammad Issa, better known by his nom de guerre Abu Ibrahim al-Kabir, was a Palestinian Arab commander during the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine.
The Acre Prison also known as Akko Prison is a former prison and current museum in Acre, Israel.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Administrative detention is arrest and detention of individuals by the state without trial, usually for security reasons.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The aerial bombing of cities in warfare is an optional element of strategic bombing which became widespread during World War I. The bombing of cities grew to a vast scale in World War II, and is still practiced today.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
Ahmad Muhammad Hasan (nom de guerre, Abu Bakr) (died May 1939) was a Palestinian Arab rebel commander during the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine.
Air commodore (abbreviated as Air Cdre in the RAF, IAF and PAF; AIRCDRE in the RNZAF and RAAF) is a one-star rank and the most junior general rank of the air-officer which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Air officer commanding (AOC) is a title given in the air forces of Commonwealth (and some other) nations to an air officer who holds a command appointment which typically comprises a large, organized collection of air force assets.
Air vice-marshal (AVM) is a two-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
al-Bassa' (البصة), also known as Betzet in בצת, was a Palestinian Arab village in the Mandatory Palestine's Acre Subdistrict.
Husayni (الحسيني also spelled Husseini) is the name of a prominent Palestinian Arab clan formerly based in Jerusalem, which claims descent from Husayn ibn Ali (the son of Ali).
Al-Midan (حي الميدان) is a neighbourhood and municipality in Damascus, Syria, just south of the old walled city and very near the modern city centre.
Albert Habib Hourani CBE (ألبرت حبيب حوراني Albart Ḥabīb Ḥūrānī; 31 March 1915 – 17 January 1993) was a British historian, specialising in the Middle East.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 (officially, The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt.
Anita Shapira (אניטה שפירא, born 1940) is an Israeli historian.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
The Arab general strike in Mandatory Palestine of 1936 was a general strike of all Arabs in Mandatory Palestine engaged in labour, transport and shopkeeping, which began on 19 April 1936 and lasted until October 1936; and which degenerated into violence and the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine.
The Arab Higher Committee (اللجنة العربية العليا) or the Higher National Committee was the central political organ of the Arab Palestinians in Mandatory Palestine.
Arab Investigation Centres were torture centres established by the British administration during the 1936-1939 Great Arab Revolt in Mandate Palestine.
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.
Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.
Arms trafficking, also known as gunrunning, is the trafficking of contraband weapons and ammunition.
Arraba (عرّابة ALA-LC ʻArrābah), also Arrabah, Arrabeh or Arrabet Jenin, is a Palestinian town in the northern West Bank located 13 kilometers southwest of Jenin.
General Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope (1 March 1874 – 14 September 1947) was a British soldier and colonial administrator.
Auja al-Hafir (عوجة الحفير, also Auja, was an ancient road junction close to water wells in the western Negev and eastern Sinai. It was the traditional grazing land of the 'Azazme tribe. The border crossing between Egypt and Ottoman/British Palestine, about south of Gaza, was situated there. Today it is the site of Nitzana and the Ktzi'ot military base in the Southern District of Israel.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population (around 3–5% of the total).
Baruch Kimmerling (ברוך קימרלינג, 16 October 1939 – 20 May 2007) was an Israeli scholar and professor of sociology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
On June 21, 1936, Arab militants attacked a convoy of civilian buses escorted in convoy by British soldiers in Mandatory Palestine along the road from Haifa to Tel Aviv, near Anabta.
The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.
The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment was the final title of a line infantry regiment of the British Army that was originally formed in 1688.
Beit She'an (בֵּית שְׁאָן; بيسان,, Beisan or Bisan), is a city in the Northern District of Israel which has played an important role in history due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley.
Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Bernard Wasserstein (born 22 January 1948 in London) historian, educated at the High School of Glasgow and Wyggeston Boys' Grammar School, Leicester.
The Black Hand (translit) was an anti-Zionist and anti-British Jihadist militant organization in Mandatory Palestine.
Black Sunday, 1937 refers to a series of acts undertaken by Jewish militants of the Irgun faction against Arab civilians on 14 November 1937.
The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (3 SCOTS) is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Cement Incident took place in the port of Jaffa in Palestine on 16 October 1935.
The Central Committee of National Jihad in Palestine was the nominal political and organizational body of the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine.
Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.
Sir Charles Augustus Tegart KPM (1881 – 6 April 1946) was a British colonial police officer in India and Mandatory Palestine.
Charles Townshend FBA (born 1945) is a British historian with particular expertise on the historic role of British imperialism in Ireland and Palestine.
The Chief Justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
The Coldstream Guards (COLDM GDS) is a part of the Guards Division, Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.
Collective punishment is a form of retaliation whereby a suspected perpetrator's family members, friends, acquaintances, sect, neighbors or entire ethnic group is targeted.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The community ransom (Hebrew: Kofer HaYishuv; כופר הישוב), or Yishuv ransom was a tax imposed by the Jewish National Council in Mandatory Palestine to finance central security operations and increase the size of the self-defence force known as the Haganah.
In politics, a concession is the act of a losing candidate publicly yielding to a winning candidate after an election after the overall result of the vote has become clear.
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.
A criminal investigation department (CID) is the branch of all territorial police forces within the British Police, and many other Commonwealth police forces, to which plainclothes detectives belong.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
Sir David Petrie (9 September 1879 – 7 August 1961) was Director General (DG) of MI5, the United Kingdom's internal security service, from 1941 to 1946.
The Defence (Emergency) Regulations are an expansive set of regulations first promulgated by the British authorities in Mandatory Palestine in 1945.
Denailing is the extraction of the nails from the fingers and/or toes, either as a medical procedure to treat severe nail infections, or as a method of torture.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
The Dobermann, or Doberman Pinscher in the United States and Canada, is a medium-large breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann, a tax collector from Germany.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Alfred Dudley Pickman Rogers Pound, (29 August 1877 – 21 October 1943) was a senior officer of the Royal Navy.
A dunam (دونم; dönüm), also known as a donum or dunum and as the old, Turkish, or Ottoman stremma, was the Ottoman unit of area equivalent to the Greek stremma or English acre, representing the amount of land that could be ploughed by a team of oxen in a day.
Egged Israel Transport Cooperative Society Ltd (אֶגֶד), a cooperative owned by its members, is the largest transit bus company in Israel.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eliahu Sacharoff was a member of the Haganah who, on 8 October 1943, was sentenced by a military court in the British Mandate of Palestine to seven years' imprisonment after being found guilty of possessing more ammunition than his firearm license allowed.
Eliyahu Golomb (אליהו גולומב, 2 March 1893 – 11 June 1945) was the leader of the Jewish defense effort in Mandate Palestine and chief architect of the Haganah, the underground military organization for defense of the Yishuv between 1920 and 1948.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
Sheikh Farhan al-Saadi (1856 – 22 November 1937) was born in the village al-Mazar near Jenin, Palestine.
Fawzi al-Qawuqji (فوزي القاوقجي; 19 January 1890 – 5 June 1977) was a leading Arab nationalist military figure in the interwar period,The Arabs and the Holocaust: The Arab-Israeli War of Narratives, by Gilbert Achcar, (NY: Henry Holt and Co.; 2009), pp.
Fellah (فلاح, fallāḥ; plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa.
Foot whipping or bastinado is a method of corporal punishment which consists of hitting the bare soles of a person's feet.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The Fosh (פו"ש, an abbreviation for Plugot Sadeh (פלוגות שדה), lit. Field Companies) was an elite Jewish strike force established as the commando arm of the Haganah in 1937, during the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine under the British Mandate of Palestine.
The Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence, also known as the Viénot Accords, was a treaty negotiated between France and Syria to provide for Syrian independence from French authority.
Frederick Hermann Kisch CBE, CB, DSO (23 August 1888 – 7 April 1943) was a decorated British Army officer and Zionist leader.
Gelignite, also known as blasting gelatin or simply jelly, is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in either nitroglycerine or nitroglycol and mixed with wood pulp and saltpetre (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate).
The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.
The General Zionists (הַצִיּוֹנִים הַכְּלָלִיים, translit. HaTzionim HaKlaliym) were a centre-right Zionist movement and a political party in Israel.
George Habib Antonius, CBE (hon.) (جورج حبيب أنطونيوس; October 19, 1891 – May 21, 1942) was a Lebanese-Egyptian author and diplomat, settled in Jerusalem, one of the first historians of Arab nationalism.
Sir Gilbert Mackereth (19 October 1892 – 11 January 1962) was a decorated British Army officer of the First World War who subsequently served as a British diplomat, most notably as Ambassador to Colombia from 1947 to 1953.
The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is the Sunni Muslim cleric in charge of Jerusalem's Islamic holy places, including the Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Great Syrian Revolt (الثورة السورية الكبرى) or Great Druze Revolt (1925–1927) was a general uprising across Mandatory Syria and Lebanon aimed at getting rid of the French, who had been in control of the region since the end of World War I.Miller, 1977, p. 547.
The Guard Corps (חיל המשמר, Heil HaMishmar, abbr. חי"ם, HIM), also Guard Force, was the stationary military unit of the Haganah, a Jewish paramilitary organization in Mandatory Palestine.
The Haavara Agreement was an agreement between Nazi Germany and Zionist German Jews signed on 25 August 1933.
Haganah (הַהֲגָנָה, lit. The Defence) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in the British Mandate of Palestine (1921–48), which became the core of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Haim Arlosoroff (February 23, 1899 – June 16, 1933; also Arlozorov; חיים ארלוזורוב) was a Zionist leader of the Yishuv during the British Mandate for Palestine, prior to the establishment of Israel, and head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency.
Halhul حلحول, transliteration: Ḥalḥūl, is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank, north of Hebron in the Hebron Governorate.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Hamad Sa'b (surname also spelled Saab or Sa'ab, حمد صعب) (1891-1941) was an Arab nationalist rebel commander from Lebanon.
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.
Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael (15 October 1882 – 19 September 1969) was a British colonial administrator.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hasan Salama or Hassan Salameh (حسن سلامة) (1913–1948) was a commander of the Palestinian Holy War Army (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas, Arabic: جيش الجهاد المقدس) in the 1948 Palestine War along with Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni.
Havlagah (ההבלגה, "The Restraint") was a strategic policy used by the Haganah members with regard to actions taken against Arab groups who were attacking the Jewish settlement during the British Mandate of Palestine.
Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel, (6 November 1870 – 5 February 1963) was a British Liberal politician who was the party leader from 1931 to 1935.
The High Commissioner for Palestine was the highest ranking authority representing the United Kingdom in the mandated territories of Palestine and Transjordan under the British Mandate for Palestine.
Hillel Cohen-Bar (born in Jerusalem, 5 October 1961) is an Israeli scholar who studies and writes about Jewish-Arab relations in Palestine/Israel.
Hish (חי"ש, an abbreviation of Heil HaSadeh (חיל השדה), lit. Field Corps) was a corps formed by the Haganah in the British Mandate of Palestine in 1939, following the disbandment of the smaller mobilized force known as the Fosh.
Histadrut or the General Organization of Workers in Israel originally (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל, HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim B'Eretz Yisrael) is Israel's national trade union centre, representing the majority of trade unionists in the State of Israel.
HMS Emerald was an light cruiser of the Royal Navy.
HMS Malaya was a built for the Royal Navy during the early 1910s.
HMS Repulse was a of the Royal Navy built during the First World War.
HMS Warspite was a built for the Royal Navy during the early 1910s.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
Hugh Mackintosh Foot, Baron Caradon (8 October 1907 – 5 September 1990) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat who presided over moves to independence in various colonies and was UK representative to the United Nations.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
Ian Black is a British journalist and author focusing on international political issues.
Ibrahim Nassar (Arabic: إبراهيم نصار; l895-1985) was a Palestinian rebel commander and politician.
The Independence Party of Palestine (Hizb al-Istiqlal) was an Arab nationalist political party established on 13 August 1932 in Palestine during the British Mandate.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine was the civil, political and armed struggle between Palestinian Arabs and Jewish Yishuv during the British rule in Mandatory Palestine, beginning from the violent spillover of the Franco-Syrian War in 1920 and until the onset of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Irgun (ארגון; full title:, lit. "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
The Iron Wall (We and the Arabs) is an essay written by Ze'ev Jabotinsky in 1923.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
Issa al-Hajj Suleiman Battat (also spelled 'Isa al-Battat) was a Palestinian Arab commander of rebels during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine based in the hills around Hebron.
Izz ad-Din Abd al-Qadar ibn Mustafa ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Qassam (1881 or 19 December 1882 – 20 November 1935) (عز الدين بن عبد القادر بن مصطفى بن يوسف بن محمد القسام / ALA-LC) was a Syrian Muslim preacher, and a leader in the local struggles against British and French Mandatory rule in the Levant, and a militant opponent of Zionism in the 1920s and 1930s.
Muhammad 'Izzat Darwaza (محمد عزت دروزة; 1888–1984) was a Palestinian politician, historian, and educator from Nablus.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
Jaffa Road (רחוב יפו, Rehov Yaffo, شارع يافا) is one of the longest and oldest major streets in Jerusalem, Israel.
Jenin (جنين) is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank.
Jeremy Black MBE (born 30 October 1955) is a British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine involved paramilitary actions carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials in Mandatory Palestine.
The Jewish National Council (JNC) (ועד לאומי, Va'ad Le'umi), also known as the Jewish People's Council was the main national executive institution of the Jewish community (Yishuv) within Mandatory Palestine.
The Jewish National Fund (קרן קיימת לישראל, Keren Kayemet LeYisrael previously הפונד הלאומי, Ha Fund HaLeumi) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later the British Mandate for Palestine, and subsequently Israel and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.
The Jewish Settlement Police (JSP) (Mishteret Ha-Yishuvim Ha-Ivri'yim) were a division of the Notrim established in Mandatory Palestine in 1936, during the 1936-39 Arab revolt.
The Jewish Supernumerary Police (sometimes referred to as Jewish Auxiliary Police) (Hebrew: Shotrim Musafim) were a branch of the Guards (Notrim) set up by the British in the British Mandate of Palestine in June 1936.
Field Marshal Sir John Greer Dill, (25 December 1881 – 4 November 1944) was a senior British Army officer with service in both the First World War and the Second World War.
John Laffin (21 September 1922 – 2000) was an Australian military historian and journalist.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Joseph Gedaliah Klausner (יוסף גדליה קלוזנר; 20 August 1874 – 27 October 1958), was a Jewish historian and professor of Hebrew Literature.
The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
The Mosul–Haifa oil pipeline (also known as the Iraq–Haifa pipeline or Mediterranean pipeline) was a crude oil pipeline from the oil fields in Kirkuk, located in the former Ottoman vilayet of Mosul in northern Iraq, through Jordan to Haifa (in mandatory Palestine, now in the territory of Israel).
Labor Zionism or Socialist Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת סוֹצְיָאלִיסְטִית, translit. tziyonut sotzyalistit) is the left-wing of the Zionist movement.
Lajjun (اللجّون, al-Lajjûn) was a Palestinian Arab village in Mandatory Palestine, located northwest of Jenin and south of the remains of the biblical city of Megiddo.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lewis Yelland Andrews (1896-1937) was the British District Commissioner for the Galilee during the British Mandate for Palestine.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
Lubya (لوبيا "bean"), sometimes transliterated Lubia, was a Palestinian Arab town located ten kilometers west of Tiberias that was captured and destroyed by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Ma'an (معان) is a city in southern Jordan, southwest of the capital Amman.
Malcolm John MacDonald (17 August 1901 – 11 January 1981) was a British politician and diplomat.
The Manchester Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1958.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Mapai (מַפָּא"י, an acronym for, Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael, lit. "Workers' Party of the Land of Israel") was a centre-left political party in Israel, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the modern-day Israeli Labor Party in 1968.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Sir Martin John Gilbert (25 October 1936 – 3 February 2015) was a British historian and honorary Fellow of Merton College, University of Oxford.
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station was part of the Royal Navy.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
Mi'ar (ميعار), was a Palestinian village located 17.5 kilometers east of Acre.
The Security Service, also MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).
Sir Michael Francis Joseph McDonnell (1882–1956) was Chief Justice of Palestine between 1927 and 1936.
Middle East Command, later Middle East Land Forces, was a British Army Command established prior to the Second World War in Egypt.
The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.
The Mizrachi (תנועת הַמִזְרָחִי, Tnuat HaMizrahi, an acronym for Merkaz Ruhani lit. Religious centre) is the name of the religious Zionist organization founded in 1902 in Vilnius at a world conference of religious Zionists called by Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Reines.
The Mobile Guards (Hebrew: Mishmarot Nayim; המשמר הנע), also known as the Manim from the initials of the Hebrew words, were a branch of the Notrim in Mandatory Palestine established at the beginning of the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine to ambush Arab terrorists and to protect Jewish settlements and workers in their orchards and fields.
The Mobile units "Nomads" or "Wanderers" (Ha-Nodedot) was a detachment of the Haganah Jewish self-defense force in Mandate Palestine set up during the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine as a mobile field-intelligence corps.
Moshe Sharett (משה שרת, born Moshe Shertok (Hebrew)‎ 15 October 1894 – 7 July 1965) was the second Prime Minister of Israel (1954–55), serving for a little under two years between David Ben-Gurion's two terms.
Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.
The Mossad LeAliyah Bet (המוסד לעלייה ב', lit. Institution for Immigration B) was a branch of the Haganah in the British Mandate of Palestine, and later the State of Israel that operated to facilitate Jewish immigration to British Palestine (later Israel).
Mount Carmel (הַר הַכַּרְמֶל, Har HaKarmel ISO 259-3 Har ha Karmell (lit. God's vineyard); الكرمل, Al-Kurmul, or جبل مار إلياس, Jabal Mar Elyas (lit. Mount Saint Elias/Elijah) is a coastal mountain range in northern Israel stretching from the Mediterranean Sea towards the southeast. The range is a UNESCO biosphere reserve. A number of towns are situated there, most notably the city of Haifa, Israel's third largest city, located on the northern slope. The name is presumed to be directly from the Hebrew language word Carmel (כַּרְמֶל), which means "fresh" (planted), or "vineyard" (planted).
Mount Hebron (הר חברון, جبل الخليل) is a Mountian ridge and geographic region and geologic formation, comprising the bulk of the central Judean Mountains.
Muhammad al-Ashmar (محمد الأشمر) (1892–1960) was a Syrian rebel commander during the Great Syrian Revolt and the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, and a prominent communist figure in post-independence Syria.
Mukhtar (also spelled Muktar) meaning "chosen" in المختار, is the head of a village or mahalle (neighbourhood) in many Arab countries as well as in Turkey, Cyprus and Kazakhstan.
The Mutawakkilite Kingdom (المملكة المتوكلية), also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, was a state that existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen.
Nabi Musa (نبي موسى, meaning the "Prophet Moses", also transliterated Nebi Musa) is the name of a site in the West Bank believed to be the tomb of Moses.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Νεάπολις Νeapolis) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
Nashashibi (خراعلى النشاشيبي.; transliteration, an-Nashāshībī) is the name of a prominent Palestinian family based in Jerusalem.
The National Bloc (al-Kutla al-Wataniyya الكتلة الوطنية) was a Nablus-based party established in 1935 in the British Mandate for Palestine by Abd al-Latif Salah, a lawyer and former official in the Ottoman Senate at Istanbul.
The National Defense Party (حزب الدفاع الوطني Ḥizb al-Fidāʿ al-Waṭanī) was set up by Raghib al-Nashashibi in the British Mandate of Palestine in December 1934.
Nazareth (נָצְרַת, Natzrat; النَّاصِرَة, an-Nāṣira; ܢܨܪܬ, Naṣrath) is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
Nuri Pasha al-Said (December 1888 – 15 July 1958) (نوري السعيد) was an Iraqi politician during the British Mandate of Iraq and the Kingdom of Iraq.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
The Old City (הָעִיר הָעַתִּיקָה, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, البلدة القديمة, al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem.
The one-state solution and the similar binational solution are proposed approaches to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Palestinian Arab Party (الحزب العربي الفلسطيني ‘Al-Hizb al-'Arabi al-Filastini) was a political party in Palestine established by the influential Husayni family in May 1935.
The Palestine Police Force was a British colonial police service established in Mandatory Palestine on 1 July 1920,Sinclair, 2006.
Palestinian Jew is the term used to refer to a Jewish inhabitant of Palestine (known in Hebrew as Eretz Israel, the "Land of Israel") prior to the establishment of the modern state of Israel.
Palestinian nationalism is the national movement of the Palestinian people for self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine.
The Scout movement in Palestine started in 1912 at St. George's School in Jerusalem, and participated in the World Scout Jamborees in 1929 and 1933.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
The Palmach (Hebrew:, acronym for Plugot Maḥatz (Hebrew), lit. "strike forces") was the elite fighting force of the Haganah, the underground army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the period of the British Mandate for Palestine.
Pan-Arabism, or simply Arabism, is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
The Peel Commission, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry, headed by Lord Peel, appointed in 1936 to investigate the causes of unrest in Mandatory Palestine, which was administered by Britain, following the six-month-long Arab general strike in Mandatory Palestine.
Petah Tikva (פֶּתַח תִּקְוָה,, "Opening of Hope"), also known as Em HaMoshavot ("Mother of the Moshavot"), is a city in the Central District of Israel, east of Tel Aviv.
The Peulot Meyuhadot (POM or Pum) (Hebrew: פלוגות מיוחדות) were three highly secret special operations squads set up in Palestine by Yitzhak Sadeh on David Ben-Gurion's orders early in 1939, towards the end of the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine.
Philip Mattar (فيليب مطر, born 1944) is a Palestinian American historian.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Pro–Wailing Wall Committee was established in Mandatory Palestine on 24 July 1929, by Joseph Klausner, professor of modern Hebrew literature at the Hebrew University,Shindler, 2006, p. 96.
Qalqilya (Qalqīlyaḧ); is a Palestinian city in the West Bank.
The 2-pounder gun,British military of the period traditionally denoted smaller guns in terms of the approximate weight of the standard projectile, rather than by its bore diameter, which in this case was 40 mm.
The Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army based in the county of Kent in existence from 1881 to 1961.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Intelligence services in the Royal Air Force are delivered by Officers of the Royal Air Force Intelligence Branch and Airmen from the Intelligence Analyst Trade and Intelligence Analyst (Voice) Trade.
The Royal Air Force Regiment (RAF Regiment) is part of the Royal Air Force and functions as a specialist corps founded by Royal Warrant in 1942.
Raghib al-Nashashibi (راغب النشاشيبي) (1881–1951), CBE (hon), was a wealthy landowner and public figure during the Ottoman Empire, the British Mandate and the Jordanian administration.
Inspector Ralph Cairns (1908 – 26 August 1939) was a British police officer who was commander of the Palestine Police CID's Jewish Section until his assassination.
Ran was the counter-intelligence service of the Jewish settlement in Mandate Palestine.
Raphael Patai (Hebrew רפאל פטאי) (November 22, 1910 − July 20, 1996), born Ervin György Patai, was a Hungarian-Jewish ethnographer, historian, Orientalist and anthropologist.
Rashid Ismail Khalidi (رشيد خالدي; born 1948) is a Palestinian American historian of the Middle East, the Edward Said Professor of Modern Arab Studies at Columbia University, and director of the Middle East Institute of Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs.
The Reform Party (or Hizb-al-Islah) was established by Husayn al-Khalidi in Palestine on 23 June 1935.
Rekhesh (רֶכֶשׁ, lit. Acquisitions) was the arms and munitions procurement branch of the Haganah Jewish defense force in Mandatory Palestine, in the middle 1940s, at a time when the British were not allowing the Jews to have arms.
Reuven Shiloah (ראובן שילוח; December 1909 – 1959) was the first Director of the Mossad from 1949 to 1953.
Revisionist Maximalism was a short-term movement and Jewish fascist ideology which was part of the Brit HaBirionim faction of the Zionist Revisionist Movement (ZRM) created by Abba Ahimeir.
Revisionist Zionism is a faction within the Zionist movement.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
General Sir Richard Nugent O'Connor & Bar, MC (21 August 1889 – 17 June 1981) was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First and Second World Wars, and commanded the Western Desert Force in the early years of the Second World War.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Edmund Charles Peirse, (30 September 1892 – 5 August 1970) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.
A roadblock is a temporary installation set up to control or block traffic along a road.
General Sir Robert Hadden Haining KCB DSO (1882–1959) was a British Army general who served during the Second World War.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Roderic Maxwell Hill, (1 March 1894 – 6 October 1954) was a senior Royal Air Force commander during the Second World War.
The Rolls-Royce Armoured Car was a British armoured car developed in 1914 and used during the First World War, the inter-war period in Imperial Air Control in Transjordan, Palestine and Mesopotamia, and in the early stages of the Second World War in the Middle East and North Africa.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army.
The Royal Irish Rifles (became the Royal Ulster Rifles from 1 January 1921) was an infantry rifle regiment of the British Army, first created in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 83rd (County of Dublin) Regiment of Foot and the 86th (Royal County Down) Regiment of Foot.
Sa'id al-'As (سعيد العاص) (1889 – 6 October 1936) was a Syrian nationalist, a former officer in the Ottoman army and a high-ranking commander of rebel forces during the Great Syrian Revolt against French rule in Syria and the 1936 revolt against British rule in Palestine.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Sanur (صانور, also spelled Sanour) is a Palestinian village located southwest of Jenin, in the Jenin Governorate.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli–Arab Tragedy is a book by historian and former Israeli Foreign Minister Shlomo Ben-Ami, which examines the history of the Arab–Israeli conflict.
The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Shai (an acronym for Sherut Yediot, lit. Information Service), established in 1940, was the intelligence and counter-espionage arm of the Haganah and the forebear of the Military Intelligence Directorate in Mandate Palestine.
A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.
Shaul Avigur (שאול אביגור; 1899–1978) was a founder of the Israeli Intelligence Community.
Shlomo Ben-Ami (שלמה בן עמי; born 17 July 1943) is a former Israeli diplomat, politician and historian.
Silat al-Harithiya (سيلة الحارثية) is a Palestinian village in the Jenin Governorate, located northwest of Jenin in the northern West Bank.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet, (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris, was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) RAF Bomber Command during the height of the Anglo-American strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany in the Second World War.
Society for the Defense of Palestine was a nationalist Arab militia, active during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine.
Solel Boneh (סולל בונה, lit. Paving and Building) is the oldest, and one of the largest, construction and civil engineering companies in Israel.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Special Night Squads (SNS) (Hebrew: Plugot Ha'Layla Ha'Meyukhadot, פלוגות הלילה המיוחדות) were a joint British-Jewish counter-insurgency unit, established by Captain Orde Wingate in Mandatory Palestine in 1938, during the 1936-1939 Arab revolt.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Suffolk Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army with a history dating back to 1685.
The Supreme Muslim Council (SMC) (in Arabic المجلس الإسلامي الاعلى) was the highest body in charge of Muslim community affairs in Mandatory Palestine under British control.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Ta'as, an abbreviation of the Hebrew for "Military Industry" (Hebrew: Ta'asiya Tzvait), was the clandestine arms industry of the Jewish settlement in Mandatory Palestine.
Tarab Abdul Hadi (طَرب عبد الهادي), also transliterated Tarab 'Abd al-Hadi, (1910 Jenin –1976 Cairo) was a Palestinian activist and feminist.
Tayibe (also spelled Taibeh or Tayiba; الطيبة, Levantine pronunciation:, "the kind"/"the benevolent"; טַיִּבָּה) is an Arab city in central Israel, east of Kfar Saba.
A Tegart fort is a type of militarized police fort constructed throughout Palestine during the British Mandatory period, initiated as a measure against the 1936–39 Arab Revolt.
Tegart's Wall was a barbed wire fence erected in May-June 1938 by British Mandatory authorities in the Upper Galilee near the northern border of the territory in order to keep militants from infiltrating from French-controlled Mandatory Lebanon and Syria to join the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
The Baltimore Sun is the largest general-circulation daily newspaper based in the American state of Maryland and provides coverage of local and regional news, events, issues, people, and industries.
The Bloody Day in Jaffa (Hebrew: יום הדמים ביפו) refers to a spate of violent attacks on Jews that began on 19 April 1936 in Jaffa.
Tom Segev (תום שגב; born March 1, 1945) is an Israeli historian, author and journalist.
Tulkarm or Tulkarem (طولكرم, Ṭūlkarm) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank, located in the Tulkarm Governorate.
The Upper Galilee (הגליל העליון, HaGalil Ha'Elyon; الجليل الأعلى, Al Jaleel Al A'alaa) is a geographical-political term in use since the end of the Second Temple period, originally referring to a mountainous area straddling present-day northern Israel and southern Lebanon, its boundaries being the Litani River in the north, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Lower Galilee in the south, from which it is separated by the Beit HaKerem Valley, and the upper Jordan River and the Hula Valley in the east.
Walid Khalidi (وليد خالدي, born 1925 in Jerusalem) is an Oxford University-educated Palestinian historian who has written extensively on the Palestinian exodus.
Tower and Stockade (חוֹמָה וּמִגְדָּל, translit. Homa u'migdal, lit. "wall and tower"), was a settlement method used by Zionist settlers in Mandatory Palestine during the 1936–39 Arab Revolt.
Waterboarding is a form of water torture in which water is poured over a cloth covering the face and breathing passages of an immobilized captive, causing the individual to experience the sensation of drowning.
The White Paper of 1939Occasionally also known as the MacDonald White Paper (e.g. Caplan, 2015, p.117) after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over its creation.
The Woodhead Commission (officially the Palestine Partition CommissionPalestine Partition Commission Report, Command Paper 5854, Printed and published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1938 (310 pages and 13 maps)) was a British technical commission established to propose "a detailed" partition scheme for Mandatory Palestine, including recommending the partition boundaries and examination of economic and financial aspects of the Peel Plan.
The Zionist Congress was established in 1897 by Theodor Herzl as the supreme organ of the Zionist Organization (ZO) and its legislative authority.
Ya'bad (يعبد; יעבד) is a Palestinian town in the northern West Bank, 20 kilometers west of Jenin in the Jenin Governorate.
Yatta or Yattah (يطّا) is a Palestinian city located in the Hebron Governorate in the West Bank approximately 8 km south of the city of Hebron in the West Bank.
Yehuda Arazi (יהודה ארזי; 1907–1959), code name Alon, was an Israeli who was active in the Haganah in Palestine during the British Mandate era.
The Yishuv (ישוב, literally "settlement") or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv, הישוב) or Ha-Yishuv Ha-Ivri (the Hebrew Yishuv, הישוב העברי) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.
The Young Men's Muslim Association (جمعية الشبان المسلمين) (Jam'iyyat al-Shubban al-Muslimin) was founded in Egypt in 1926, two years before the founding of the Muslim Brotherhood.
The Youth Congress Party was a Palestinian political party that was established by Yaqub al-Ghusayn.
Yusuf Sa'id Abu Durra (1900 – 30 September 1939) (nom de guerre: Abu Abed) was one of the chief Palestinian Arab rebel commanders during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine.
Yusuf Hamdan (died December 1939) was a Palestinian rebel commander during the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in British Mandatory Palestine.
Ze'ev Jabotinsky, MBE (זאב ז'בוטינסקי, Ze'ev Zhabotinski; זאב זשאבאטינסקי; born Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky, Влади́мир Евге́ньевич Жаботи́нский; 5 (17) October 1880, Odessa – 4 August 1940, Hunter, New York), was a Russian Jewish Revisionist Zionist leader, author, poet, orator, soldier and founder of the Jewish Self-Defense Organization in Odessa.
The 11th Hussars (Prince Albert's Own) was a cavalry regiment of the British Army established in 1715.
The 1929 Arab riots in Palestine, or the Buraq Uprising (ثورة البراق), also known as the 1929 Massacres, (מאורעות תרפ"ט,, lit. Events of 5689 Anno Mundi) refers to a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence.
The 1936 shooting of two Jews on the road between Anabta and Tulkarm took place in British Mandatory Palestine.
The Tiberias massacre took place on 2 October 1938, during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Tiberias, then located in the British Mandate of Palestine and today is located in the State of Israel.
The 1941 Iraqi coup d'état (Arabic: ثورة رشيد عالي الكيلاني), also called the Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani coup or the Golden Square coup, was a nationalist and pro-Nazi Coup d'état in Iraq on 1 April 1941 that overthrew the pro-British regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah and his Prime Minister Nuri al-Said and installed Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as Prime Minister.
The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Palestine war, known in Hebrew as the War of Independence (מלחמת העצמאות, Milkhemet Ha'Atzma'ut) or the War of Liberation (מלחמת השחרור, Milkhemet HaShikhrur) and in Arabic as The Nakba or Catastrophe (النكبة, al-Nakba), refers to the war that occurred in the former Mandatory Palestine during the period between the United Nations vote on the partition plan on November 30, 1947, and the official end of the first Arab–Israeli war on July 20, 1949.
The 8th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.
1936 Arab Revolt, 1936 Palestine revolt, 1936-1939 Arab Revolt, 1936-1939 Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1936-1939 Palestinian Arab revolt, 1936-39 Arab Revolt, 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1936-39 Muslim revolt in Palestine, 1936–1939 Arab Revolt, 1936–1939 Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936–39 Arab revolt in British Palestine, 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1936–39 Muslim revolt in Palestine, Arab riots of 1936, Palestine Insurgency, Qassamiyun.