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1956 Georgian demonstrations

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The March 1956 demonstrations (also known as the 1956 Tbilisi riots or 9 March massacre) in the Georgian SSR were a series of protests against Nikita Khrushchev's revisionist de-Stalinization policy, which shocked Georgian supporters of Marxist–Leninist ideology. [1]

79 relations: Akaki Mgeladze, Anastas Mikoyan, Anti-Sovietism, April 9 tragedy, Armenians in Georgia, August Uprising, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Baltic states, Batumi, BBC News, Cult of personality, Curfew, David Baazov, David Marshall Lang, De-Stalinization, Democratic Republic of Georgia, Demonstration (protest), Dideba, Eduard Shevardnadze, Flag of Georgia (country), Free Press (publisher), Freedom Square, Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgians, Gori, Georgia, Gulag, History of the Jews in Georgia, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Indiana University Press, Ivan Fedyuninsky, Joseph Stalin, Kardanakhi, Komsomol, Kura (Caspian Sea), Kutaisi, Merab Kostava, Mikheil Chiaureli, Militsiya, Mir Jafar Baghirov, Nick Awde, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Bulganin, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, Pogrom, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Poznań 1956 protests, Prague Spring, President of Georgia, Richard Sakwa, Riot, ..., Ronald Grigor Suny, Routledge, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russians in Georgia, Rustaveli Avenue, Rustavi, Siberia, Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet Union, Stalin's cult of personality, Stalinism, Sukhumi, Svante Cornell, Tbilisi, Tbilisi State University, The Fall of Berlin (film), The Unforgettable Year 1919 (film), Transcaucasia, Transcaucasian Military District, Uppsala University, Vasil Mzhavanadze, Vasily Stalin, Vladimir Janjgava, Vladimir Lenin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Zhu De, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, 1978 Georgian demonstrations, 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Expand index (29 more) »

Akaki Mgeladze

Akaki Mgeladze (აკაკი მგელაძე; Ака́кий Ива́нович Мгела́дзе; 1910–1980) was a Soviet politician.

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Anastas Mikoyan

Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (25 November 1895 – 21 October 1978) was a Soviet Armenian revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev.

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Anti-Sovietism

Anti-Sovietism and anti-Soviet refer to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or government power within the Soviet Union.

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April 9 tragedy

The April 9 tragedy (also known as Tbilisi massacre or Tbilisi tragedy) refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, on April 9, 1989, when an anti-Soviet demonstration was dispersed by the Soviet Army, resulting in 21 deaths and hundreds of injuries.

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Armenians in Georgia

Armenians in Georgia (Virahayer) are Armenian people living within the country of Georgia.

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August Uprising

The August Uprising (აგვისტოს აჯანყება, agvistos adjanq’eba) was an unsuccessful insurrection against Soviet rule in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic from late August to early September 1924.

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Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Azerbaijan (Азәрбајҹан; Azərbaycan), officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы, Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası, Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Azerbajdžanskaja Sovetskaja Socialističeskaja Respublika) and the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası, Азәрбајҹан Республикасы), also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.

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Baltic states

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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Batumi

Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Cult of personality

A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

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Curfew

A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.

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David Baazov

David Baazov (დავით ბააზოვი; 1883–1947) was a Georgian-Jewish public and religious figure who spearheaded the Zionist movement in Georgia.

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David Marshall Lang

David Marshall Lang (6 May 1924 – 20 March 1991), was a Professor of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

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De-Stalinization

De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.

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Democratic Republic of Georgia

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km2 (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km2), and a population of 2.5 million. The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic.

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Demonstration (protest)

A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.

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Dideba

"Dideba" (დიდება, literally "Praise"), also known as "Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls", was the national anthem of Georgia from 14 November 1990 to 23 April 2004.

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Eduard Shevardnadze

Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze (ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, Eduard Ambrosis dze Šewardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat.

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Flag of Georgia (country)

The flag of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს სახელმწიფო დროშა; sakartvelos sakhelmtsʼipo drosha), also known as the Five Cross Flag (Georgian: ხუთჯვრიანი დროშა; khutjvriani drosha), is one of the national symbols of Georgia.

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Free Press (publisher)

Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.

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Freedom Square, Tbilisi

Freedom Square (Georgian: თავისუფლების მოედანი Tavisuplebis moedani, pronounced), formerly known as Erivan (or Erivanskaya) or Pashkevich-Erivanskaya Square (Georgian: ერევანსკი მოედანი, Erevansk'i moedani, Russian: Эриванская площадь, Erivanskaya ploshchad) under Imperial Russia and Lenin Square under the Soviet Union, is located in the center of Tbilisi at the eastern end of Rustaveli Avenue.

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Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

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Georgians

The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.

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Gori, Georgia

Gori (გორი) is a city in eastern Georgia, which serves as the regional capital of Shida Kartli and the centre of the homonymous administrative district.

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Gulag

The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.

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History of the Jews in Georgia

Georgian Jews (ქართველი ებრაელები kartveli ebraelebi) are one of the oldest communities in Georgia, tracing their migration into the country during the Babylonian captivity in 6th century BC.

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Hungarian Revolution of 1956

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

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Indiana University Press

Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.

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Ivan Fedyuninsky

Ivan Ivanovich Fedyuninsky (Иван Иванович Федюнинский; July 30, 1900 – October 17, 1977) was a Soviet military leader and Hero of the Soviet Union (1939).

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Kardanakhi

Kardenakhi is a village in Georgian region of Kakheti.

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Komsomol

The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.

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Kura (Caspian Sea)

The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.

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Kutaisi

Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city.

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Merab Kostava

Merab Kostava (მერაბ კოსტავა) (May 26, 1939 – October 13, 1989) was a Georgian dissident, musician and poet; one of the leaders of the National-Liberation movement in Georgia.

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Mikheil Chiaureli

Mikheil Chiaureli (მიხეილ ჭიაურელი, Михаил Эдишерович Чиаурели, 6 February 1894 – 31 October 1974) was a Soviet Georgian actor, film director and screenwriter.

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Militsiya

Militsiya (mʲɪˈlʲitsɨjə, міліцыя, miilits, միլիցիա, милиция, milicija, milicija, milicja, miliția, milicija/милиција, milica, милитсия, міліція, militsiya or милиция), often confused with militia, was the name of the police forces in the Soviet Union and several Warsaw Pact countries, as well as in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia, and the term is still commonly used in some of the individual former Soviet republics such as Belarus, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as in the unrecognized republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.

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Mir Jafar Baghirov

Mir Jafar Baghirov Abbas oglu (Mir Cəfər Bağırov Abbas oğlu; 17 September 1896 – 7 May 1956) was the communist leader of the Azerbaijan SSR from 1932 to 1953, under the Soviet leadership of Joseph Stalin.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nick Awde

Nick Awde Hill (born 29 December 1961 in London, England) is a British writer, artist, singer-songwriter and critic.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

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Nikolai Bulganin

Nikolai Alexandrovich Bulganin (– 24 February 1975) was a Soviet politician who served as Minister of Defense (1953–1955) and Premier of the Soviet Union (1955–1958) under Nikita Khrushchev, following service in the Red Army and as defense minister under Joseph Stalin.

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On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences

"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.

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Pogrom

The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.

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Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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Poznań 1956 protests

The Poznań 1956 protests, also known as the Poznań 1956 uprising, Poznań June or Polish Revolution of 1956 (Poznański Czerwiec), were the first of several massive protests against the communist government of the Polish People's Republic.

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Prague Spring

The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.

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President of Georgia

The President of Georgia (საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი, sakartvelos prezidenti) is the head of state and supreme commander-in-chief.

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Richard Sakwa

Richard Sakwa (born 1953) is Professor of Russian and European politics at the University of Kent.

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Riot

A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.

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Ronald Grigor Suny

Ronald Grigor Suny (born September 25, 1940) is director of the Eisenberg Institute for Historical Studies, the Charles Tilly Collegiate Professor of Social and Political History at the University of Michigan, and Emeritus Professor of political science and history at the University of Chicago.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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Russians in Georgia

There is no substantial Russian population in Georgia.

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Rustaveli Avenue

Rustaveli Avenue (რუსთაველის გამზირი, Rust'avelis Gamziri), formerly known as Golovin Street, is the central avenue in Tbilisi named after the medieval Georgian poet, Shota Rustaveli.

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Rustavi

Rustavi (რუსთავი) is a city in the southeast of Georgia, in the province of Kvemo Kartli, situated southeast of the capital Tbilisi.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Soviet Armed Forces

The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Stalin's cult of personality

Joseph Stalin's cult of personality became a prominent part of Soviet culture in December 1929, after a lavish celebration for Stalin's 50th birthday.

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Stalinism

Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).

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Sukhumi

Sokhumi or Sukhumi (Аҟәа, Aqwa; სოხუმი,; Сухум(и), Sukhum(i)) is a city on the Black Sea coast.

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Svante Cornell

Svante E. Cornell (born 1975) is a Swedish scholar specializing on politics and security issues in Eurasia, especially the South Caucasus, Turkey, and Central Asia.

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Tbilisi

Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

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Tbilisi State University

Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი Ivane Javaxishvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmts'ipo universit'et'i, often shortened to its historical name, Tbilisi State University or TSU), is a public research university established on 8 February 1918 in Tbilisi, Georgia.

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The Fall of Berlin (film)

The Fall of Berlin (Падение Берлина; translit. Padeniye Berlina) is a 1950 Soviet war film and an example of Soviet realism, in two parts separated in the manner of a serial, directed by Mikheil Chiaureli, released by the Mosfilm Studio.

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The Unforgettable Year 1919 (film)

The Unforgettable Year 1919 (Nezabyvaemyy 1919 god) is a 1951 Soviet biopic directed by Mikheil Chiaureli.

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Transcaucasia

Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Transcaucasian Military District

The Transcaucasian Military District, a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces, traces its history to May 1921 and the incorporation of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia into the Soviet Union.

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Uppsala University

Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.

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Vasil Mzhavanadze

Vasil Pavlovich Mzhavanadze (also Vasily; ვასილ მჟავანაძე; – 31 August 1988) was the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Georgian SSR from September 1953 to September 28, 1972 and a member of the CPSU's Politburo from June 29, 1957 to December 18, 1972.

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Vasily Stalin

Vasily Iosifovich Stalin (Васи́лий Ио́сифович Ста́лин; né Dzhugashvili; Джугашви́ли; 21 March 1921 – 19 March 1962) was the son of Joseph Stalin by his second wife, Nadezhda Alliluyeva.

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Vladimir Janjgava

Vladimir (Nikolayevich) Janjgava (ვლადიმერ ჯანჯღავა; May 19, 1907 – April 10, 1982) was an ethnic Georgian Soviet Army Lieutenant General and Hero of the Soviet Union who participated in battles during the Winter War and was a specialist in infantry warfare during World War II. Janigava held command of various infantry regiments, divisions and corps of the Soviet Army.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Vyacheslav Molotov

Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.

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Zhu De

Zhu De ((also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.

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Zviad Gamsakhurdia

Zviad Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია, tr. Zviad K'onst'ant'ines dze Gamsakhurdia; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия, tr. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya; March 31, 1939 – December 31, 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.

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1978 Georgian demonstrations

On 14 April 1978, demonstrations in Tbilisi, capital of the Georgian SSR, took place in response to an attempt by the Soviet government to change the constitutional status of languages in Georgia.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during the period 14–25 February 1956.

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Redirects here:

1956 Tbilisi riots, 9 March 1956 massacre in Tbilisi, 9 March massacre in Tbilisi, 1956, March 1956 demonstrations, March 9 Massacre in Tbilisi, 1956, March 9 Tragedy, March 9 massacre, March 9 massacre in Tbilisi, 1956.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1956_Georgian_demonstrations

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