97 relations: Abd al-Karim Qasim, Abd al-Wahhab Hawmad, Abdul Salam Arif, Adib Shishakli, Akram al-Hawrani, Al-Dumayr, Al-Kiswah, Alawites, Aleppo, Algeria, American University of Beirut, Amin al-Hafiz, Ancien Régime, Arab Ba'ath Movement, Arab Cold War, Arab Kingdom of Syria, Arab nationalism, Arab Nationalist Movement, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region, Arab Socialist Movement, As-Suwayda, Ba'ath Party, Ba'athism, Beirut, Capitalism, Clientelism, Commander-in-chief, Communism, Conservatism, Corrective Movement (Syria), Coup d'état, Druze, Elitism, Faisal I of Iraq, Feudalism, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Hafez al-Assad, Hama, Hani al-Hindi, Homs Military Academy, Husni al-Za'im, Imperialism, Islamism, Isma'ilism, Jamal al-Atassi, Jassem Alwan, Khalid al-Azm, Liberalism, ..., List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, Lu'ay al-Atassi, Mansur al-Atrash, Merchant, Michel Aflaq, Ministry of Defense (Syria), Ministry of Interior (Syria), Muhammad al-Sufi, Muhammad Umran, Nasserism, National Command of the Ba'ath Party, National Council for the Revolutionary Command, Nazim al-Kudsi, Oligarchy, Pan-Islamism, Patrick Seale, Pincer movement, Prime Minister of Syria, Qatana, Raef al-Maarri, Ramadan Revolution, Rifaat al-Assad, Routledge, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Salah Jadid, Salim Hatum, Sami Droubi, Secularism, Social class, Sykes–Picot Agreement, Syria, Syria (region), Syrian Air Force, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Crisis of 1957, Syrian Republic (1946–63), Syrian Social Nationalist Party, Tribalism, United Arab Republic, University of California Press, Wahib al-Ghanim, World War I, Zaki al-Arsuzi, Ziad al-Hariri, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1961 Syrian coup d'état, 1966 Syrian coup d'état. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
Abd Al-Karim Qasim Muhammed Bakr Al-Fadhli Al-Zubaidi (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in the 14 July Revolution, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
Abd al-Wahhab Hawmad (عبد الوهاب حومد) (1915 – February 2002) was a Syrian politician, lawyer, criminologist and professor.
‘Abd ul-Salam Mohammed ‘Arif Aljumaily (عبد السلام محمد عارف الجميلي) (21 March 1921 – 13 April 1966) was President of Iraq from 1963 until his death in 1966.
Adib Bin Hassan Al-Shishakli (أديب بن حسن الشيشكلي, Edip Çiçekli; 1909 – 27 September 1964) was a Syrian military leader and President of Syria (1953–54).
Akram Al-Hourani (أكرم الحوراني, also transcribed El-Hourani, Howrani or Hurani) (1912 – 24 February 1996), was a Syrian politician who played a prominent role in the formation of a widespread populist, nationalist movement in Syria and in the rise of the Ba'ath Party.
Dumeir, also Dumair, Damir and Dumayr (ضمير or الضمير) is a city located 40 kilometers north-east of Damascus, Syria.
Al-Kiswah (الكسوة also spelled Kissoué/Kiswe) is a city in the Rif Dimashq Governorate, Syria.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The American University of Beirut (AUB); الجامعة الأمريكية في بيروت) is a private, secular and independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. Degrees awarded at the American University of Beirut (AUB) are officially registered with the New York Board of Regents. The university is ranked number 1 in the Arab region and 235 in the world in the 2018 QS World University Rankings. The American University of Beirut is governed by a private, autonomous Board of Trustees and offers programs leading to bachelor's, master's, MD, and PhD degrees. It collaborates with many universities around the world, notably with Columbia University, George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences in Washington, DC; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and the University of Paris. The current president is Fadlo R. Khuri, MD. The American University of Beirut (AUB) boasts an operating budget of $380 million with an endowment of approximately $500 million. The campus is composed of 64 buildings, including the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC, formerly known as AUH – American University Hospital) (420 beds), four libraries, three museums and seven dormitories. Almost one-fifth of AUB's students attended secondary school or university outside Lebanon before coming to AUB. AUB graduates reside in more than 120 countries worldwide. The language of instruction is English.
Amin al-Hafiz (or Hafez; 12 November 1921 – 17 December 2009) (أمين الحافظ) was a Syrian politician, General and member of the Ba'ath Party who served as the President of Syria from 27 July 1963 to 23 February 1966.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
The Arab Ba'ath Movement (حركة البعث العربي Harakat Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi), also literally translated as Arab Resurrection Movement or Arab Renaissance Movement, was the Ba'athist political movement and predecessor of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.
The Arab Cold War (الحرب العربية الباردة al-Harb al-`Arabbiyah al-bārdah) was a series of conflicts in the Arab world between the new republics led by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and espousing Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, and Pan-Arabism and the more traditionalist kingdoms, led by King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.
The Arab Kingdom of Syria (المملكة العربية السورية) was a self-proclaimed, unrecognized state that existed only a little over four months, from 8 March to 24 July 1920.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Nationalist Movement (حركة القوميين العرب, Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-Arab), also known as the Movement of Arab Nationalists and the Harakiyyin, was a pan-Arab nationalist organization influential in much of the Arab world, most famously so within the Palestinian movement.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
The Arab Socialist Bath Party – Syria Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي – قطر سوريا Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Qutr Suriya), officially the Syrian Regional Branch (Syria being a "region" of the Arab nation in Ba'ath ideology), is a neo-Ba'athist organisation founded on 7 April 1947 by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar and followers of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
The Arab Socialist Movement (rtl- Harakat Al-Ishtirakiyeen Al-'Arab) also known as Arab Socialist Party, was a political party in Syria that has split into several factions since the 1960s which continue to use the same name.
As-Suwayda (السويداء / ALA-LC romanization: as-Suwaydā’), also spelled Sweida or Swaida, is a mainly Druze city located in southwestern Syria, close to the border with Jordan.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
Ba'athism (البعثية, al-Ba'athiyah, from بعث ba'ath, meaning "renaissance" or "resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Clientelism is the exchange of goods and services for political support, often involving an implicit or explicit quid-pro-quo.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The Corrective Movement (الحركة التصحيحية), also referred to as the Corrective Revolution, was a political movement in Syria, initiated by a coup d'état, led by General Hafez al-Assad on 13 November 1970.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.
Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi (فيصل بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, Fayṣal al-Awwal ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 20 May 1885 – 8 September 1933) was King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria or Greater Syria in 1920, and was King of Iraq from 23 August 1921 to 1933.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Hani al-Hindi was a Syrian politician and activist.
Homs Military Academy is a military educational and training institution located in Homs, Syria.
Husni al-Za'im (11 May 1897 – 14 August 1949) (حسني الزعيم) was a Syrian military man and politician.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Jamal Al-Atassi (1922−2000) (جمال الأتاسي) was a Syrian Arab nationalist, politician and author.
Jassem Alwan (جاسم علوان; given name also spelled Jasim) (born July 4, 1928) was a prominent colonel in the Syrian Army, particularly during the period of the United Arab Republic (UAR) (1958–1961) when he served as the Commander of the Qatana Base near Damascus.
Khalid al-Azm (خالد العظم; 11 June 1903 – 18 November 1965) was a Syrian national leader and five-time interim Prime Minister, as well as Acting President from 4 April to 16 September 1941.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
Lu'ay al-Atassi (لؤي الأتاسي) (1926 − 24 November 2003) was a senior commander in the Syrian Army and later the President of Syria between 9 March and 27 July 1963.
Mansur al-Atrash (منصور الأطرش; 3 February 1925 – 14 November 2006) was a Syrian politician and journalist.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Michel Aflaq (ميشيل عفلق‎,, 9 January 1910 – 23 June 1989) was a Syrian philosopher, sociologist and Arab nationalist.
The Ministry of Defense is a government ministry office of the Syrian Arab Republic, responsible for defense affairs in Syria.
The Ministry of Interior (Arabic: وزارة الداخلية) is the interior ministry of Syria.
Muhammad al-Sufi (محمد الصوفي) (born 1927 in Latakia) is a former field marshal in the Syrian Army, who played a role in the 1963 Syrian coup d'état and briefly served as Defense Minister between March and May of that year.
Major General Muhammad Umran (محمد عمران; 1922–4 March 1972) was a founding member of the Military Committee of the unitary Ba'ath Party, and a leading personality in Syrian politics from the 8th of March Revolution until the 1966 Syrian coup d'état.
Nasserism (at-Tayyār an-Nāṣṣarī) is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President.
The National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party was the ruling organ of the party between sessions of the National Congress, and was headed by a Secretary General.
The National Council for the Revolutionary Command (NCRC) is the twenty-man council set up to rule Syria after the 1963 Syrian coup d'état.
Nazim al-Kudsi, also spelled "Koudsi", "al-Qudsi" or "al-Cudsi" (February 14, 1906 – February 6, 1998) (ناظم القدسي), was a Syrian politician who served as the President of Syria from December 14, 1961 to March 8, 1963.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.
Patrick Abram Seale (7 May 1930 – 11 April 2014) was a Belfast-born British journalist and author who specialised in the Middle East.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
The Prime Minister of Syria is the head of state of the Syrian Arab Republic.
Qatana (قطنا) is a city in southern Syria, administratively part of the Qatana District of Rif Dimashq Governorate.
Raef al-Maarri (رائف االمعري) was an officer in the Syrian Army and a deputy of Colonel Jassem Alwan.
The Ramadan Revolution, also referred to as the 8 February Revolution and the February 1963 coup d'état in Iraq, was a military coup by the Ba'ath Party's Iraqi-wing which overthrew the Prime Minister of Iraq, Abd al-Karim Qasim in 1963.
Rifaat Ali al-Assad (رفعت علي الأسد; born 22 August 1937) is the younger brother of the former President of Syria, Hafez Assad and Jamil Assad, and the uncle of the incumbent President Bashar al-Assad.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Salah ad-Din al-Bitar (صلاح الدين البيطار) (1 January 1912 – 21 July 1980) was a Syrian politician who co-founded the Arab Ba'ath Party with Michel Aflaq in the early 1940s.
Salah Jadid (1926 – 19 August 1993, صلاح جديد) was a Syrian general and political figure in the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Syria, and the country's de facto leader from 1966 until 1970.
Salim Hatum (سليم حاطوم) (1928 – 26 June 1967) was an officer in the Syrian Army who played a significant role in Syrian politics in the 1960s.
Sami Droubi (surname also spelled al-Durubi or al-Drubi; 1921 – 12 February 1976) was a Syrian politician, career diplomat, writer, translator, university professor and philosopher.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
The Syrian Air Force, officially the Syrian Arab Air Force (القوات الجوية العربية السورية, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al Arabiya as-Souriya), is the air force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian Crisis of 1957 was a period of severe diplomatic confrontations during the Cold War that involved Syria and the Soviet Union on one hand, and the United States and its allies, including Turkey and the Baghdad Pact, on the other.
The Syrian Republic (الجمهورية السورية; République syrienne) was recognized as a sovereign state in 1945 and became de-facto independent in April 1946 from the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon.
The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) (الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي, transliterated: Al-Ḥizb Al-Sūrī Al-Qawmī Al-'Ijtimā'ī, often referred to in French as Parti populaire syrien or Parti social nationaliste syrien), is a nationalist political party operating in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine.
Tribalism is the state of being organized by, or advocating for, tribes or tribal lifestyles.
The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Wahib al-Ghanim (1919-2003) was a Syrian physician who co-founded the Ba'ath Party.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zakī al-Arsūzī (زكي الأرسوزي; June 1899 – 2 July 1968) was a Syrian philosopher, philologist, sociologist, historian, and Arab nationalist.
Mohammed Ziad al-Hariri (born 1930) is a former prominent Syrian Army officer.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The Syrian coup d'état of 1961 was an uprising by disgruntled Syrian Army officers on September 28, 1961, that resulted in the break-up of the United Arab Republic and the restoration of an independent Syrian Republic.
The 1966 Syrian coup d'état refers to events between 21 and 23 February in which the government of the Syrian Arab Republic was overthrown and replaced.
1963 Ba'athist coup d'état in Syria, 1963 March Revolution, 1963 Syrian coup, 1963 Syrian coup d'etat, 8 March Revolution, 8th of March Revolution, Ba'ath takeover of Syria and Iraq, Ba'ath takes power in Syria and Iraq, March Revolution (Syria).