269 relations: Abu Dhabi, Ad Council, Ahmed Zaki Yamani, Airlift, Al-Haramain Foundation, Al-Hasa, Alaska, Algeria, Alternative energy, AMC Gremlin, AMC Hornet, AMC Pacer, American Automobile Association, Amoco, Anwar Sadat, Arab–Israeli conflict, Arabs, ARCO, Arkansas, Augusto Pinochet, Automobile layout, Baghdad, Barrel (unit), Basic Books, Bill Clinton, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bomb, Bretton Woods system, Buick Electra, Building insulation, Cadillac de Ville series, Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham, Canada, Capital control, Capital market, Captive import, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Central bank, Chevrolet Bel Air, Chevrolet Chevette, Chevrolet Impala, Chevrolet LUV, Chevrolet Monte Carlo, Chile, Christmas lights, Chrysler, Chrysler A platform, Chrysler F platform, Chrysler Fifth Avenue, ..., Chrysler M platform, Chrysler Sunbeam, Citroën Visa, Coal, Cold War, Conoco, Currency appreciation and depreciation, Cyprus, Daniel Ammann, Datsun 810, Datsun Truck, Daylight saving time, De facto standard, Dodge Colt, Dodge Diplomat, Dodge Omni, Duke University Press, Dwight D. Eisenhower, EBSCO Information Services, Economic sanctions, Edward Heath, Egypt, Elasticity (economics), Electricity, Electricity generation, Electronics, Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act, Entrepreneurship, Estado Novo (Portugal), Ethanol, European Economic Community, Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Fiat 131, Fiat Ritmo, Fixed exchange-rate system, Ford Courier, Ford Escort (Europe), Ford Fiesta, Ford Galaxie, Ford Maverick (Americas), Ford Pinto, Ford Ranger (North America), Ford Thunderbird, Fortune 500, Front-wheel drive, Fuel, George Lenczowski, George P. Shultz, Gerald Ford, Getty Oil, GM H platform (1971), GM X platform (1962), Golan Heights, Gold, Gold as an investment, Gold standard, Grand Mosque seizure, Great Depression, Harold Wilson, Harry Zvi Tabor, Hatchback, Hegemony, Henry Kissinger, History of ethanol fuel in Brazil, History of the petroleum industry in Canada, History of the Venezuelan oil industry, Honda Accord, Honda Civic (first generation), House of Saud, Hubbert peak theory, Hydrocarbon exploration, Import quota, Indonesia, Inline-four engine, Interest rate, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Islamism, Israel, James R. Schlesinger, Japan, Kirkuk–Baniyas pipeline, Kuwait, Libya, Lincoln Continental, List of ambassadors of the United Kingdom to the United States, Mandatory Oil Import Quota Program, Mercury Marquis, Mexico, Mitsubishi Galant, Mitsubishi Triton, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Money supply, NASCAR, National Energy Act, National Maximum Speed Law, Nationalization, Nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, NATO, Natural gas, Netherlands, New International Economic Order, Nigeria, Nissan Sunny, Nixon shock, North Sea, Nuclear power, Odd–even rationing, Office of the Historian, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oldsmobile 98, Oldsmobile Cutlass, OPEC, Opel Kadett, Operation Nickel Grass, Oregon, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Peak oil, Pennsylvania, Persian Gulf, Petrochemical, Petrodollar recycling, Plymouth Gran Fury, Posted oil price, Pound sterling, Presidency of Richard Nixon, Price ceiling, Price controls, Price elasticity of demand, Price of oil, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Project Independence, Qatar, Real income, Real versus nominal value (economics), Renault 5, Renewable energy, Rhodesia, Richard Nixon, Riyadh, Rowland Baring, 3rd Earl of Cromer, Salvador Allende, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco, Science (journal), Sedan (automobile), Seven Sisters (oil companies), Shia Islam, Siberia, Simca-Talbot Horizon, Sinai Peninsula, Six-Day War, Smithsonian Agreement, Solar power in Israel, Solar water heating, South Africa, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Speed limit, St. Martin's Press, Stagflation, Straight-six engine, Strategic Petroleum Reserve (United States), Subaru Leone, Suez Canal, Suez Crisis, Sunni Islam, Supply shock, Syria, Tehran, Texas, The King of Oil, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power, Toyota Corolla, Toyota Corona, Toyota Cressida, Toyota Hilux, Trans-Arabian Pipeline, United Kingdom, United Kingdom general election, February 1974, United States, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of State, United States dollar, United States foreign policy in the Middle East, United States Secretary of Defense, United States Secretary of State, University of Edinburgh, V8 engine, Vanity plate, Vauxhall Astra, Vehicle frame, Vehicle registration plate, Venezuela, Volkswagen Beetle, Volkswagen Golf, Volkswagen Type 3, Voluntary export restraint, Volvo 300 Series, Wahhabism, Weatherization, Wheelbase, William E. Simon, World War II, Yom Kippur, Yom Kippur War, 12 Hours of Sebring, 1967 Oil Embargo, 1970s energy crisis, 1973 Chilean coup d'état, 1973–74 stock market crash, 1979 energy crisis, 1979 Qatif Uprising, 1990 oil price shock, 2000s energy crisis, 24 Hours of Daytona. Expand index (219 more) » « Shrink index
Abu Dhabi (أبو ظبي) is the capital and the second most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (the most populous being Dubai), and also capital of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the largest of the UAE's seven emirates.
The Advertising Council, commonly known as the Ad Council, is an American nonprofit organization that produces, distributes, and promotes public service announcements on behalf of various sponsors, including nonprofit organizations, non-governmental organizations and agencies of the United States government.
Ahmed Zaki Yamani (أحمد زكي يماني; born 30 June 1930) is a Saudi Arabian politician who was Minister of Oil (Petroleum) and Mineral Resources from 1962 to 1986, and a minister in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for 25 years.
An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft.
Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation (AHIF) was a charity foundation, based in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Ahsa, Al-Hasa, or Hadjar (الأحساء al-Aḥsāʾ, locally al-Ahasā) is a traditional oasis historical region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Ahsa Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel.
The AMC Gremlin (also American Motors Gremlin) is an American subcompact automobile introduced in 1970, manufactured and marketed in a single, two-door body style in America (1970-1978) by American Motors Corporation (AMC) — as well as in Mexico (1974-1978) by AMC's Vehículos Automotores Mexicanos (VAM) subsidiary.
The AMC Hornet is a compact automobile, manufactured and marketed by American Motors Corporation (AMC) in a single generation from model years 1970 through 1977 — in sedan, wagon and hatchback coupe configurations.
The AMC Pacer is a two-door compact car produced in the United States by the American Motors Corporation from 1975 to 1979, sold out in 1980.
The American Automobile Association (AAA – pronounced "Triple A") is a federation of motor clubs throughout North America.
Amoco Corporation, originally Standard Oil Company (Indiana), is a global chemical and oil company that was founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO, pronounced ar-kouh) is an American oil company with operations in the United States, Indonesia, the North Sea, the South China Sea and Mexico.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
In automotive design, the automobile layout describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
The Buick Electra is a full-size luxury car that was built by Buick from 1959 to 1990.
Building insulation is any object in a building used as insulation for any purpose.
The Cadillac DeVille was originally a trim level and later a separate model produced by Cadillac.
The Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham is a luxury car manufactured by Cadillac from 1977 through 1986.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account.
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.
Captive import is a marketing term and a strategy for a vehicle that is foreign-built and sold under the name of an importer or by a domestic automaker through its own dealer distribution system.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Chevrolet Bel Air was a full-size car produced by Chevrolet for the 1950–1981 model years.
The Chevrolet Chevette is a front-engine, rear-drive subcompact car manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet for the model years 1976-1987 in three-door and five-door hatchback body styles.
The Chevrolet Impala is a full-size car built by Chevrolet for model years 1958–85, 1994–96 and since 2000 onwards.
The Chevrolet LUV and the later Chevrolet LUV D-Max are light pickup trucks designed and manufactured by Isuzu and marketed in the Americas since 1972 by Chevrolet over four generations as rebadged variants of the Isuzu Faster and D-Max.
The Chevrolet Monte Carlo is a two-door coupe manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet from 1970 to 2007 model years (non-continuously), encompassing six generations.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christmas lights (also known as fairy lights) are lights used for decoration in celebration of Christmas, often on display throughout the Christmas season including Advent and Christmastide.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.
The Chrysler A platform was the basis for smaller rear wheel drive cars in the 1960s.
Chrysler's rear wheel drive F platform was used from 1976 to 1980.
The Chrysler Fifth Avenue was a trim level/option package or model name used by Chrysler for its larger sedans from 1979 to 1993.
The M-Bodies were Chrysler Corporation's successor to the F-body Aspen/Volare.
The Chrysler Sunbeam is a small supermini three-door hatchback manufactured by Chrysler Europe at the former Rootes Group factory in Linwood in Scotland from 1977 to 1981.
The Citroën Visa is a five-door, front-engine, front wheel drive supermini manufactured and marketed by Citroën from 1978 to 1988 in gasoline and diesel variants.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Conoco Inc. was an American oil company founded in 1875 as the Continental Oil and Transportation Company.
Currency depreciation is the loss of value of a country's currency with respect to one or more foreign reference currencies, typically in a floating exchange rate system in which no official currency value is maintained.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Daniel Ammann (born 1963) is a Swiss investigative journalist and author.
The Datsun 810 is a mid-size car that was sold in North America by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Datsun between February 1977 and 1981.
The Datsun Truck is a compact pickup truck made by Nissan in Japan from 1955 through 1997.
Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).
The Dodge Colt were subcompact cars manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors and marketed by Dodge for model years 1971-1994 as captive imports.
The Dodge Diplomat was an American mid-size car that was produced by Dodge from 1977 to 1989.
The Dodge Omni and Plymouth Horizon were subcompact cars produced by Chrysler from December 1977 to 1990.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
EBSCO Information Services, headquartered in Ipswich, Massachusetts, is a division of EBSCO Industries Inc., the third largest private company in Birmingham, Alabama, with annual sales of nearly $2 billion according to the BBJ's 2013 Book of Lists.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In economics, elasticity is the measurement of how an economic variable responds to a change in another.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
The Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973 (EPAA) was a U.S. law that required the President to promulgate regulations to allocate and control price of petroleum products in response to the 1973 oil crisis.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود; 14 April 1906 – 25 March 1975) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975.
The Fiat 131 is a family sedan manufactured and marketed by Fiat from 1974 to 1984 after its debut at the 1974 Turin Motor Show.
The Fiat Ritmo is an automobile by Italian manufacturer Fiat, launched in April 1978 at the Turin Motor show.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
The Ford Courier name has been used on a variety of automobiles produced by Ford since 1952.
The Ford Escort is a small family car which was manufactured by Ford Europe from 1968 to 2004.
The Ford Fiesta is a supermini marketed by Ford since 1976 over seven generations and manufactured globally, including in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, China, India, Thailand, and South Africa.
The Ford Galaxie is a full-sized car that was built in the United States of America by Ford for model years 1959 through to 1974.
The Ford Maverick is a compact car manufactured and marketed by Ford for model years 1969-1977 in the United States, originally as a two-door sedan employing a rear-wheel drive platform original to the 1960 Falcon — and subsequently as a four-door sedan on the same platform.
The Ford Pinto is a subcompact car that was manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company in North America, sold from the 1971 to the 1980 model years.
The Ford Ranger is a compact pickup truck that was manufactured and marketed by Ford Motor Company from 1983 to 2012 model years for North America.
The Ford Thunderbird is a rear wheel drive automobile which was manufactured by Ford in the United States over eleven model generations from 1955 through 2005.
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years.
Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
George Lenczowski (pol. Jerzy Lenczowski; February 2, 1915 - February 19, 2000) was a lawyer, diplomat, scholar, and Professor of Political Science, Emeritus, at the University of California, Berkeley.
George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Getty Oil is an American oil marketing company with its origins as part of the large integrated oil company founded by J. Paul Getty.
The General Motors H platform or H-body is an automobile platform designation used for the 1971–1980 model year rear wheel drive line of subcompact cars.
The rear-wheel drive X-body underpinned the Chevrolet Nova and similar cars of the 1960s and 1970s.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Of all the precious metals, gold is the most popular as an investment.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Harry Zvi Tabor (March 7, 1917 – December 15, 2015) was an Israeli physicist.
A hatchback is a car with a hatch-type rear door that opens upwards and often a shared volume for the passenger and cargo areas.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
The history of ethanol fuel in Brazil dates from the 1970s and relates to Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol fuel program, which allowed the country to become the world's second largest producer of ethanol, and the world's largest exporter.
The Canadian petroleum industry arose in parallel with that of the United States.
Venezuela is one of the world's largest exporters of oil and has the world's largest proven oil reserves at an estimated 296.5 billion barrels (20% of global reserves) as of 2012.
The is a series of automobiles manufactured by Honda since 1976, best known for its four-door sedan variant, which has been one of the best-selling cars in the United States since 1989.
The first generation Honda Civic is an automobile which was produced by Honda in Japan from July 1972 to 1979.
The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.
The Hubbert peak theory says that for any given geographical area, from an individual oil-producing region to the planet as a whole, the rate of petroleum production tends to follow a bell-shaped curve.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
An import quota is a type of trade restriction that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
James Rodney Schlesinger (February 15, 1929 – March 27, 2014) was an American economist and public servant who was best known for serving as Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Kirkuk–Baniyas pipeline is a crude oil pipeline from the Kirkuk oil field in Iraq to the Syrian port of Baniyas.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The Lincoln Continental is a series of luxury cars produced by Lincoln, a division of the American automaker Ford Motor Company.
The British Ambassador to the United States is in charge of the British Embassy, Washington, D.C., the United Kingdom's diplomatic mission to the United States.
The Mandatory Oil Import Quota Program was a program of import restrictions on oil into the United States, beginning in 1959.
The Mercury Marquis was a luxury model line produced by the Mercury division of Ford Motor Company from 1967 to 1986.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mitsubishi Galant is an automobile which was produced by Japanese manufacturer Mitsubishi from 1969 to 2012.
The Mitsubishi Triton is a compact pickup truck produced by Mitsubishi.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company that is best known for stock-car racing.
The National Energy Act of 1978 (NEA78) was a legislative response by the U.S. Congress to the 1973 energy crisis.
The National Maximum Speed Law (NMSL) in the United States was a provision of the Federal 1974 Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act that prohibited speed limits higher than.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The nationalization of the Iran oil industry movement (ملی شدن صنعت نفت) was a movement in the Iranian parliament (Majlis) to nationalize Iran's oil industry.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New International Economic Order (NIEO) was a set of proposals put forward during the 1970s by some developing countries through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development to promote their interests by improving their terms of trade, increasing development assistance, developed-country tariff reductions, and other means.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nissan Sunny is a midsize sedan car built by the Japanese automaker Nissan from 1966 to 2006.
The Nixon shock was a series of economic measures undertaken by United States President Richard Nixon in 1971, the most significant of which was the unilateral cancellation of the direct international convertibility of the United States dollar to gold.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Odd–even rationing is a method of rationing in which access to some resource is restricted to half the population on any given day.
The Office of the Historian is an office of the United States Department of State within the Bureau of Public Affairs.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
The Oldsmobile 98 (sometimes spelled Ninety-Eight after 1958) is the full-size flagship model of Oldsmobile that was produced from 1940 until 1996.
The Oldsmobile Cutlass was a marque of automobiles produced by General Motors' Oldsmobile division between 1961 and 1999.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
The Opel Kadett is a small family car produced by the German automobile manufacturer Opel from 1962 until 1991 (the Cabrio continued until 1993), when it was succeeded by Opel Astra.
Operation Nickel Grass was a strategic airlift operation conducted by the United States to deliver weapons and supplies to Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) is a multi-governmental organization headquartered in Kuwait which coordinates energy policies among oil-producing Arab nations.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Petrodollar recycling is the international spending or investment of a country's revenues from petroleum exports ("petrodollars").
The Plymouth Gran Fury is a full-sized automobile that was manufactured by Plymouth from 1975 to 1989.
The posted price of oil was the price that oil companies offered to purchase oil from oil-producing governments.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The presidency of Richard Nixon began at noon EST on January 20, 1969, when Richard Nixon was inaugurated as 37th President of the United States, and ended on August 9, 1974, when he resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from office, the first U.S. president ever to do so.
A price ceiling is a government-imposed price control, or limit, on how high a price is charged for a product.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
Price elasticity of demand (PED or Ed) is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness, or elasticity, of the quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in its price when nothing but the price changes.
The price of oil, or the oil price, (generally) refers to the spot price of a barrel of benchmark crude oil—a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent ICE, Dubai Crude, OPEC Reference Basket, Tapis Crude, Bonny Light, Urals oil, Isthmus and Western Canadian Select (WCS).
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Project Independence was an initiative announced by U.S. President Richard Nixon on November 7, 1973, in reaction to the OAPEC oil embargo and the resulting 1973 oil crisis.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Real income is income of individuals or nations after adjusting for inflation.
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
The Renault 5 is a supermini produced by French automaker Renault.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
Lieutenant-Colonel George Rowland Stanley Baring, 3rd Earl of Cromer, (28 July 1918 – 16 March 1991), styled Viscount Errington before 1953, was a British banker and diplomat.
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saudi Aramco (أرامكو السعودية), officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Company, most popularly known just as Aramco (formerly Arabian-American Oil Company), is a Saudi Arabian national petroleum and natural gas company based in Dhahran.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A sedan (American, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English) or saloon (British, Irish and Indian English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo.
"Seven Sisters" was a common term for the seven multinational oil companies of the "Consortium for Iran" oligopoly or cartel, which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the mid-1970s.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Horizon is a family hatchback developed by Chrysler Europe and sold in Europe between 1978 and 1987 under the Chrysler, Simca, and Talbot nameplates.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
The Smithsonian Agreement is an agreement, announced in December 1971 that created a new dollar standard whereby the major currencies of the mostly highly industrialized nations were pegged to the US dollar at central rates, with the currencies being allowed to fluctuate by 2.25%.
The use of solar energy began in Israel in the 1950s with the development by Levi Yissar of a solar water heater to address the energy shortages that plagued the new country.
Solar water heating (SWH) is the conversion of sunlight into heat for water heating using a solar thermal collector.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Road speed limits are used in most countries to set the maximum (or minimum in some cases) speed at which road vehicles may legally travel on particular stretches of road.
In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.
The straight-six engine or inline-six engine (often abbreviated I6 or L6) is an internal combustion engine with the cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft (straight engine).
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is an emergency fuel storage of petroleum maintained underground in Louisiana and Texas by the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
The Subaru Leone is a compact car produced by the Japanese car manufacturer Subaru from 1971 to 1994.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A supply shock is an event that suddenly increases or decreases the supply of a commodity or service, or of commodities and services in general.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich is a non-fiction book by Swiss investigative journalist Daniel Ammann.
The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power is Daniel Yergin's history of the global petroleum industry from the 1850s through 1990.
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota.
The Toyota Corona (トヨタ・コロナ) was an automobile manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota between 1957 and 2002.
The Toyota Cressida was a mid-size car manufactured by Toyota from December 1976 until 1992 through four generations.
The Toyota Hilux (also stylized as HiLux and historically as Hi-Lux) is a series of light commercial vehicles produced and marketed by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota.
The Trans-Arabian Pipeline (Tapline), was an oil pipeline from Qaisumah in Saudi Arabia to Sidon in Lebanon.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The February 1974 United Kingdom general election was held on the 28th day of that month.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
United States foreign policy in the Middle East has its roots as early as the Barbary Wars in the first years of the U.S.'s existence, but became much more expansive after World War II.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets (or banks) of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft.
A vanity plate or personalized plate (United States); prestige plate, private number plate, cherished plate or personalised registration (United Kingdom); personalised plate (Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom), custom plate (Australia and New Zealand) or wish plate (Germany, Czechia) is a special type of vehicle registration plate on an automobile or other vehicle.
The Vauxhall Astra is a small family car that has been built by Vauxhall since 1979.
A vehicle frame, also known as its chassis, is the main supporting structure of a motor vehicle, to which all other components are attached, comparable to the skeleton of an organism.
A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.
The Volkswagen Golf is a compact car produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen since 1974, marketed worldwide across seven generations, in various body configurations and under various nameplates – such as the Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada (Mk1 and Mk5), and as the Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico (Mk1).
The Volkswagen Type 3 is a compact car that was manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen from 1961 to 1973.
A voluntary export restraint (VER) or voluntary export restriction is a government-imposed limit on the quantity of some category of goods that can be exported to a specified country during a specified period of time.
The Volvo 300 Series is a rear wheel drive small family car sold as both a hatchback and (later) a conventional saloon from 1976 to 1991.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Weatherization (American English) or weatherproofing (British English) is the practice of protecting a building and its interior from the elements, particularly from sunlight, precipitation, and wind, and of modifying a building to reduce energy consumption and optimize energy efficiency.
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.
William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927 – June 3, 2000) was an American businessman, a Secretary of Treasury of the U.S. for three years, and a philanthropist.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
The 12 Hours of Sebring is an annual motorsport endurance race for sports cars held at Sebring International Raceway, on the site of the former Hendricks Army Airfield World War II air base in Sebring, Florida.
The 1967 Oil Embargo began on June 6, 1967, the second day of the Six-Day War, with a joint Arab decision to deter any countries from supporting Israel militarily.
The 1970s energy crisis was a period when the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, faced substantial petroleum shortages, real and perceived, as well as elevated prices.
The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War.
The 1973–74 stock market crash caused a bear market between January 1973 and December 1974.
The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.
The 1979 Qatif Uprising was a period of unprecedented civil unrest that occurred in Qatif and Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, in late November 1979.
The 1990 oil price shock occurred in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, Saddam Hussein's second invasion of a fellow OPEC member.
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under US$25/barrel.
The 24 Hours of Daytona, currently known as the Rolex 24 At Daytona for sponsorship reasons, is a 24-hour sports car endurance race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida.
1973 Middle East crisis, 1973 OPEC embargo, 1973 OPEC oil embargo, 1973 Oil Crisis, 1973 arab oil embargo, 1973 embargo, 1973 energy crisis, 1973 oil embargo, 1973 oil shock, 1973 world oil shock, Arab Oil Embargo, First energy crisis, First oil crisis, First oil shock, OPEC oil crisis, Oil Embargo, Oil crisis of 1973, Oil crisis of 1973-74, Oil crisis of 1973–74, Oil embargo 1973, Oil embargo crisis, Oil embargo of 1973, Opec oil crises, Petroleum crisis of 1973.