235 relations: Afghanistan, Air Defense Anti-Tank System, Allied Armies in Italy, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Andrew McNaughton, Archibald Cameron Macdonell, Armistice Day, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Arthur Currie, Artillery, AVGP, Battle of Amiens (1918), Battle of Arras (1917), Battle of Cambrai (1918), Battle of Drocourt-Quéant Line, Battle of Festubert, Battle of Flers–Courcelette, Battle of France, Battle of Hill 70, Battle of Le Transloy, Battle of Mont Sorrel, Battle of Monte Cassino, Battle of Ortona, Battle of Passchendaele, Battle of Pozières, Battle of Rimini (1944), Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Ancre Heights, Battle of the Canal du Nord, Battle of the Scarpe (1918), Battle of the Somme, Battle of Thiepval Ridge, Battle of Vimy Ridge, Bell OH-58 Kiowa, Bell UH-1N Twin Huey, Bernard Montgomery, Bernhardt Line, BGM-71 TOW, Brest, France, Bridgehead, British Army, British Expeditionary Force (World War II), Brodie helmet, Canada's Hundred Days, Canadian Air-Sea Transportable Brigade Group, Canadian Army, Canadian Corps, Canadian Corps (World War II), ..., Canadian Expeditionary Force, Canadian Expeditionary Force Command, Canadian Forces Base Lahr, Canadian Forces Europe, Canadian Joint Operations Command, Canadian Provost Corps, Captain (Canadian army and air force), CENTAG wartime structure in 1989, CFB Baden–Soellingen, CFB Kingston, CFB Valcartier, Chemical weapons in World War I, Christopher Vokes, Code name, Cold War, Corps of Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, David Fraser (soldier), Division (military), Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, Dunkirk evacuation, Edwin Alderson, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), England, Ernest Smith, European theatre of World War II, Fallschirmjäger (World War II), Festubert, First Army (United Kingdom), First day on the Somme, Formation patch, Fresnoy, General (United Kingdom), George Pearkes, Germany, Givenchy-en-Gohelle, Gothic Line, Guy Simonds, H. 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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Air Defense Anti-Tank System (ADATS) is a dual-purpose short range surface-to-air and anti-tank missile system based on the M113A2 vehicle.
The Allied Armies in Italy (AAI) was the title of the highest Allied field headquarters in Italy, during the middle part of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
General Andrew George Latta McNaughton (25 February 1887 – 11 July 1966) was a Canadian electrical engineer, scientist, army officer, cabinet minister, diplomat and President of the UN Security Council.
Lieutenant General Sir Archibald Cameron Macdonell, (6 October 1864 – 23 December 1941) was a Canadian police officer and soldier.
Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
General Sir Arthur William Currie, (5 December 1875 – 30 November 1933) was a senior officer of the Canadian Army who fought during World War I. He had the unique distinction of starting his military career on the very bottom rung as a pre-war militia gunner before rising through the ranks to become the first Canadian commander of the Canadian Corps.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The AVGP (Armoured Vehicle General Purpose) is a series of three armoured fighting vehicles ordered by the Canadian military in 1977.
The Battle of Amiens, also known as the Third Battle of Picardy (3ème Bataille de Picardie), was the opening phase of the Allied offensive which began on 8 August 1918, later known as the Hundred Days Offensive, that ultimately led to the end of the First World War.
The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front.
The Battle of Cambrai, 1918 (also known as the Second Battle of Cambrai) was a battle between troops of the British First, Third and Fourth Armies and German Empire forces during the Hundred Days Offensive of the First World War.
The Drocourt-Quéant Line (Wotan Stellung) was a set of mutually supporting defensive lines constructed by Germany between the French towns of Drocourt and Quéant during World War I. This defensive system was part of the northernmost section of the Hindenburg Line, a vast German defensive system that ran through northeastern France.
The Battle of Festubert (15–25 May 1915) was an attack by the British army in the Artois region of France on the western front during World War I. The offensive formed part of a series of attacks by the French Tenth Army and the British First Army in the Second Battle of Artois.
The Battle of Flers–Courcelette was fought during the Battle of the Somme in France, by the French Sixth Army and the British Fourth Army and Reserve Army, against the German 1st Army, during the First World War.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Hill 70 was a battle of World War I between the Canadian Corps and five divisions of the German 6th Army.
The Battle of Le Transloy was the last offensive of the Fourth Army of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the 1916 Battle of the Somme in France, during the First World War.
The Battle of Mont Sorrel (Battle of Mount Sorrel, Battle of Hill 62) was a local operation in World War I by three divisions of the British Second Army and three divisions of the 4th Army in the Ypres Salient, near Ypres, Belgium, from 2 to 13 June 1916.
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Ortona (20–28 December 1943) was a battle fought between two battalions of elite German Fallschirmjäger (paratroops) from the German 1st Parachute Division under Generalleutnant Richard Heidrich, and assaulting Canadian troops from the Canadian 1st Infantry Division under Major General Chris Vokes, most of whom were fresh recruits whose first taste of combat was during the Invasion of Sicily.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The Battle of Pozières (23 July – 3 September 1916) took place in France around the village of Pozières, during the Battle of the Somme.
The Battle of Rimini took place between 13 and 21 September 1944 during Operation Olive, the main Allied offensive on the Gothic Line in August and September 1944, part of the Italian Campaign in the Second World War.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of the Ancre Heights (1 October – 11 November 1916), is the name given to the continuation of British attacks after the Battle of Thiepval Ridge from during the Battle of the Somme.
The Battle of Canal du Nord was part of a general Allied offensive against German positions on the Western Front during the Hundred Days Offensive of World War I. The battle took place in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, along an incomplete portion of the Canal du Nord and on the outskirts of Cambrai between 27 September and 1 October 1918.
The Battle of the Scarpe was a World War I battle that took place during the Hundred Days Offensive between 26 and 30 August 1918.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
The Battle of Thiepval Ridge was the first large offensive mounted by the Reserve Army (Lieutenant General Hubert Gough), during the Battle of the Somme on the Western Front during the First World War.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge was part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War.
The Bell OH-58 Kiowa is a family of single-engine, single-rotor, military helicopters used for observation, utility, and direct fire support.
The Bell UH-1N Twin Huey is a twin-engine medium military helicopter.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
The Bernhardt Line (or Reinhard Line) was a German defensive line in Italy during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided") is an American anti-tank missile.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
A bridgehead (or bridge-head) is the strategically important area of ground around the end of a bridge or other place of possible crossing over a body of water which at time of conflict is sought to be defended/taken over by the belligerent forces.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.
The Brodie helmet is a steel combat helmet designed and patented in London in 1915 by John Leopold Brodie.
Canada’s Hundred Days is the name given to the series of attacks made by the Canadian Corps between 8 August and 11 November 1918, during the Hundred Days Offensive of World War I. Reference to this period as Canada's Hundred Days is due to the substantial role the Canadian Corps of the British First Army played during the offensive.
The Canadian Air-Sea Transportable Brigade Group, or CAST, was a Canadian Forces battle group dedicated to the rapid reinforcement of Norway in the event of a land war in Europe.
The Canadian Army (French: Armée canadienne) is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces.
The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France.
The unnumbered Canadian Corps was the first corps-level military formation established by the Canadian Army during the Second World War between late 1940 and mid-1942.
The Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) was the designation of the field force created by Canada for service overseas in the First World War.
Canadian Expeditionary Force Command (CEFCOM, French: Commandement de la Force expéditionnaire du Canada or COMFEC) was an operational element of the Canadian Forces for operations outside of Canada, created in 2006 and merged into the Canadian Joint Operations Command in 2012.
Canadian Forces Base Lahr (IATA:LHA, ICAO: EDTL, former code EDAN) was a military operated commercial airport located in Lahr, Germany.
Canadian Forces Europe was the Canadian Forces military formation in Europe during the Cold War.
The Canadian Joint Operations Command (CJOC; Commandement des opérations interarmées du Canada or COIC) is one of the two unified commands of the Canadian Armed Forces, the other one being the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command.
The Canadian Provost Corps (C Pro C) was the military police corps of the Canadian Army.
Captain is a rank in the Canadian military.
The Central Army Group (CENTAG) was a NATO military formation comprising four Army Corps from two NATO member nations comprising troops from Canada, Germany and the United States.
Canadian Forces Base Baden–Soellingen or CFB Baden–Soellingen (IATA, formerly known as RCAF Station Baden–Soellingen (Baden):FKB, ICAO: EDSB, former code EDAL) was a Canadian Forces base located near the farming community of Söllingen, part of the municipality of Rheinmünster in the West German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Canadian Forces Base Kingston (also CFB Kingston) is a Canadian Forces Base operated by the Canadian Army located in Kingston, Ontario.
Canadian Forces Base Valcartier (CFB Valcartier), now re-designated 2 Canadian Division Support Base Valcartier (2 CDSB Valcartier), is a Canadian Forces Base located in the municipality of Saint-Gabriel-de-Valcartier, approximately north of Quebec City.
The use of toxic chemicals as weapons dates back thousands of years, but the first large scale use of chemical weapons was during World War I. They were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally very slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Major General Christopher Vokes (13 April 1904 – 27 March 1985) was a senior Canadian Army officer who fought in World War II.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Corps of Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (RCEME) (Corps du génie électrique et mécanique royal canadien) is a personnel branch of the Canadian Forces (CF) that provides army engineering maintenance support.
David Fraser is a retired Major-General in Canada.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928), was a senior officer of the British Army.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
Lieutenant General Sir Edwin Alfred Hervey Alderson, KCB (8 April 1859 – 14 December 1927) was a senior British Army officer who served in several campaigns of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Ernest Alvia "Smokey" Smith (3 May 1914 – 3 August 2005) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
The Fallschirmjäger were the paratrooper (Fallschirmjäger) branch of the German Luftwaffe before and during World War II.
Festubert is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
The first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916, was the opening day of the Battle of Albert the name given by the British to the first two weeks of the Battle of the Somme.
Formation patches or Formation badges are types of military insignia developed during the 20th Century.
Fresnoy is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
Major General George Randolph Pearkes, (February 28, 1888 – May 30, 1984) was a Canadian politician and soldier.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Givenchy-en-Gohelle is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
The Gothic Line (Gotenstellung; Linea Gotica) was a German defensive line of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
Lieutenant-General Guy Granville Simonds (April 23, 1903 – May 15, 1974) was a senior Canadian Army officer who served with distinction during World War II, where he commanded the 1st Canadian Infantry Division and II Canadian Corps.
Major General Harry Leonard Nowell Salmon MC & Bar (February 9, 1894 – April 29, 1943) was a senior Canadian Army officer who fought in both World War I and World War II.
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
General Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar (April 28, 1888 – April 1, 1965) was a senior officer of the Canadian Army, and became the country's "leading field commander" in the Second World War, where he commanded the First Canadian Army.
Major General Harry Wickwire Foster (April 2, 1902 – August 6, 1964) was a senior Canadian Army officer who commanded two Canadian divisions during World War II.
The history of the British Army spans over three and a half centuries since its founding in 1660 and involves numerous European wars, colonial wars and world wars.
The Hitler Line was a German defensive line in central Italy during the Second World War.
I Canadian Corps was one of the two corps fielded by the Canadian Army during the Second World War.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Javelin is a British man-portable surface-to-air missile, formerly used by the British Army and Canadian Army.
Kingston is a city in eastern Ontario, Canada.
Lahr is a city in western Baden-Württemberg, Germany, approximately 50 km north of Freiburg im Breisgau, 40 km south east of Strasbourg, and 95 km south west of Karlsruhe.
The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a main battle tank designed and produced in West Germany that first entered service in 1965.
Operation Anger (sometimes known as Operation Quick Anger), was a military operation to seize the city of Arnhem in April 1945, during the closing stages of the Second World War.
In the Canadian Forces, the rank of lieutenant-general (LGen) (lieutenant-général or Lgén in French) is an Army or Air Force rank equal to a vice-admiral of the Navy.
Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
The list of regions of Canada is a summary of geographical areas on a hierarchy that ranges from national (groups of provinces and territories) at the top to local regions and sub-regions of provinces at the bottom.
The Lynx reconnaissance vehicle (manufacturer's name: M113½ Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle, abbr. M113 C&R) is a United States-built tracked armoured fighting vehicle, which was employed by the armed forces of the Netherlands and Canada.
The M109 is an American 155 mm turreted self-propelled howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s.
The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier (APC) that was developed by Food Machinery Corp (FMC).
The M29 is an American-produced 81 millimeter mortar.
The M548 is a tracked cargo carrier.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force).
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
A military engineering vehicle is a vehicle built for the construction work or for the transportation of combat engineers on the battlefield.
The Minister of National Defence (Ministre de la Défense nationale) is a Minister of the Crown and is the politician within the Cabinet of Canada responsible for the management and direction of all matters relating to the national defence of Canada.
The Moro River Campaign was an important battle of the Italian Campaign during the Second World War, fought between elements of the British Eighth Army and LXXVI Panzer Corps (LXXVI Panzerkorps) of the German 10th Army (10. Armee).
Motta Montecorvino (Pugliese: A Mottè) is a town, comune (municipality), former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see in the province of Foggia in the Apulian region of southeast Italy.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
Operation Baytown was an Allied amphibious landing on the mainland of Italy that took place on 3 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy, itself part of the Italian Campaign, during the Second World War.
Operation Diadem, also referred to as the Fourth Battle of Monte Cassino or, in Canada, the Battle of the Liri Valley, was an offensive operation undertaken by the Allies of World War II (U.S. Fifth Army and British Eighth Army in May 1944, as part of the Italian Campaign of World War II. Diadem was supported by air attacks called Operation Strangle. The opposing force was the German 10th Army. The object of Diadem was to break the German defenses on the Gustav Line (the western half of the Winter Line) and open up the Liri Valley, the main route to Rome. General Sir Harold Alexander, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the Allied Armies in Italy (AAI), planned Diadem to coordinate roughly with the invasion of Normandy, so that German forces would be tied down in Italy, and could not be redeployed to France. Four corps were employed in the attack. From right to left these were Polish II Corps and British XIII Corps, of Eighth Army, and the Free French Corps (including Moroccan Goumiers) and U.S. II Corps, of Fifth Army. Fifth Army also controlled U.S. VI Corps in the Anzio beachhead, some 60 miles northwest. Diadem was launched at 23:00pm on 11 May 1944 by elements, composed of the British 4th Infantry Division and 8th Indian Infantry Division with supporting fire from the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade. They made a successful strongly opposed night crossing of the Garigliano and Rapido rivers. This broke into the heart of the German defenses in the Liri valley against strong opposition and drew German theater reserves reducing pressure on the Anzio beachhead. The Free French Corps pushed through the mountains to the left on 14 May, supported by U.S. II Corps along the coast. On 17 May, Polish II Corps on the right attacked Monte Cassino. The German position collapsed, and the Germans fell back from the Gustav Line to the Hitler Line some 10 miles to their rear. On 23 May, the four corps attacked the Hitler Line. On the same day, the U.S. VI Corps attacked out of the Anzio beachhead. The Hitler Line was breached by 1st Canadian Infantry Division's 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards at Pontecorvo on 23 May. German Tenth Army was forced to retire northwestward. U.S. VI Corps, moving northeast from Anzio, was on the point of cutting the German line of retreat, when Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, commander of the U.S. Fifth Army, inexplicably ordered them to turn northwest and advance on Rome instead. There is much speculation that he did this so that his Fifth Army would capture Rome ahead of the Eighth Army advancing up the Liri Valley. The German 10th Army thus avoided being surrounded. The Germans fought a series of delaying actions, retired to the Trasimene Line, and then to the Gothic Line (identified on German maps as the "Green" Line), north of the Arno River.
Operation Goldflake was the administrative move of I Canadian Corps (in essence, all Canadian combatant units) and the British 5th Infantry Division from Italy to Northwestern Europe during the Second World War.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Brigadier-General Paul Triquet (April 2, 1910 – August 8, 1980) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for valour "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Peter Gordon MacKay (born September 27, 1965) is a lawyer and politician from Nova Scotia, Canada.
Pier 21 was an ocean liner terminal and immigration shed from 1928 to 1971 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Ploegsteert is a village in Belgium located in the municipality of Comines-Warneton in the Hainaut province and is the most westerly settlement of the Walloon region.
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI, generally referred to as the Patricia's) is one of the three Regular Force infantry regiments of the Canadian Army of the Canadian Armed Forces.
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
Lieutenant-General Roméo Antonius Dallaire, (born June 25, 1946) is a Canadian humanitarian, author and retired senator and general.
The Ross rifle was a straight-pull bolt action.303 inch-calibre rifle produced in Canada from 1903 until 1918. The Ross Mk.II (or "model 1905") rifle was highly successful in target shooting before World War I, but the close chamber tolerances, lack of primary extraction and overall length made the Mk.III (or "1910") Ross rifle unsuitable for the conditions of trench warfare, exacerbated by the often poor quality ammunition issued. By 1916, the rifle had been withdrawn from front line service, but continued to be used by many snipers of the Canadian Expeditionary Force until the end of the war due to its exceptional accuracy. The Ross Rifle Co. made sporting rifles from early in its production, most notably chambered in.280 Ross, introduced in 1907. This cartridge is recorded as the first to achieve over 3000 feet per second velocity, and the cartridge acquired a very considerable international reputation among target shooters and hunters.
The Royal 22nd Regiment (R22R), or rather the Royal 22e Régiment in both English and French correct usage, and colloquially in English The Van Doos (representing an anglicized pronunciation of the French for twenty-two, vingt-deux), or, in French, le Vingt-deuxième, is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps (RCAC; Corps blindé royal canadien) is the armoured corps within the Canadian Army, including regular and reserve force regiments.
The Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps (RCAMC) was an administrative corps of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Canadian Army Pay Corps (RCAPC) was an administrative corps of the Canadian Army with its own cap badge, and other insignia and traditions.
For successor see Logistics Branch The Royal Canadian Army Service Corps (RCASC) was an administrative and transport corps of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals (RCCS, RC Sigs; (Corps des transmissions royal du Canada - CTRC) is a component within the Canadian Armed Forces' Communications and Electronics Branch, consisting of all members of that personnel branch who wear army uniform. Prior to 1968 it was a combat support corps of the Canadian Army.The Regiments and Corps of The Canadian Army (Queen's Printer, 1964) Major Wallace Bruce Matthews Carruthers established a militia (Non-Permanent Active Militia) component of signallers under the designation "Signalling Corps" on 24 October 1903, making it the first independent signal corps in the British Empire. It was redesignated "The Canadian Signal Corps" on 4 June 1913. On 1 April 1919 as part of the restructuring based on experiences during the Great War, a regular (Permanent Active Militia) component was established as the "Canadian Signalling Instructional Staff". This was redesignated "The Canadian Permanent Signal Corps" on 15 December 1920. Shortly thereafter, on 15 June 1921, King George V, the Canadian monarch, bestowed on the permanent force portion of the organization the title "The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals". Meanwhile, on 1 August 1921, the militia component was re-titled "Canadian Corps of Signals"; redesignated "Royal Canadian Corps of Signals" on 29 April 1936 (as part of the larger military restructuring that year); and finally aligned in nomenclature with the regular component as "The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals" on 22 March 1948, after the conclusion of the Second World War. The badge of The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals consisted of a circle, with a Tudor Crown on top with the text Royal Canadian Corps of Signals around the edge. At the center of the circle is the Roman God Mercury. At the bottom is a ribbon with the text "Velox, Versutus, Vigilans" and eight maple leaves. The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals was responsible for land communication and signalling. When the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal Canadian Navy were unified in 1968 to form the Canadian Forces, the RCCS was amalgamated into the Canadian Forces' Communications and Electronics Branch. On 19 April 2013, Minister of National Defence, Peter MacKay, announced that the historical designation of "Royal Canadian Corps of Signals" would be restored for the army component within the Communications and Electronics Branch. Restoring the historical designations of Canadian Army organizations.
The Royal Canadian Dental Corps (RCDC, Corps dentaire royal canadien) is a personnel branch of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF).
The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery is the name given to the regular field artillery units of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Canadian Infantry Corps (Corps d'infanterie royal canadien) is the infantry corps of the Canadian Army and includes regular and reserve force regiments.
The Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps (RCOC) was an administrative corps of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Canadian Postal Corps (RCPC) was an administrative corps of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Newfoundland Regiment (R NFLD R) is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery (Le Régiment royal de l'Artillerie canadienne) is the artillery personnel branch of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Winnipeg Rifles (R Wpg Rif) are a Primary Reserve one-battalion infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.
Salisbury Plain is a chalk plateau in the south western part of central southern England covering.
Sir Samuel Hughes, (January 8, 1853 – August 23, 1921) was the Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence during World War I. He was notable for being the last Liberal-Conservative cabinet minister, until he was dismissed from his cabinet post.
The Second Battle of Artois (Deuxième bataille de l'Artois or Lorettoschlacht) from was a battle on the Western Front during the First World War.
The Second Battle of Passchendaele was the culminating attack during the Third Battle of Ypres of the First World War.
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
The Senio is a river of Romagna in Italy, the final right-sided tributary of the river Reno.
A service battalion (svc bn; or bon svc) is a unit of the Canadian Forces (CF) that provides combat service support to a brigade group and its elements.
The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914.
The Fort Garry Horse is a Canadian Army Reserve armoured regiment based in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.
The King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC), (The King's Own or The KOCR), is a Canadian Army armoured reconnaissance regiment of the Canadian Armed Forces Primary Reserve.
The Lorne Scots (Peel, Dufferin and Halton Regiment) is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment, or LER, is a Primary Reserve infantry unit of the Canadian Forces based in Edmonton, Alberta.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The North Saskatchewan Regiment (N Sask R) is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army, headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, with companies in Saskatoon and Prince Albert.
The Ontario Regiment (RCAC) is a Primary Reserve armoured reconnaissance regiment of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Canadian Dragoons (RCD) is an armoured regiment of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Canadian Regiment (The RCR) is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.
The Royal Montreal Regiment is a Primary Reserve Infantry regiment of the Canadian Army based in Westmount, Montreal, Quebec.
The Royal New Brunswick Regiment (RNBR) is a reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army based in New Brunswick.
The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army based in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
A huge number of M113 Armored Personnel Carrier variants have been created, ranging from infantry carriers to nuclear missile carriers.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
VII Corps was an army corps of the British Army active in the First and Second World Wars.
The VII Corps of the United States Army was one of the two principal corps of the United States Army Europe during the Cold War.
Walter John "Walt" Natynczyk, is a retired Canadian Army general who has served as Deputy Minister of Veterans Affairs since 2014.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The West Nova Scotia Regiment is a line infantry regiment of the Canadian Army, part of the Primary Reserve, and is part of the 5th Canadian Division's 36 Canadian Brigade Group.
The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
The Winter Line was a series of German and Italian military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt and commanded by Albert Kesselring.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
XIII Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that fought on the Western Front during the First World War and was reformed for service during the Second World War, serving in the Mediterranean and Middle East throughout its service.
XXX Corps (30 Corps) was a corps of the British Army during the Second World War.
The Ypres Salient is the area around Ypres in Belgium which was the scene of some of the biggest battles in World War I.
1 Canadian Air Division (1 Cdn Air Div) (French: 1re Division aérienne du Canada) is the operational-level command and control formation of the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).
1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (1CMBG; French: 1er Groupe-brigade mécanisé du Canada) is a Canadian Forces brigade group that is part of the 3rd Canadian Division of the Canadian Army.
The 107th Battalion (Winnipeg), CEF, was an infantry battalion of the Great War Canadian Expeditionary Force.
The 10th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force was a Canadian field force unit created during the First World War.
The 11th Battalion, CEF, an infantry battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, was authorized on 10 August 1914 and embarked for Great Britain on 30 September 1914.
The 12e Régiment blindé du Canada (a translation of its former name, the "12th Canadian Armoured Regiment") is a Canadian Army armoured regiment based in CFB Valcartier, on the outskirts of Quebec City.
The 12th Battalion, CEF, an infantry battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, was authorized on 10 August 1914 and embarked for Britain on 30 September 1914, where it was redesignated the 12th Reserve Infantry Battalion, CEF on 29 April 1915, to provide reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field.
The 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada) of the Canadian Expeditionary Force was an active service battalion during the First World War.
The 15th Battalion (48th Highlanders of Canada), CEF was an infantry battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the Great War.
The 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF was a unit of the First World War Canadian Expeditionary Force.
The 17th Battalion, CEF was a battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the Great War.
The 18th Battalion (Western Ontario), CEF, was an infantry battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force in the Great War.
The 1st Canadian Infantry Battalion was a battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force that saw service in the First World War.
The 1st Canadian Army Tank Brigade, later known as 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade, was an armoured brigade of the Canadian Army, raised during the Second World War.
The 1st Canadian Infantry Brigade was a Canadian Army formation that served with the 1st Canadian Division in World Wars I and II.
The 1st Parachute Division (1.) was an elite German military parachute-landing division that fought during World War II.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
21 Electronic Warfare Regiment (21e Régiment de guerre électronique) is a Communications and Electronics Branch regiment in the Canadian Army, based in Kingston, Ontario.
The 29th Division, known as the Incomparable Division, was an infantry division of the British Army, formed in early 1915 by combining various Regular Army units that had been acting as garrisons around the British Empire.
The 2nd Battalion (Eastern Ontario Regiment), Canadian Expeditionary Force was an infantry battalion of the Canadian Army created in response to outbreak of the First World War in August 1914.
The 2nd Canadian Division (2 Cdn Div) is responsible for generating and maintaining an operationally ready, multi-purpose land force for the Canadian Army in the province of Quebec, Canada, in order to meet Canada's defence objectives, domestically and overseas.
The 2nd Canadian Division, an infantry division of the Canadian Army, was mobilized for war service on 1September 1939 at the outset of World War II.
The 2nd Field Artillery Regiment, RCA (2e Régiment d'artillerie de campagne, ARC) is a Royal Canadian Artillery reserve regiment.
The 3rd Battalion (Toronto Regiment), Canadian Expeditionary Force was a battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force that saw service in the First World War.
The 3rd Canadian Division is a formation of the Canadian Army.
The 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade was a formation of the Canadian Army in both World War I and World War II.
4 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group was a formation of the Canadian Army, then Mobile Command of the unified Canadian Forces.
4 Engineer Support Regiment is a regiment of the Canadian Military Engineers located at CFB Gagetown, New Brunswick.
41 (Alberta) Service Battalion is a Canadian Army Primary Reserve Combat Service Support unit with three Companies located at Currie Armoury in Calgary and at Debney Armoury in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
430 Tactical Helicopter Squadron is a unit of the Canadian Forces under Royal Canadian Air Force.
444 Combat Support Squadron is an Air Force unit with the Canadian Forces.
The 48th Highlanders of Canada is a Canadian Forces Primary Reserve (i.e., part-time militia) infantry regiment based in Toronto, parading out of Moss Park Armoury.
4th (Central Ontario) Battalion, CEF was an infantry battalion raised as part of the Canadian Expeditionary Force for service during the First World War.
The 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards is an inactive armoured regiment of the Canadian militia.
5 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (5e Groupe-brigade mécanisé du Canada) (5 CMBG) is a Canadian Forces brigade group that is part of 2nd Canadian Division of the Canadian Army.
5 Combat Engineer Regiment (French: 5e Régiment du genie de combat) is a regular force regiment of the Canadian Military Engineers commanded by a lieutenant-colonel.
5 Service Battalion (5 Svc Bn), or 5e Bataillon des services (5 Bon Svc) in French, is a deployable field unit of the Canadian Forces.
The 51st (Highland) Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought on the Western Front in France during the First World War from 1915 to 1918.
The 5th Battalion (Western Cavalry), CEF, known as "Tuxford's Dandys," was an infantry battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the Great War.
The 5th Canadian Division is a formation of the Canadian Army.
The 5th Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army.
The 6th Battalion, (Fort Garrys) CEF was a battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War.
The 7th Battalion (1st British Columbia), CEF was a battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force that saw service in the First World War.
The 8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's) is the longest serving armoured regiment in the Canadian Army.
The 9th Battalion, CEF, an infantry battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, was authorized on 10 August 1914.