247 relations: Adel, Leeds, Anti-Aircraft Command, Antwerp, Armentières, Army Reserve (United Kingdom), Arnhem, Arras, Arromanches-les-Bains, Attacks on the Butte de Warlencourt, Avre (Somme), Bad Fallingbostel, Barrage (artillery), Battle of Arras (1917), Battle of Britain, Battle of Flers–Courcelette, Battle of Le Transloy, Battle of Mont Sorrel, Battle of Morval, Battle of Passchendaele, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Lys (1918), Battle of the Somme, Bazentin, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, Billingham, Bishop of Durham, Bivouac shelter, Bofors 40 mm gun, Brevet (military), British Army, British brass band, British Expeditionary Force (World War I), Brussels, Cadre (military), Caen, Caix, Canal de Caen à la Mer, Cardwell Reforms, Castle Eden, Catterick Garrison, Central Force, Chemical weapons in World War I, Chemin des Dames, Cherbourg-Octeville, Childers Reforms, Clacton-on-Sea, County Durham, County Palatine of Durham, Darlington, Demobilization, ..., Deurne, Netherlands, Dieppe, Distinguished Service Order, Dorset, Durham Light Infantry, East Anglia, East Yorkshire Regiment, Enfilade and defilade, Essex, Estaires, Facing colour, Fighter-bomber, Flers, Somme, Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Forced displacement, Foucaucourt-en-Santerre, Frogman, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, German surrender at Lüneburg Heath, Ghent, Green Howards, Grenade, Guillaucourt, Haldane Reforms, Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland, Hartlepool, Hebburn, Helmond, Heuvelland, Hill 60 (Ypres), Hordern, Hornsea, Huddersfield Rifles, Humber, Huttons Ambo, Ieperlee, Isle of Sheppey, Junkers Ju 88, Killinghall, La Gorgue, Lancashire Fusiliers, Lanyard, Laventie, Lewis gun, Lieutenant colonel (United Kingdom), Light machine gun, Liverpool Scottish, Luftwaffe, Lys (river), M1919 Browning machine gun, Macedonian Front, Machine Gun Corps, Merris, Merville, Nord, Messerschmitt Bf 109, Meuse, Middlesbrough, Military Service Act 1916, Militia and Volunteers of County Durham, Minster, Swale, Mobilization, Moreuil, Munich Agreement, Nederrijn, Neuf-Berquin, Newcastle upon Tyne, Night fighter, Nijmegen, No. 264 Squadron RAF, Normandy landings, North East England, North Wales, Northern Command (United Kingdom), Operation Bodenplatte, Operation Goodwood, Operation Market Garden, Operation Overlord, Operation Plunder, Operation Veritable, Order of the Bath, Order of the British Empire, Order of the Garter, Otley, Parachute mine, Patrick Blackett, Péronne, Somme, Phoney War, Pillbox (military), Poperinge, Prisoner of war, RAF Church Fenton, RAF Second Tactical Air Force, Redcar, Retford, Rhine, Rhineland, River Tyne, Roisel, Rosières-en-Santerre, Rouen, Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, Royal Marines, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, Samuel Sadler, Sanctuary Wood Cemetery, Scheldt, Seaham, Second Battle of Passchendaele, Second Battle of Ypres, Second Boer War, Seine, Sergeant, Shaftesbury, Somme (river), Southern Army (Home Forces), Spring Offensive, St Osyth, Stanhope Memorandum, Steenvoorde, Stockton-on-Tees, Sunderland, Sunderland Rifles, Sutton-on-Sea, Teesside, Territorial Decoration, Territorial Force, Thames Estuary, The Blitz, The Light Infantry, The National Archives (United Kingdom), Third Battle of the Aisne, Tickhill, Tunnel warfare, Tyne Electrical Engineers, United States Army, V-1 flying bomb, Vauvillers, Somme, Venlo, Victory in Europe Day, VIII Corps (United Kingdom), Villers-Carbonnel, Vlamertinge, Volunteer Force, Volunteer Officers' Decoration, Waal (river), War Office, Weert, Weser, West Riding of Yorkshire, Western Front (World War I), World War I, World War II, Xanten, XII Corps (United Kingdom), XVI Corps (United Kingdom), XXX Corps (United Kingdom), York, Ypres Salient, 106th Regiment of Foot (Bombay Light Infantry), 10th Anti-Aircraft Division (United Kingdom), 10th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 117th Brigade (United Kingdom), 149th (Northumberland) Brigade, 150th (York and Durham) Brigade, 151st (Durham Light Infantry) Brigade, 189th (2nd York and Durham) Brigade, 18th (Eastern) Division, 1st Canadian Division, 205 (3rd Durham Volunteer Artillery) Battery Royal Artillery, 20th (Light) Division, 21st Army Group, 222nd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 228th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 28th Division (United Kingdom), 2nd Anti-Aircraft Division (United Kingdom), 2nd Cavalry Brigade (United Kingdom), 2nd Division (Portugal), 30th (Northumbrian) Anti-Aircraft Brigade, 31st (North Midland) Anti-Aircraft Brigade, 39th Anti-Aircraft Brigade (United Kingdom), 39th Division (United Kingdom), 41st (London) Anti-Aircraft Brigade, 43rd Anti-Aircraft Brigade (United Kingdom), 474th Searchlight Battery, Royal Artillery, 4th Guards Brigade (United Kingdom), 50th (Northumbrian) Division, 50th Light Anti-Aircraft Brigade (United Kingdom), 51st (Highland) Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery, 5th Airmobile Brigade (Greece), 63rd (2nd Northumbrian) Division, 66th Division (United Kingdom), 68th (Durham) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry), 7th Anti-Aircraft Division (United Kingdom), 80th Anti-Aircraft Brigade (United Kingdom), 85th (Tees) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, 8th Infantry Division (United Kingdom). 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Adel is a suburb in North Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
Anti-Aircraft Command (AA Command, or "Ack-Ack Command") was a British Army command of the Second World War that controlled the Territorial Army anti-aircraft artillery and searchlight formations and units defending the United Kingdom.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Armentières (Armentiers) is a commune in the Nord department in the Hauts-de-France region in northern France.
The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.
Arnhem (or; Arnheim, Frisian: Arnhim, South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and municipality situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
Arromanches-les-Bains (or, simply Arromanches) is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandie region of northwestern France.
The Butte de Warlencourt is an ancient burial mound off the Albert–Bapaume road, north-east of Le Sars in the Somme département of northern France.
The Avre is a river in Picardie and is the principal tributary, from the left side, of the Somme.
Bad Fallingbostel is the district town (Kreisstadt) of the Heidekreis district in the German state of Lower Saxony.
A barrage is massed artillery fire aimed at points, typically apart, along one or more lines that can be from a few hundred to several thousand yards long.
The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of Flers–Courcelette was fought during the Battle of the Somme in France, by the French Sixth Army and the British Fourth Army and Reserve Army, against the German 1st Army, during the First World War.
The Battle of Le Transloy was the last offensive of the Fourth Army of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the 1916 Battle of the Somme in France, during the First World War.
The Battle of Mont Sorrel (Battle of Mount Sorrel, Battle of Hill 62) was a local operation in World War I by three divisions of the British Second Army and three divisions of the 4th Army in the Ypres Salient, near Ypres, Belgium, from 2 to 13 June 1916.
The Battle of Morval, 25–28 September 1916, was an attack during the Battle of the Somme by the British Fourth Army on the villages of Morval, Gueudecourt and Lesbœufs held by the German 1st Army, which had been the final objectives of the Battle of Flers–Courcelette (15–22 September).
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of the Lys, also known as the Lys Offensive, the Fourth Battle of Ypres, the Fourth Battle of Flanders and Operation Georgette (Batalha de La Lys and 3ème Bataille des Flandres), was part of the 1918 German offensive in Flanders during World War I, also known as the Spring Offensive.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
Bazentin is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Bergen-Belsen, or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle.
Billingham is a town in County Durham, England, with a population of 35,165 according to the 2011 Census.
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York.
A bivouac shelter is any of a variety of improvised camp site or shelter that is usually of a temporary nature, used especially by soldiers, persons engaged in scouting and mountain climbing.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
In many of the world's military establishments, a brevet was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but without conferring the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
A British brass band is a musical ensemble comprising a standardized range of brass and percussion instruments.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
A cadre is the complement of commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of a military unit responsible for training the rest of the unit.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Caix is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Canal de Caen à la Mer (Canal from Caen to the sea) also called the "Caen Canal") is a short canal in the department (préfecture) of Calvados, France, connecting the Port of Caen, in the city of Caen, downstream to the town of Ouistreham and the English Channel. Running from north north-east to south south-west, the canal runs parallel to the Orne River which feeds it, it is long, and comprises two locks. Digging began in 1837, and when it was opened on August 23, 1857 it was only deep. It was deepened in 1920. The canal began with the dock at St. Peter's Basin (Bassin Saint-Pierre), in the downtown area of Caen. The canal is made up of a group of quays and docks. The current depth is, and the width can reach in the dock of Calix). The quay at Blainville-sur-Orne measures more than. It acts as the fourth commercial French port for the importation of exotic wood, generally coming from the Gulf of Guinea. It also loads and unloads iron, fertilizer, coal, and construction material. The port exports cereals that are produced in the area and has a silo capacity of 33,000 tons. One of the two locks at the port of Ouistreham, at the mouth of the canal, can accommodate ships of more than length. Also at Blainville is a Renault Trucks manufacturing plant. The plant is across the canal from the town, to the southeast, between the canal and the Orne River. Just across the river from the plant is the community of Colombelles. The channel passes the side of the Château de Bénouville. The famous Pegasus Bridge (aka "Ham"), from D-Day, June 6, 1944, crossed the canal near the village of Bénouville. The canal was considered both tactically and strategically important during the opening phases of the Battle of Normandy, as it was located on the eastern flank of the Allied beachhead area. The bridge was replaced in 1994.
The Cardwell Reforms were a series of reforms of the British Army undertaken by Secretary of State for War Edward Cardwell between 1868 and 1874 with the support of Liberal prime minister William Ewart Gladstone.
Castle Eden is a village in County Durham, in England.
Catterick Garrison is a major garrison and town south of Richmond in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England.
GHQ Central Force was a home command of the British Army during the First World War.
The use of toxic chemicals as weapons dates back thousands of years, but the first large scale use of chemical weapons was during World War I. They were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally very slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.
In France, the Chemin des Dames (literally, the "ladies' path") is part of the D18 and runs east and west in the département of Aisne, between in the west, the Route Nationale 2, (Laon to Soissons) and in the east, the D1044 at Corbeny.
Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.
The Childers Reforms of 1881 reorganised the infantry regiments of the British Army.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Clacton-on-Sea is the largest town in the Tendring peninsula and district in Essex, England, and was founded as an urban district in the year 1871.
County Durham (locally) is a county in North East England.
The County Palatine of Durham was an area in the North of England that was controlled by the Bishop of Durham.
Darlington is a large market town in County Durham, in North East England.
Demobilization or demobilisation (see spelling differences) is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status.
Deurne is a rural municipality and eponymous village in the province of North Brabant in the Netherlands.
Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.
The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
The Durham Light Infantry (DLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1968.
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.
The East Yorkshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, first raised in 1685 as Sir William Clifton's Regiment of Foot and later renamed the 15th Regiment of Foot.
Enfilade and defilade are concepts in military tactics used to describe a military formation's exposure to enemy fire.
Essex is a county in the East of England.
Estaires is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
A facing colour is a common tailoring technique for European military uniforms where the visible inside lining of a standard military jacket, coat or tunic is of a different colour to that of the garment itself.
A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft that has been modified, or used primarily, as a light bomber or attack aircraft.
Flers is a commune near the northern edge of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (Shrike) is a German single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank in the late 1930s and widely used during World War II.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
Foucaucourt-en-Santerre is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
A frogman is someone who is trained in scuba diving or swimming underwater in a tactical capacity that includes police or military work.
Gainsborough is a town in the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.
On 4 May 1945 at Lüneburg Heath, east of Hamburg, Field Marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery accepted the unconditional surrender of the German forces in the Netherlands, in northwest Germany including all islands, and in Denmark and all naval ships in those areas.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
The Green Howards (Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own Yorkshire Regiment), frequently known as the Yorkshire Regiment until the 1920s, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, in the King's Division.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
Guillaucourt is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Haldane Reforms were a series of far-ranging reforms of the British Army made from 1906 to 1912, and named after the Secretary of State for War, Richard Burdon Haldane.
Harry George Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland KG (19 April 1803 – 21 August 1891), styled The Honourable Harry Vane until 1827 and Lord Harry Vane from 1827 to 1864, who in 1864 adopted by Royal Licence the surname and arms of Powlett in lieu of Vane, was an English landowner, diplomat and Whig statesman.
Hartlepool is a town in County Durham, England.
Hebburn is a small town situated on the south bank of the River Tyne in North East England sandwiched between the towns of Jarrow and Gateshead and to the south of Walker.
Helmond (called Héllemond in the local dialect) is a municipality and a city in the Metropoolregio Eindhoven of the province of North Brabant in the southern Netherlands.
Heuvelland is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
Hill 60 is a World War I battlefield memorial site and park in the Zwarteleen area of Zillebeke south of Ypres, Belgium.
Hordern may refer to.
Hornsea is a small seaside resort, town and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
The Huddersfield Rifles was a unit of Britain's Volunteer Force first raised in 1859.
The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.
Huttons Ambo is a civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England.
The Ieperlee (or Ypres-IJzer Canal) is a canalized river that rises in Heuvelland in the Belgian province of West Flanders and flows via the city of Ieper (Ypres) into the Yser at Fort Knokke.
The Isle of Sheppey is an island off the northern coast of Kent, England in the Thames Estuary, some to the east of London.
The Junkers Ju 88 was a German World War II Luftwaffe twin-engined multirole combat aircraft.
Killinghall is a village and civil parish in the Harrogate district of North Yorkshire, England.
La Gorgue is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The Lancashire Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that saw distinguished service through many centuries and wars, including the Second Boer War both World War I and World War II, and had many different titles throughout its 280 years of existence.
A lanyard is a cord or strap worn around the neck, shoulder, or wrist to carry such items as keys or identification cards.
Laventie is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
The Lewis gun (or Lewis automatic machine gun or Lewis automatic rifle) is a First World War-era light machine gun of US design that was perfected and mass-produced in the United Kingdom, and widely used by British and British Empire troops during the war.
Lieutenant colonel (Lt Col), is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries.
A light machine gun (LMG) is a machine gun designed to be employed by an individual soldier, with or without an assistant, as an infantry support weapon.
The Liverpool Scottish, known diminutively as "the Scottish", is a unit of the British Army, part of the Army Reserve (formerly the Territorial Army), raised in 1900 as an infantry battalion of the King's (Liverpool Regiment).
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The Lys (French) or Leie (Dutch/German) is a river in France and Belgium, and a left-bank tributary of the Scheldt.
The M1919 Browning is a.30 caliber medium machine gun that was widely used during the 20th century, especially during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
The Machine Gun Corps (MGC) was a corps of the British Army, formed in October 1915 in response to the need for more effective use of machine guns on the Western Front in the First World War.
Merris is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Merville is a commune in the Nord department and Hauts-de-France region of northern France.
The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
Middlesbrough is a large post-industrial town on the south bank of the River Tees in North Yorkshire, north-east England, founded in 1830.
The Military Service Act 1916 was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom during the First World War.
The Militia and Volunteers of County Durham are those military units raised in the County independent of the regular Army.
Minster is a large village on the north coast of the Isle of Sheppey and in the Swale district of Kent, England.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
Moreuil is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
Course of the Nederrijn Nederrijn ("Nether Rhine"; not to be confused with the section called Lower Rhine further upstream) is the name of the Dutch part of the Rhine from the confluence at the town of Angeren of the cut-off Rhine bend of Oude Rijn and the Pannerdens Kanaal (which was dug to form the new connection between the Waal and Nederrijn branches).
Neuf-Berquin (from Nieuw-Berkijn) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
A night fighter (also known as all-weather fighter or all-weather interceptor for a period of time post-World War II) is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night or in other times of bad visibility.
Nijmegen (Nijmeegs: Nimwegen), historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is an unofficial region of Wales.
Northern Command was a Home Command of the British Army from 1793-1889 and 1905-1972.
Operation Bodenplatte (Baseplate), launched on 1 January 1945, was an attempt by the Luftwaffe to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries during the Second World War.
Operation Goodwood was a British offensive in the Second World War, that took place between 18 and 20 July 1944 as part of the battle for Caen in Normandy, France.
Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation planned, and predominantly led, by the British.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Beginning on the night of March 23, 1945 the 21st Army Group under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery launched Operation Plunder, as a part of a coordinated set of Rhine crossings.
Operation Veritable (also known as the Battle of the Reichswald) was the northern part of an Allied pincer movement that took place between 8 February and 11 March 1945 during the final stages of the Second World War.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
Otley is a market town and civil parish at a bridging point on the River Wharfe in the City of Leeds metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England.
A parachute mine is a naval mine dropped from an aircraft by parachute.
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett (18 November 1897 – 13 July 1974) was a British experimental physicist known for his work on cloud chambers, cosmic rays, and paleomagnetism, winning the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1948.
Péronne is a commune of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
Pillboxes are concrete dug-in guard posts, normally equipped with loopholes through which to fire weapons.
Poperinge (also spelled Poperinghe in the past) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders, Flemish Region, and has a history going back to medieval times.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Royal Air Force Church Fenton or RAF Church Fenton was a former Royal Air Force (RAF) station located south east of Tadcaster, North Yorkshire, England and north west of Selby, North Yorkshire, near the village of Church Fenton.
The RAF Second Tactical Air Force (2TAF) was one of three tactical air forces within the Royal Air Force (RAF) during and after the Second World War.
Redcar is a seaside resort and town in North Yorkshire, England.
Retford (pronounced rɛt-fʌd, RET-fud) is a market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands of England, from Nottingham, and west of Lincoln.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length (excluding tributaries) is.
Roisel is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Rosières-en-Santerre is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army.
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army.
Sir Samuel Alexander Sadler (1842 – 29 September 1911) was an eminent industrialist, public servant and the first Conservative Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough, United Kingdom, the town with which his name is associated.
Sanctuary Wood Cemetery is a Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) cemetery for the dead of the First World War, 5 km east of Ypres, Belgium, near Hooge in the municipality of Zillebeke.
The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
Seaham, formerly Seaham Harbour, is a small town in County Durham, situated south of Sunderland and east of Durham.
The Second Battle of Passchendaele was the culminating attack during the Third Battle of Ypres of the First World War.
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Sergeant (abbreviated to Sgt and capitalized when used as a named person's title) is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces.
Shaftesbury is a town and civil parish in Dorset, England.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
Southern Army was a home service formation of the British Army during the First World War, responsible for the defence of South-East England, including both sides of the Thames Estuary.
The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914.
St Osyth is a village and civil parish in north-east Essex, about west of Clacton-on-Sea and about south-east of Colchester.
The Stanhope Memorandum was a document written by Edward Stanhope, the Secretary of State for War of the United Kingdom, on 8 December 1888.
Steenvoorde is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in the ceremonial county of County Durham, North East England.
Sunderland is a city at the centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 10 miles southeast of Newcastle upon Tyne, 12 miles northeast of Durham, 101 miles southeast of Edinburgh, 104 miles north-northeast of Manchester, 77 miles north of Leeds, and 240 miles north-northwest of London.
The Sunderland Rifles was a Volunteer unit of the British Army formed in 1860.
Sutton-on-Sea (originally Sutton in the Marsh or Sutton le Marsh) is a village in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England, beside a long sandy beach along the North Sea.
Teesside is the conurbation in the north east of England around the urban centre of Middlesbrough that is primarily made up of the towns Billingham, Redcar, Stockton-on-Tees, Thornaby and surrounding settlements near the River Tees.
The Territorial Decoration (TD) was a military medal of the United Kingdom awarded for long service in the Territorial Force and its successor, the Territorial Army.
The Territorial Force was a part-time volunteer organisation, created in 1908 to help meet the military needs of the United Kingdom (UK) without resorting to conscription.
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Light Infantry was an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Light Division.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The Third Battle of the Aisne (3e Bataille de L'Aisne) was a battle of the German Spring Offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Forces arrived completely in France.
Tickhill is a small town and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster in South Yorkshire, England, on the border with Nottinghamshire.
Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities.
The Tyne Electrical Engineers (TEE) is a Volunteer unit of the British Army that has existed under various titles since 1860.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.
Vauvillers is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Venlo is a city and municipality in the southeastern Netherlands, near the German border.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
VIII Corps was a British Army corps formation that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
Villers-Carbonnel is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Vlamertinge is a village in the Belgian province of West Flanders and a borough of the city of Ypres.
The Volunteer Force was a citizen army of part-time rifle, artillery and engineer corps, created as a popular movement throughout the British Empire in 1859.
The Volunteer Officers' Decoration, post-nominal letters VD, was instituted in 1892 as an award for long and meritorious service by officers of the United Kingdom's Volunteer Force.
The Waal (Dutch) is the main distributary branch of the river Rhine flowing approximately through the Netherlands.
The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
Weert (Wieërt) is a municipality and city in the southeastern Netherlands.
The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany.
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xanten (Lower Franconian Santen) is a town in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
XII Corps was an army corps of the British Army that fought in the First and Second World Wars.
The British XVI Corps was a British infantry corps during World War I. During World War II the identity was recreated for deceptive purposes.
XXX Corps (30 Corps) was a corps of the British Army during the Second World War.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
The Ypres Salient is the area around Ypres in Belgium which was the scene of some of the biggest battles in World War I.
The 106th Regiment of Foot (Bombay Light Infantry) was an infantry regiment of the British Army from 1862 to 1881, the third to bear the number after the Black Musqueteers (1761–1763) and a regiment raised briefly in 1794.
The 10th Anti-Aircraft Division (10th AA Division) was an air defence formation of the British Army during the early years of World War II.
The 10th Infantry Brigade was a Regular Army infantry brigade of the British Army.
The 117th Brigade was a formation of the British Army during the First World War.
The Northumberland Brigade was formed in 1908 as part of the Territorial Force of the British Army with four battalions of the Northumberland Fusiliers.
The 150th (York and Durham) Brigade was a formation of the Territorial Force of the British Army.
The Durham Light Infantry Brigade was formed in 1902 to command the part-time Volunteer battalions of the Durham Light Infantry (DLI).
The 189th (2nd York and Durham) Brigade was a formation of the British Army during the First World War.
The 18th (Eastern) Division was an infantry division of the British Army formed in September 1914 during the First World War as part of the K2 Army Group, part of Lord Kitchener's New Armies.
The 1st Canadian Division is an operational command and control formation of the Canadian Joint Operations Command, based at CFB Kingston.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
205 (3rd Durham Volunteer Artillery) is part of the 101st (Northumbrian) Regiment Royal Artillery and is equipped with the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System.
The 20th (Light) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, part of Kitchener's Army, raised in the First World War.
The 21st Army Group was a World War II British headquarters formation, in command of two field armies and other supporting units, consisting primarily of the British Second Army and the First Canadian Army.
The 222nd Infantry Brigade was a Home Service formation of the British Army that existed under various short-lived titles in both the First and Second World Wars.
228th Brigade (228 Bde) was a formation of the British Army in both the First and Second World Wars.
The 28th Division was an infantry division of the British Army raised for service in World War I.
The 2nd Anti-Aircraft Division (2nd AA Division) was an Air Defence formation of the British Army from 1935 to 1942.
The 2nd Cavalry Brigade was a brigade of the British Army.
The 2nd Division was one of the two divisions of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP, Corpo Expedicionário Português), the main military force of Portugal that fought in the World War I Western Front on the side of the Allies.
The 30th (Northumbrian) Anti-Aircraft Brigade was an air defence formation of Britain's Territorial Army from 1936 until 1955, which defended Tyneside and Sunderland during World War II.
The 31st (North Midland) Anti-Aircraft Brigade (31 AA Bde) was an air defence formation of Britain's Territorial Army from 1936 until 1948.
39th Anti-Aircraft Brigade was an air defence formation of Britain's Territorial Army (TA) during World War II.
The 39th Division was an infantry division of the British Army, raised during World War I. The division was part of Kitchener's New Armies and saw service on the Western Front and in Italy from 1916 onwards.
The 41st (London) Anti-Aircraft Brigade (41 AA Bde) was an air defence formation of Anti-Aircraft Command in the British Territorial Army, formed shortly before the outbreak of World War II.
43rd Anti-Aircraft Brigade was an air defence formation of Britain's Territorial Army (TA).
474th Searchlight Battery, Royal Artillery was a unit of the British Army during World War II.
The 4th Guards Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army.
50th Light Anti-Aircraft Brigade was an air defence formation of Britain's Territorial Army (TA) during World War II.
The 51st (Highland) Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery was a Scottish unit of Britain's Territorial Army (TA) formed for air defence just before World War II.
The 5th Airmobile Brigade "5th Cretan Division" (5η Αερομεταφερόμενη Ταξιαρχία Πεζικού «V Μεραρχία Κρητών»), formerly the 5th Infantry Division (V Μεραρχία Πεζικού) and commonly referred to simply as the Cretan Division (Μεραρχία Κρητών), is an air assault brigade of the Hellenic Army responsible for the defense of the southern Aegean sea.
The 63rd (2nd Northumbrian) Division of the British Army was a second-line Territorial Force division, formed in 1914, which served on home defence duties during the First World War.
The 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, part of the Territorial Force, which saw service in the trenches of the Western Front, during the later years of the Great War and was disbanded after the war.
The 68th (Durham) Regiment of Foot (Light Infantry) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1758.
The 7th Anti-Aircraft Division was an air defence formation of the British Army during the early years of World War II.
The 80th Anti-Aircraft Brigade (80th AA Bde) was an air defence formation of the British Army during World War II.
85th (Tees) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery (85th HAA Rgt) was a part-time unit of Britain's Territorial Army (TA) formed on Teesside just before the outbreak of World War II.
The 8th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.
113th (Durham Light Infantry) Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, 113th Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, 15th (Darlington) Durham Rifle Volunteer Corps, 16th (Castle Eden) Durham Rifle Volunteer Corps, 1st (Stockton) Durham Rifle Volunteer Corps, 1st Volunteer Battalion, Durham Light Infantry, 21st (Middlesbrough) Yorkshire North Riding Rifle Volunteer Corps, 371st Light Anti-Aircraft Battery, Royal Artillery, 4th Administrative Battalion, Durham Rifle Volunteer Corps, 54th (Durham Light Infantry) Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery, 55th (Durham Light Infantry) Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery, 589th (Durham Light Infantry) Light Anti-Aircraft/Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery, 590th (Durham Light Infantry) Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, 5th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry, Stockton Volunteers.