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1st millennium

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The first millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, AD 1, and ended on December 31, AD 1000, of the Julian calendar. [1]

480 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, Abu Bakr, Abu Dawood, Abu Hanifa, AD 1, AD 100, AD 25, AD 33, AD 47, AD 50, AD 58, AD 70, AD 79, AD 9, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Battani, Al-Biruni, Al-Shafi‘i, Alfred the Great, Algebra, Ali, Alodia, Amanikhatashan, An Lushan Rebellion, Ancient Olympic Games, Aphilas, Arabian Peninsula, Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu, Aryabhata, Asparuh of Bulgaria, Attila, Augustine of Hippo, Augustus, Awka, Aztec Empire, Baekje, Bantu expansion, Battle of Fei River, Battle of Hafrsfjord, Battle of Red Cliffs, Bayazid Bastami, Bede, Belisarius, Bilal ibn Rabah, Bjarni Herjólfsson, Bonampak, Buddhism, Bulgarian Empire, Buyeo, ..., Byzantine Empire, Cacaxtla, Cahokia, Cahuachi, Cai Lun, Calakmul, Cao Cao, Cara culture, Caracol, Caroline Islands, Carolingian Empire, Ce Acatl Topiltzin, Charlemagne, Charles Martel, Chess, Chichen Itza, Chimú culture, China, Chola dynasty, Christianity, Clovis I, Coffee, Colosseum, Commodus, Compass, Conquest of Wu by Jin, Constantine the Great, Copán, Diocletian, Early Middle Ages, Early Muslim conquests, East Asia, East Francia, Eastern Europe, Edict of Milan, Egypt in the Middle Ages, El Perú (Maya site), Emperor Guangwu of Han, Emperor Taizu of Song, Emperor Wen of Sui, Empress Jingū, End of the Han dynasty, Endubis, Erik the Red, Europe, Ezana of Axum, ʻAhoʻeitu, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fatimid Caliphate, First Bulgarian Empire, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Frumentius, Fustat, GDRT, Gelimer, Genseric, Geocentric model, Georgios I of Makuria, Georgios II of Makuria, Ghana Empire, Goguryeo, Greek fire, Gregory the Patrician, GRMT, Gunpowder, Gupta Empire, Han dynasty, Harald Fairhair, Hawaiiloa, Hephthalite Empire, Himyarite Kingdom, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of chess, History of China, History of early Christianity, History of Japan, History of the Cook Islands, Holy Roman Empire, Hops, Horseshoe, Huastec people, Hypatia, Iberian Peninsula, Ibn Abi Ishaq, Ibn al-Haytham, Idrisid dynasty, Ife, Illinois, Indian subcontinent, Isidore of Seville, Islam, Islamic Golden Age, Jelling stones, Jesus, Jewish diaspora, Jin dynasty (265–420), Julian calendar, Justinian I, K'inich Janaab' Pakal, K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo', Kaleb of Axum, Kanem–Bornu Empire, Kanishka, Khosrow I, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Aksum, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Nri, Krum, Kubrat, Kushan Empire, Laguna de los Cerros, Late antiquity, Li Bai, Lima culture, List of Irish kingdoms, List of sieges of Constantinople, Londinium, Macrinus, Makuria, Mali Empire, Mangareva, Mani (prophet), Mary Magdalene, Maya civilization, Mediterranean Sea, Merkurios of Makuria, Meroë, Merovingian dynasty, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican chronology, Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, Mexico City, Middle Francia, Middle kingdoms of India, Migration Period, Mississippi River, Mississippian culture, Mixtec, Moche culture, Monks Mound, Monophysitism, Mount Vesuvius, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Muisca Confederation, Muslim conquest of Persia, Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, Natakamani, Nazca, Near East, Nero, Nezool, Nobatia, Nok culture, North Africa, North America, Northern and Southern dynasties, Nubia, Ohio River, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ouazebas, Ousanas, Pala Empire, Palenque, Paper, Parthian Empire, Paul the Apostle, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Pilate's court, Pliny the Elder, Plutarch, Pompeii, Ptolemy, Pyramid of the Sun, Quiriguá, Rafael of Makuria, Rashidun Caliphate, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Roman Empire, Sabaeans, Sacred Cenote, Saifu, Samudragupta, Sasanian Empire, Septimius Severus, Serpent Mound, Settlement of Iceland, Silk Road transmission of Buddhism, Silla, Simeon I of Bulgaria, Siyaj K'ak', Society Islands, Song dynasty, Songhai Empire, South America, South Asia, Srivijaya, Stirrup, Sui dynasty, Sungbo's Eredo, Swahili people, Sweet Dew incident, Tahiti, Tairona, Tang dynasty, Teotihuacan, Tervel of Bulgaria, Teuchitlan tradition, Theoderic the Great, Three Kingdoms, Tikal, Tiwanaku, Toltec, Toniná, Totonac, Transition from Sui to Tang, Tuʻi Tonga Empire, Tulunids, Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil, Uaxactun, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad campaigns in India, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, United Nations geoscheme, Uthman, Viking Age, Vikings, Volga Bulgaria, Wari culture, Wari’, West Francia, Western Roman Empire, Woodblock printing, Wootz steel, Xiongnu, Xochitecatl, Yax Nuun Ahiin I, Yellow Turban Rebellion, Yemen, Za Dynasty, Zapotec civilization, Zhang Heng, Zhuge Liang, Zoskales, 0s, 100s (decade), 106, 10s, 10th century, 110s, 120s, 130s, 140s, 150, 150s, 160s, 166, 170s, 180, 180s, 184, 190s, 1st century, 200, 200s (decade), 208, 20s, 210s, 212, 214, 220s, 230, 230s, 240s, 250, 250s, 260s, 270s, 280, 280s, 286, 290s, 292, 2nd century, 300, 300s (decade), 30s, 310s, 313, 319, 320s, 330s, 333, 340s, 350, 350s, 360s, 370, 370s, 378, 380s, 383, 390s, 393, 396, 3rd century, 400s (decade), 401, 407, 40s, 410s, 420, 420s, 421, 429, 430s, 440s, 450s, 460s, 470s, 476, 480s, 490s, 4th century, 500, 500s (decade), 507, 50s, 510s, 520, 520s, 530s, 533, 535, 538, 540, 540s, 550s, 560s, 570, 570s, 580s, 585, 590s, 5th century, 600, 600s (decade), 60s, 610s, 618, 620s, 630s, 632, 640s, 641, 650, 650s, 651, 660s, 670s, 680, 680s, 690, 690s, 697, 6th century, 700, 700s (decade), 702, 706, 70s, 710s, 717, 718, 720s, 730s, 738, 740s, 750, 750s, 755, 760s, 770s, 780, 780s, 789, 790s, 7th century, 800s (decade), 801, 80s, 810s, 820s, 830s, 835, 840s, 850s, 860s, 870s, 872, 874, 880s, 890s, 896, 8th century, 900, 900s (decade), 905, 907, 909, 90s, 910s, 920s, 930s, 940s, 950, 950s, 958, 960, 960s, 969, 970s, 980s, 985, 990, 990s, 9th century. 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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah

Abu Muḥammad ʿAlī / ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdi Billah (873 – 4 March 934) (أبو محمد عبد الله المهدي بالله), was the founder of the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate, the only major Shi'a caliphate in Islam, and established Fatimid rule throughout much of North Africa, Hejaz, Palestine and the Levant.

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Abu Bakr

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.

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Abu Dawood

Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi as-Sijistani أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني), commonly known simply as Abu Dawud, was a Persian scholar of prophetic hadith who compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd.

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Abu Hanifa

Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.

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AD 1

AD 1 (I), 1 AD or 1 CE is the epoch year for the Anno Domini calendar era.

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AD 100

AD 100 (C) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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AD 25

AD 25 (XXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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AD 33

AD 33 (XXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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AD 47

AD 47 (XLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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AD 50

AD 50 (L) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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AD 58

AD 58 (LVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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AD 70

AD 70 (LXX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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AD 79

AD 79 (LXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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AD 9

AD 9 (IX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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Ahmad ibn Hanbal

Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.

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Al-Battani

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī aṣ-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī (Arabic: محمد بن جابر بن سنان البتاني) (Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858 – 929) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician.

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Al-Biruni

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Al-Shafi‘i

Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).

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Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

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Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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Ali

Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.

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Alodia

Alodia, also referred to as Alwa or Aloa, was a medieval Nubian kingdom in what is now central and southern Sudan.

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Amanikhatashan

Amanikhatashan was a ruling queen of Kush (c. 62-c. 85).

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An Lushan Rebellion

The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.

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Ancient Olympic Games

The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.

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Aphilas

Aphilas (early 4th century) was a King of the Kingdom of Aksum in East Africa modern day northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu

The archaeology of Igbo-Ukwu revealed bronze artifacts dated to the 9th century A.D. which were initially discovered by Isiah Anozie in 1939 while digging a well in his compound in Igbo-Ukwu, an Igbo town in Anambra State, Nigeria.

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Aryabhata

Aryabhata (IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.

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Asparuh of Bulgaria

Asparukh (also Ispor; Asparuh or (rarely) Isperih) was а ruler of Bulgars in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681.

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Attila

Attila (fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Awka

Awka is the capital of Anambra State, Nigeria with an estimated population of 301,657 Nigerian census.

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Aztec Empire

The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance (Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, ˈjéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥), began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: italic, italic, and italic.

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Baekje

Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.

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Bantu expansion

The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.

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Battle of Fei River

The Battle of Fei River or “Feishui” was a battle in 383, where Fu Jiān of the Di Former Qin Empire was decisively defeated by the numerically inferior Jin (Han Chinese-led) army of Eastern Jin.

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Battle of Hafrsfjord

The Battle of Hafrsfjord (Slaget i Hafrsfjord) was a great naval battle fought in Hafrsfjord sometime between 872 and 900 that resulted in the unification of Norway, later known the Kingdom of Norway.

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Battle of Red Cliffs

The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle fought at the end of the Han dynasty, about twelve years prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history.

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Bayazid Bastami

Abū Yazīd Ṭayfūr b. ʿĪsā b. Surūshān al-Bisṭāmī (al-Basṭāmī) (d. 261/874–5 or 234/848–9), commonly known in the Iranian world as Bāyazīd Bisṭāmī (بایزید بسطامی), was a PersianWalbridge, John.

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Bede

Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.

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Belisarius

Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.

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Bilal ibn Rabah

Bilal ibn Rabah (بلال ابن رباح‎; 580–640 AD) also known as Bilal al-Habashi, Bilal ibn Riyah, and ibn Rabah), was one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca and is considered as the first muezzin, chosen by Muhammad himself.Robinson, David.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print. He was known for his beautiful voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640, at the age of 57.

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Bjarni Herjólfsson

Bjarni Herjólfsson (fl. 10th century) was a Norse-Icelandic explorer who is believed to be the first known European discoverer of the mainland of the Americas, which he sighted in 986.

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Bonampak

Bonampak (known anciently as Ak'e or, in its immediate area as Usiij Witz, 'Vulture Hill') is an ancient Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Chiapas.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bulgarian Empire

In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.

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Buyeo

Buyeo, or Puyŏ (Korean: 부여; Hanja: 夫餘 Korean pronunciation: pu.jʌ), was an ancient kingdom centred around the middle of Jilin province in Manchuria and existing as an independent polity from before the late 2nd century BC to the mid-4th century AD.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cacaxtla

Cacaxtla is an archaeological site located near the southern border of the Mexican state of Tlaxcala.

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Cahokia

The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site (11 MS 2) is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (circa 1050–1350 CE) directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri.

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Cahuachi

Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture, based from 1 AD to about 500 AD in the coastal area of the Central Andes.

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Cai Lun

Cai Lun (CE 48– 121), courtesy name Jingzhong (敬仲), was a Chinese eunuch, inventor, and politician of the Han dynasty.

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Calakmul

Calakmul (also Kalakmul and other less frequent variants) is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region.

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Cao Cao

Cao Cao (– 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty.

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Cara culture

The Cara culture flourished in coastal Ecuador, in what is now Manabí Province, in the first millennium CE.

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Caracol

Caracol is the name given to a large ancient Maya archaeological site, located in what is now the Cayo District of Belize.

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Caroline Islands

The Caroline Islands (or the Carolines) are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea.

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Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.

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Ce Acatl Topiltzin

Cē Ācatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl (Our Prince One-Reed Feathered Serpent) (c. 895 - 947) is a mythologised figure appearing in 16th-century accounts of Nahua historical traditions, where he is identified as a ruler in the 10th century of the Toltecs— by Aztec tradition their predecessors who had political control of the Valley of Mexico and surrounding region several centuries before the Aztecs themselves arrived on the scene.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles Martel

Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza, Chichén Itzá, often with the emphasis reversed in English to; from Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha' (Barrera Vásquez et al., 1980.) "at the mouth of the well of the Itza people" was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.

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Chimú culture

The Chimú culture was centered on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Clovis I

Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Colosseum

The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.

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Commodus

Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.

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Compass

A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).

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Conquest of Wu by Jin

The conquest of Wu by Jin was a military campaign launched by the Jin dynasty (265–420) against the state of Eastern Wu in 280 at the end of the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China.

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Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.

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Copán

Copán is an archaeological site of the Maya civilization located in the Copán Department of western Honduras, not far from the border with Guatemala.

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Diocletian

Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Early Muslim conquests

The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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East Francia

East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Edict of Milan

The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.

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Egypt in the Middle Ages

Following the Islamic conquest in 639 AD, Lower Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Rashidun Caliphs and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus, but in 747 the Ummayads were overthrown.

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El Perú (Maya site)

El Perú (also known as Waka'), is a pre-Columbian Maya archeological site occupied during the Preclassic and Classic cultural chronology periods (roughly 500 BC to 800 AD).

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Emperor Guangwu of Han

Emperor Guangwu (born Liu Xiu; 15 January 5 BC – 29 March 57), courtesy name Wenshu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty).

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Emperor Taizu of Song

Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976) personal name Zhao Kuangyin, courtesy name Yuanlang, was the founder and first emperor of the Song dynasty in China.

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Emperor Wen of Sui

Emperor Wen of Sui (隋文帝; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (楊堅), Xianbei name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅), nickname Nryana, was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD).

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Empress Jingū

, occasionally known as, was a Japanese empress who ruled beginning in the year 201.

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End of the Han dynasty

The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history from 189 to 220 AD, which roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian.

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Endubis

Endubis (c. 270 – c. 300) was a King of the Kingdom of Aksum in East Africa modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Erik the Red

Erik Thorvaldsson (Eiríkr Þorvaldsson; 950 – c. 1003), known as Erik the Red (Eiríkr hinn rauði) was a Norse explorer, remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first settlement in Greenland.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Ezana of Axum

‘Ezana of Axum (ዔዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 CE) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan.

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ʻAhoʻeitu

In Tongan mythology, or oral history, Ahoeitu is a son of the god okinaEitumātupuokinaa and a mortal woman, okinaIlaheva Vaokinaepopua.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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First Bulgarian Empire

The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.

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Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.

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Frumentius

Saint Frumentius (ፍሬምናጦስ Fremnāṭos; born in Tyre, Eastern Roman Empire, in the early fourth century, died circa 383, Kingdom of Aksum) was the first bishop of Axum, and is credited with bringing Christianity to the Kingdom of Aksum.

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Fustat

Fustat (الفسطاط al-Fusţāţ), also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule.

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GDRT

GDRT (also GDR, vocalized by historians as Gadarat) was a King of the Kingdom of Aksum (c. 200), known for being the first king to involve Axum in the affairs of what is now Yemen.

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Gelimer

Gelimer (original form possibly Geilamir, 480–553), King of the Vandals and Alans (530–534), was the last Germanic ruler of the North African Kingdom of the Vandals.

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Genseric

Genseric (c. 400 – 25 January 477), also known as Gaiseric or Geiseric (Gaisericus; reconstructed Vandalic: *Gaisarīks), was King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) who established the Vandal Kingdom and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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Georgios I of Makuria

Georgios I (also George I; italic) was a ruler of the Nubian state of Makuria (c. AD 860 - 920).

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Georgios II of Makuria

Georgios II (c. 969) was ruler of the Nubian kingdom of Makuria.

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Ghana Empire

The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.

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Goguryeo

Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.

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Greek fire

Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire that was first developed.

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Gregory the Patrician

Gregory the Patrician (Γρηγόριος, Flavius Gregorius, died 647) was a Byzantine Exarch of Africa (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria).

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GRMT

GRMT (vocalized as Gärma for convenience, possibly Gärima; flourished 3rd century, possibly AD 230-40) was the son of the Ethiopian Aksumite King `DBH (possibly vocalized as `Azba or `Azeba), described in South Arabian texts as the "son of the nagashi" (wld ngšyn).

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Gunpowder

Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Harald Fairhair

Harald Fairhair (Old Norse: Haraldr Hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald Hårfagre, (literally "Harald Hair-pleasant"); 850 – 932) is remembered by medieval historians as the first King of Norway.

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Hawaiiloa

Hawaiiloa is the settler of the island of Hawai'i based on an ancient Hawaiian legend.

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Hephthalite Empire

The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.

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Himyarite Kingdom

The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.

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History of Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.

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History of chess

The history of chess can be traced back nearly 1500 years, although the earliest origins are uncertain.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of early Christianity

The history of early Christianity covers the period from its origins to the First Council of Nicaea in 325.

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History of Japan

The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.

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History of the Cook Islands

The Cook Islands are named after Captain James Cook, who visited the islands in 1773 and 1777.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Hops

Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.

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Horseshoe

A horseshoe is a fabricated product, normally made of metal, although sometimes made partially or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear.

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Huastec people

The Huastec or Téenek (contraction of Te' Inik, "people from here"; also known as Huaxtec, Wastek or Huastecos), are an indigenous people of Mexico, living in the La Huasteca region including the states of Hidalgo, Veracruz, San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas concentrated along the route of the Pánuco River and along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.

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Hypatia

Hypatia (born 350–370; died 415 AD) was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Ibn Abi Ishaq

ʿAbd-Allāh ibn Abī Isḥāq al-Ḥaḍramī (Arabic, عبد الله بن أبي اسحاق الحضرمي), (died AD 735 / AH 117)Kees Versteegh, Arabic Grammar and Qur'anic Exegesis in Early Islam, pg.

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Ibn al-Haytham

Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Idrisid dynasty

The Idrisids (الأدارسة) were an Arab-Berber Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974.

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Ife

Ife (Ifè, also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria.

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Illinois

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Isidore of Seville

Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Jelling stones

The Jelling stones (Jellingstenene) are massive carved runestones from the 10th century, found at the town of Jelling in Denmark.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jewish diaspora

The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.

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Jin dynasty (265–420)

The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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K'inich Janaab' Pakal

K'inich Janaab Pakal IThe ruler's name, when transcribed is K'INICH-JANA:B-PAKAL-la, translated "Radiant ? Shield", Martin & Grube 2008, p. 162.

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K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'

K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' ("Great Sun, Quetzal Macaw the First", ruled 426 – c. 437) is named in Maya inscriptions as the founder and first ruler, k'ul ajaw (also rendered k'ul ahau and k'ul ahaw - meaning holy lord), of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization polity centered at Copán, a major Maya site located in the southeastern Maya lowlands region in present-day Honduras.

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Kaleb of Axum

Kaleb (c. 520) is perhaps the best-documented, if not best-known, King of Axum situated in modern-day Eritrea and North Ethiopia.

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Kanem–Bornu Empire

The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.

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Kanishka

Kanishka I (कनिष्क), or Kanishka the Great, was the emperor of the Kushan dynasty in the second century (c. 127–150 CE).

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Khosrow I

Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Kingdom of France

The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.

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Kingdom of Nri

The Kingdom of Nri was a medieval polity.

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Krum

Krum (Крум, Κρούμος/Kroumos) was the Khan of Bulgaria from sometime after 796 but before 803 until his death in 814.

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Kubrat

Kubrat (Κοβρāτος, Kούβρατος; Кубрат) was the "ruler of the Onoğundur–Bulgars", credited with establishing the confederation of Old Great Bulgaria in c. 635.

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Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.

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Laguna de los Cerros

Laguna de los Cerros is a little-excavated Olmec and Classical era archaeological site, located in the vicinity of Corral Nuevo, within the municipality of Acayucan, in the Mexican state of Veracruz, in the southern foothills of the Tuxtla Mountains, some south of the Laguna Catemaco.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Li Bai

Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, Li Po and Li Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.

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Lima culture

The Lima culture was an indigenous civilization which existed in modern-day Lima, Peru during the Early Intermediate Period, extending from roughly 100 to 650.

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List of Irish kingdoms

This article lists some of the attested Gaelic kingdoms of Early Medieval Ireland prior to the Norman invasion of 1169-72.

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List of sieges of Constantinople

There were many sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire.

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Londinium

Londinium was a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around 43.

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Macrinus

Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus; – June 218) was Roman Emperor from April 217 to 8 June 218.

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Makuria

The Kingdom of Makuria (Old Nubian: ⲇⲱⲧⲁⲩⲟ, Dotawo; Greek: Μακογρια, Makouria; مقرة, al-Muqurra) was a Nubian kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt.

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Mali Empire

The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.

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Mangareva

Mangareva is the central and largest island of the Gambier Islands in French Polynesia.

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Mani (prophet)

Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.

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Mary Magdalene

Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called simply the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.

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Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Merkurios of Makuria

Merkurios (reigned 697 - ca. 722) was ruler of the Nubian kingdom of Makuria.

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Meroë

Meroë (also spelled Meroe; Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: مرواه and مروى Meruwi; Ancient Greek: Μερόη, Meróē) is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum.

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Merovingian dynasty

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.

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Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mesoamerican chronology

Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).

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Mesoamerican Long Count calendar

The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar is a non-repeating, vigesimal (base-20) and base-18 calendar used by several pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Middle Francia

Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.

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Middle kingdoms of India

The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

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Mississippian culture

The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally.

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Mixtec

The Mixtecs, or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs "mixteco de la costa" whose language is closely related to that of the Low Mixtecs; they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. The major Mixtec polity was Tututepec which rose to prominence in the 11th century under the leadership of Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, the only Mixtec king who ever united the Highland and Lowland polities into a single state. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States.

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Moche culture

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Monks Mound

Monks Mound is the largest Pre-Columbian earthwork in the Americas and the largest pyramid north of Mesoamerica.

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Monophysitism

Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.

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Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Muhammad al-Bukhari

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).

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Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.

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Muisca Confederation

The Muisca Confederation was a loose confederation of different Muisca rulers (zaques, zipas, iraca and tundama) in the central Andean highlands of present-day Colombia before the Spanish conquest of northern South America.

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Muslim conquest of Persia

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).

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Muslim conquest of the Maghreb

The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ لِلمَغْرِبِ) continued the century of rapid Arab Early Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa.

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Natakamani

Natakamani was a King of Kush who reigned from around or earlier than 1 BC to c. AD 20.

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Nazca

Nazca (sometimes spelled Nasca) is a city and system of valleys on the southern coast of Peru.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Nero

Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

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Nezool

Nezool (fl. 5th century) was a king of the Kingdom of Aksum.

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Nobatia

Nobatia or Nobadia (Greek: Νοβαδἰα, Nobadia; Old Nubian: ⲙⲓⲅⲓⲧⲛ︦ ⲅⲟⲩⲗ, Migitin Goul) was a late antique kingdom in Lower Nubia.

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Nok culture

The Nok culture is an early Iron Age population whose material remains are named after the Ham village of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their famous terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Northern and Southern dynasties

The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.

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Nubia

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.

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Ohio River

The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.

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Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.

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Ouazebas

Ouazebas (late 4th century) was a King of the Kingdom of Aksum.

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Ousanas

Ousanas (fl. 320) was a King of Axum.

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Pala Empire

The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.

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Palenque

Palenque (Yucatec Maya: Bàakʼ /ɓàːkʼ/), also anciently known as Lakamha (literally: "Big Water"), was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century.

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.

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Pilate's court

In the canonical gospels, Pilate's court refers to the trial of Jesus in praetorium before Pontius Pilate, preceded by the Sanhedrin preliminary hearing.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Pompeii

Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pyramid of the Sun

The Pyramid of the Sun is the largest building in Teotihuacan, believed to have been constructed about 200 CE, and one of the largest in Mesoamerica.

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Quiriguá

Quiriguá is an ancient Maya archaeological site in the department of Izabal in south-eastern Guatemala.

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Rafael of Makuria

Rafael (Old Nubian: Ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, Raphael; c. 1002) was a ruler of the Nubian kingdom of Makuria.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Rashtrakuta dynasty

Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Sabaeans

The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.

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Sacred Cenote

The Sacred Cenote (cenote sagrado,, "sacred well"; alternatively known as the "Well of Sacrifice") refers to a noted cenote at the pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site of Chichen Itza, in the northern Yucatán Peninsula.

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Saifu

Saifu (c. 577) was a king of Axum.

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Samudragupta

Samudragupta (CE) was the second ruler of the Gupta Empire and the son and successor of Chandragupta I. His rule was one of expansion marked first by the conquest of his immediate neighbours and then by campaigns to the east and the south where chiefdoms and kingdoms were subdued and forced to pay tribute to him.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Septimius Severus

Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.

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Serpent Mound

The Great Serpent Mound is a -long, three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio.

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Settlement of Iceland

The age of settlement of Iceland (Icelandic: landnámsöld) is generally believed to have begun in the second half of the 9th century, when Norse settlers migrated across the North Atlantic.

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Silk Road transmission of Buddhism

Buddhism entered Han China via the Silk Road, beginning in the 1st or 2nd century CE.

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Silla

Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula.

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Simeon I of Bulgaria

Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.

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Siyaj K'ak'

Siyaj K'ak' (alternative spelling: Siyah K'ak'), also known as Fire is Born (formerly nicknamed "Smoking Frog"), was a prominent political figure mentioned in the glyphs of Classic Period (250-800 C.E.) Maya civilization monuments, principally Tikal (which he conquered on January 16, 378), as well as Uaxactun and the city of Copan.

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Society Islands

The Society Islands (Îles de la Société or officially Archipel de la Société; Tōtaiete mā.) includes a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Srivijaya

Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

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Stirrup

A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap, often called a stirrup leather.

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Sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.

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Sungbo's Eredo

Sungbo's Eredo is a system of defensive walls and ditches that is located to the southwest of the Yoruba town of Ijebu Ode in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria.

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Swahili people

The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.

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Sweet Dew incident

The Sweet Dew incident (Ganlu incident, or 甘露之變) refers to an incident on December 14, 835, Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 245.

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Tahiti

Tahiti (previously also known as Otaheite (obsolete) is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean, and is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, and the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants (2017 census), making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population. Tahiti is the economic, cultural and political centre of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity (sometimes referred to as an overseas country) of France. The capital of French Polynesia, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast of Tahiti. The only international airport in the region, Fa'a'ā International Airport, is on Tahiti near Papeete. Tahiti was originally settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800AD. They represent about 70% of the island's population, with the rest made up of Europeans, Chinese and those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, and the inhabitants became French citizens. French is the only official language, although the Tahitian language (Reo Tahiti) is widely spoken.

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Tairona

Tairona was a group of chiefdoms in the region of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in present-day Cesar, Magdalena and La Guajira Departments of Colombia, South America, which goes back at least to the 1st century CE and had significant demographic growth around the 11th century.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Teotihuacan

Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.

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Tervel of Bulgaria

Khan Tervel (Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the Khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire at the beginning of the 8th century.

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Teuchitlan tradition

The Teuchitlan tradition was a pre-Columbian complex society that occupied areas of the modern-day Mexican states of Nayarit and Jalisco.

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Theoderic the Great

Theoderic the Great (454 – 30 August 526), often referred to as Theodoric (*𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃,, Flāvius Theodericus, Teodorico, Θευδέριχος,, Þēodrīc, Þjōðrēkr, Theoderich), was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.

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Three Kingdoms

The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).

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Tikal

Tikal (Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is the ruin of an ancient city, which was likely to have been called Yax Mutal, found in a rainforest in Guatemala.

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Tiwanaku

Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia.

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Toltec

The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).

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Toniná

Tonina (or Toniná in Spanish orthography) is a pre-Columbian archaeological site and ruined city of the Maya civilization located in what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas, some 13 km (8.1 mi) east of the town of Ocosingo.

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Totonac

The Totonac are an indigenous people of Mexico who reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo.

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Transition from Sui to Tang

The transition from Sui to Tang refers to the transition period between the end of the Sui Dynasty and the start of the Tang Dynasty, when the former dynasty's territories were carved into a handful of short-lived states by its officials, generals, and agrarian rebel leaders, and the process of elimination and annexation that followed which ultimately culminated in the consolidation of the Tang dynasty by the former Sui general Li Yuan.

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Tuʻi Tonga Empire

The Tui Tonga Empire, or Tongan Empire, are descriptions sometimes given to Tongan expansionism and projected hegemony in Oceania which began around 950 CE, reaching its peak during the period 1200–1500.

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Tulunids

The Tulunids, were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria.

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Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil

Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil (also known by the appellation "18-Rabbit" or "Eighteen Rabbit"), was the 13th ajaw or ruler of the powerful Maya polity associated with the site of Copán in modern Honduras (its Classic Maya name was probably Oxwitik).

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Uaxactun

Uaxactun (pronounced) is an ancient sacred place of the Maya civilization, located in the Petén Basin region of the Maya lowlands, in the present-day department of Petén, Guatemala.

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Umar

Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Umayyad campaigns in India

In the first half of the 8th century CE, a series of battles took place between the Umayyad Caliphate and the Indian kingdoms to the east of the Indus river.

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Umayyad conquest of Hispania

The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.

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United Nations geoscheme

The United Nations geoscheme is a system which divides the countries of the world into regional and subregional groups.

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Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".

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Viking Age

The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.

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Vikings

Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Volga Bulgaria

Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.

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Wari culture

The Wari (Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.

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Wari’

The Wari', also known as the Pakaa Nova, are an indigenous people of Brazil, living in seven villages in the Amazon rainforest in the state of Rondônia.

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West Francia

In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.

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Wootz steel

Wootz steel is a crucible steel characterized by a pattern of bands, which are formed by sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix in higher carbon steel, or by ferrite and pearlite banding in lower carbon steels.

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Xiongnu

The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.

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Xochitecatl

Xochitecatl is a pre-Columbian archaeological site located in the Mexican State of Tlaxcala, 18 km southwest of Tlaxcala city.

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Yax Nuun Ahiin I

Yax Nuun Ahiin I, also known as Curl Snout and Curl Nose, (died June 17, 404?), was an ajaw of the Maya city of Tikal.

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Yellow Turban Rebellion

The Yellow Turban Rebellion, also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, was a peasant revolt in China against the Eastern Han dynasty.

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Yemen

Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Za Dynasty

The Za Dynasty or Zuwa Dynasty were rulers of a medieval kingdom based in the towns of Kukiya and Gao on the Niger River in what is today modern Mali.

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Zapotec civilization

The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.

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Zhang Heng

Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.

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Zhuge Liang

Zhuge Liang (181–234), courtesy name Kongming, was a Chinese politician, military strategist, writer, engineer and inventor.

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Zoskales

Zoskales (c. 100 CE) was an ancient King in the Horn of Africa.

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0s

The 0s, covers the first nine years of the Anno Domini era, which began on January 1st, AD 1 and ended on December 31st, AD 9.

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100s (decade)

The 100s decade ran from January 1, 100, to December 31, 109.

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106

Year 106 (CVI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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10s

The 10s decade ran from January 1, 10 AD, to December 31, 19 AD.

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10th century

The 10th century is the period from 901 to 1000 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium.

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110s

The 110s decade ran from January 1, 110, to December 31, 119.

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120s

The 120s decade ran from January 1, 120, to December 31, 129.

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130s

The 130s decade ran from January 1, 130, to December 31, 139.

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140s

The 140s decade ran from January 1, 140, to December 31, 149.

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150

Year 150 (CL) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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150s

The 150s decade ran from January 1, 150, to December 31, 159.

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160s

The 160s decade ran from January 1, 160, to December 31, 169.

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166

Year 166 (CLXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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170s

The 170s decade ran from January 1, 170, to December 31, 179.

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180

Year 180 (CLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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180s

The 180s decade ran from January 1, 180, to December 31, 189.

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184

Year 184 (CLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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190s

The 190s decade ran from January 1, 190, to December 31, 199.

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1st century

The 1st century was the century that lasted from AD 1 to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar.

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200

Year 200 (CC) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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200s (decade)

The 200s decade ran from January 1, 200, to December 31, 209.

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208

Year 208 (CCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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20s

No description.

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210s

The 210s decade ran from January 1, 210, to December 31, 219.

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212

Year 212 (CCXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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214

Year 214 (CCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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220s

The 220s decade ran from January 1, 220, to December 31, 229.

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230

Year 230 (CCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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230s

The 230s decade ran from January 1, 230, to December 31, 239.

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240s

The 240s decade ran from January 1, 240, to December 31, 249.

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250

Year 250 (CCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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250s

The 250s decade ran from January 1, 250, to December 31, 259.

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260s

The 260s decade ran from January 1, 260, to December 31, 269.

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270s

The 270s decade ran from January 1, 270, to December 31, 279.

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280

Year 280 (CCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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280s

The 280s decade ran from January 1, 280, to December 31, 289.

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286

Year 286 (CCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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290s

The 290s decade ran from January 1, 290, to December 31, 299.

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292

Year 292 (CCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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2nd century

The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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300

Year 300 (CCC) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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300s (decade)

The 300s decade ran from January 1, 300, to December 31, 309.

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30s

No description.

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310s

The 310s decade ran from January 1, 310, to December 31, 319.

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313

Year 313 (CCCXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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319

Year 319 (CCCXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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320s

The 320s decade ran from January 1, 320, to December 31, 329.

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330s

The 330s decade ran from January 1, 330, to December 31, 339.

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333

Year 333 (CCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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340s

The 340s decade ran from January 1, 340, to December 31, 349.

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350

Year 350 (CCCL) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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350s

The 350s decade ran from January 1, 350, to December 31, 359.

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360s

The 360s decade ran from January 1, 360, to December 31, 369.

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370

Year 370 (CCCLXX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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370s

The 370s decade ran from January 1, 370, to December 31, 379.

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378

Year 378 (CCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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380s

The 380s decade ran from January 1, 380, to December 31, 389.

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383

Year 383 (CCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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390s

The 390s decade ran from January 1, 390, to December 31, 399.

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393

Year 393 (CCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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396

Year 396 (CCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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3rd century

The 3rd century was the period from 201 to 300 A.D. or C.E. In this century, the Roman Empire saw a crisis, marking the beginning of Late Antiquity.

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400s (decade)

The 400s decade ran from January 1, 400, to December 31, 409.

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401

Year 401 (CDI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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407

Year 407 (CDVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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40s

No description.

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410s

The 410s decade ran from January 1, 410, to December 31, 419.

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420

Year 420 (CDXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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420s

The 420s decade ran from January 1, 420, to December 31, 429.

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421

Year 421 (CDXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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429

Year 429 (CDXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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430s

The 430s decade ran from January 1, 430, to December 31, 439.

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440s

The 440s decade ran from January 1, 440, to December 31, 449.

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450s

The 450s decade ran from January 1, 450, to December 31, 459.

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460s

The 460s decade ran from January 1, 460, to December 31, 469.

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470s

The 470s decade ran from January 1, 470, to December 31, 479.

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476

Year 476 (CDLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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480s

The 480s decade ran from January 1, 480, to December 31, 489.

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490s

The 490s decade ran from January 1, 490, to December 31, 499.

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4th century

The 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini/Common era) was the time period which lasted from 301 to 400.

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500

Year 500 (D) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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500s (decade)

The 500s decade ran from January 1, 500, to December 31, 509.

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507

Year 507 (DVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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50s

No description.

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510s

The 510s decade ran from January 1, 510, to December 31, 519.

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520

Year 520 (DXX) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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520s

The 520s decade ran from January 1, 520, to December 31, 529.

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530s

The 530s decade ran from January 1, 530, to December 31, 539.

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533

Year 533 (DXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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535

Year 535 (DXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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538

Year 538 (DXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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540

Year 540 (DXL) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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540s

The 540s decade ran from January 1, 540, to December 31, 549.

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550s

The 550s decade ran from January 1, 550, to December 31, 559.

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560s

The 560s decade ran from January 1, 560, to December 31, 569.

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570

Year 570 (DLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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570s

The 570s decade ran from January 1, 570, to December 31, 579.

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580s

The 580s decade ran from January 1, 580, to December 31, 589.

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585

Year 585 (DLXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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590s

The 590s decade ran from January 1, 590, to December 31, 599.

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5th century

The 5th century is the time period from 401 to 500 Anno Domini (AD) or Common Era (CE) in the Julian calendar.

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600

Year 600 (DC) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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600s (decade)

The 600s decade ran from January 1, 600, to December 31, 609.

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60s

No description.

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610s

The 610s decade ran from January 1, 610, to December 31, 619.

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618

Year 618 (DCXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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620s

The 620s decade ran from January 1, 620, to December 31, 629.

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630s

The 630s decade ran from January 1, 630, to December 31, 639.

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632

Year 632 (DCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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640s

The 640s decade ran from January 1, 640, to December 31, 649.

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641

Year 641 (DCXLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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650

Year 650 (DCL) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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650s

The 650s decade ran from January 1, 650, to December 31, 659.

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651

Year 651 (DCLI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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660s

The 660s decade ran from January 1, 660, to December 31, 669.

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670s

The 670s decade ran from January 1, 670, to December 31, 679.

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680

Year 680 (DCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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680s

The 680s decade ran from January 1, 680, to December 31, 689.

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690

Year 690 (DCXC) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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690s

The 690s decade ran from January 1, 690, to December 31, 699.

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697

Year 697 (DCXCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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6th century

The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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700

The denomination 700 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

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700s (decade)

The 700s decade ran from January 1, 700, to December 31, 709.

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702

Year 702 (DCCII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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706

Year 706 (DCCVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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70s

No description.

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710s

The 710s decade ran from January 1, 710, to December 31, 719.

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717

Year 717 (DCCXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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718

Year 718 (DCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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720s

The 720s decade ran from January 1, 720, to December 31, 729.

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730s

The 730s decade ran from January 1, 730, to December 31, 739.

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738

Year 738 (DCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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740s

The 740s decade ran from January 1, 740, to December 31, 749.

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750

Year 750 (DCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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750s

The 750s decade ran from January 1, 750, to December 31, 759.

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755

Year 755 (DCCLV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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760s

The 760s decade ran from January 1, 760, to December 31, 769.

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770s

The 770s decade ran from January 1, 770, to December 31, 779.

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780

Year 780 (DCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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780s

The 780s decade ran from January 1, 780, to December 31, 789.

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789

Year 789 (DCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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790s

The 790s decade ran from January 1, 790, to December 31, 799.

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7th century

The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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800s (decade)

The 800s decade ran from January 1, 800, to December 31, 809.

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801

Year 801 (DCCCI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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80s

No description.

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810s

The 810s decade ran from January 1, 810, to December 31, 819.

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820s

The 820s decade ran from January 1, 820, to December 31, 829.

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830s

The 830s decade ran from January 1, 830, to December 31, 839.

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835

Year 835 (DCCCXXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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840s

The 840s decade ran from January 1, 840, to December 31, 849.

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850s

The 850s decade ran from January 1, 850, to December 31, 859.

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860s

The 860s decade ran from January 1, 860, to December 31, 869.

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870s

The 870s decade ran from January 1, 870, to December 31, 879.

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872

Year 872 (DCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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874

Year 874 (DCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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880s

The 880s decade ran from January 1, 880, to December 31, 889.

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890s

The 890s decade ran from January 1, 890, to December 31, 899.

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896

Year 896 (DCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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8th century

The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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900

Year 900 (CM) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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900s (decade)

The 900s decade ran from January 1, 900, to December 31, 909.

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905

Year 905 (CMV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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907

Year 907 (CMVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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909

Year 909 (CMIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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90s

The 90s ran from 90 AD to 99 AD.

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910s

The 910s decade ran from January 1, 910, to December 31, 919.

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920s

The 920s decade ran from January 1, 920, to December 31, 929.

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930s

The 930s decade ran from January 1, 930, to December 31, 939.

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940s

The 940s decade ran from January 1, 940, to December 31, 949.

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950

Year 950 (CML) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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950s

The 950s decade ran from January 1, 950, to December 31, 959.

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958

Year 958 (CMLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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960

Year 960 (CMLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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960s

The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.

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969

Year 969 (CMLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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970s

The 970s decade ran from January 1, 970, to December 31, 979.

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980s

The 980s decade ran from January 1, 980, to December 31, 989.

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985

Year 985 (CMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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990

Year 990 (CMXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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990s

The 990s decade ran from January 1, 990, to December 31, 999.

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9th century

The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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Redirects here:

1st Millennium, 1st millenium, 1st millenium CE, 1st millennium AD, 1st millennium CE, First millenium, First millennium, First millennium AD.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_millennium

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