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1st millennium BC

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The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC. [1]

362 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Adena culture, Africa (Roman province), Aktisanes, Alara of Nubia, Alexander the Great, Amanirenas, Amanislo, Amanitore, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient literature, Anno Domini, Apries, Archaeology of Northern Europe, Archimedes, Aristotle, Ashoka, Aspelta, Augustus, Austronesian peoples, Axial Age, Axum, Babylonian captivity, Bantu expansion, Baskakeren, Bath, Somerset, Battle of Actium, Battle of Corinth (146 BC), Battle of Marathon, Battle of Thermopylae, Battle of Zama, Blast furnace, Buddhism, Calima culture, Carthage, Cast iron, Celts, Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya, Chavín de Huantar, Cicero, Classical antiquity, Cleopatra, Confucianism, Confucius, Corinthian War, Cyrus the Great, Darius I, David, ..., Democritus, Diolkos, Djenné, Double spout and bridge vessel, Emperor Wu of Han, Eratosthenes, Etruscan civilization, Euclid, First Punic War, Formal system, Gallic Wars, Gautama Buddha, Ge'ez script, Geometry, Ghana Empire, Gonghe Regency, Grand Canal (China), Grave Creek Mound, Great Wall of China, Greek alphabet, Han dynasty, Hannibal, Hanno the Navigator, Harsiotef, Hasdrubal the Boetharch, Helladic chronology, Hellenistic period, Herod the Great, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, History of crossbows, Homer, Hopewell tradition, Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Ipiutak Site, Iranian peoples, Iranian religions, Iron Age, Isaiah, Israelites, Jainism, Jeremiah, Jerusalem, Jonathan Apphus, Joseph Campbell, Joseph Needham, Judaism, Julius Caesar, Kalinga War, Kaminaljuyu, Karl Jaspers, Kashta, Khabash, Kingdom of Aksum, Kingdom of Kush, Kyrenia ship, La Venta, Laozi, Leonidas I, Lighthouse of Alexandria, London, Magna Graecia, Mago II of Carthage, Mahavira, Maize, Malagana, Masinissa, Maurya Empire, Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, Maya civilization, Maya script, Mencius, Meroë, Meroitic alphabet, Mesoamerican ballgame, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Moche culture, Monotheism, Monte Albán, Mound Builders, Nastasen, Nazca culture, Neo-Assyrian Empire, New York City, Nok culture, Numa Pompilius, Osorkon I, Paracas culture, Parshvanatha, Peloponnesian War, Pericles, Pingala, Piye, Plato, Poverty Point, Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, Psamtik I, Psamtik II, Psusennes I, Psusennes II, Pythagorean theorem, Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Records of the Grand Historian, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Romulus and Remus, Routledge, San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, Sanskrit, Sappho, Scipio Africanus, Scythians, Second Punic War, Shanakdakhete, Shoshenq I, Shoshenq II, Siege engine, Silk Road, Sima Qian, Socrates, Solomon, Spring and Autumn period, Sulla, Sun Tzu, Taharqa, Takelot II, Tanakh, Tantamani, Teotihuacan, Terracotta Army, Third Punic War, Tifinagh, Tres Zapotes, Trireme, United Nations geoscheme, Vedanta, Vedic period, Vercingetorix, Virgil, Warring States period, Water clock, World population, Yayoi period, Zapotec civilization, Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism, 0s BC, 1 BC, 100 BC, 1000s BC (decade), 100s BC (decade), 10s BC, 10th century BC, 110s BC, 114 BC, 120s BC, 124 BC, 130s BC, 136 BC, 140s BC, 146 BC, 149 BC, 150s BC, 160s BC, 170s BC, 180s BC, 185 BC, 190s BC, 1st century BC, 20 BC, 200 BC, 200s BC (decade), 202 BC, 206 BC, 20s BC, 210s BC, 218 BC, 220s BC, 221 BC, 230s BC, 240s BC, 250 BC, 250s BC, 260s BC, 261 BC, 264 BC, 270s BC, 280s BC, 290s BC, 2nd century BC, 300 BC, 300s BC (decade), 30s BC, 31 BC, 310s BC, 320s BC, 321 BC, 330s BC, 332 BC, 334 BC, 338, 340s BC, 343 BC, 350 BC, 350s BC, 360s BC, 370s BC, 380s BC, 390s BC, 395 BC, 3rd century BC, 400 BC, 400s BC (decade), 40s BC, 410s BC, 420s BC, 430s BC, 431 BC, 440s BC, 450 BC, 450s BC, 460s BC, 470s BC, 476 BC, 479 BC, 480 BC, 480s BC, 486 BC, 490 BC, 490s BC, 4th century BC, 50 BC, 500 BC, 500s BC (decade), 509 BC, 50s BC, 510s BC, 520s BC, 530s BC, 539 BC, 540s BC, 550s BC, 560s BC, 570s BC, 576 BC, 580s BC, 590s BC, 592 BC, 5th century BC, 600 BC, 600s BC (decade), 60s BC, 610s BC, 620s BC, 630s BC, 631 BC, 640s BC, 650s BC, 660s BC, 670s BC, 671 BC, 674 BC, 680s BC, 690s BC, 6th century BC, 700 BC, 700s BC (decade), 701 BC, 70s BC, 710s BC, 720s BC, 730s BC, 740 BC, 740s BC, 750s BC, 753 BC, 760s BC, 770s BC, 771 BC, 776 BC, 780s BC, 790s BC, 7th century BC, 800 BC, 800s BC (decade), 80s BC, 810s BC, 814 BC, 820s BC, 830s BC, 840s BC, 850s BC, 860s BC, 870s BC, 880s BC, 890s BC, 8th century BC, 900s BC (decade), 90s BC, 91 BC, 910s BC, 920s BC, 930s BC, 940s BC, 950s BC, 960s BC, 970s BC, 980s BC, 990s BC, 9th century BC. Expand index (312 more) »

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Adena culture

The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period.

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Africa (Roman province)

Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

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Aktisanes

Aktisanes is a Nubian king who is mentioned by the Greek historian Hecataeus of Abdera.

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Alara of Nubia

Alara was a King of Kush who is generally regarded as the founder of the Napatan royal dynasty by his 25th Dynasty Nubian successors and was the first recorded prince of Nubia.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Amanirenas

Amanirenas (also spelled Amanirena) was a queen of the Meroitic Kingdom of Kush.

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Amanislo

Amanislo was a king of Kush dating to the middle of the third century BCE.

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Amanitore

Amanitore (c. 50 CE) was a Nubian Kandake (queen) of the ancient Kushitic Kingdom of Meroë, which also is referred to as Nubia in many ancient sources.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient literature

This article presents a list of the historical events and publications of literature during ancient times.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Apries

Apries (Ἁπρίης) is the name by which Herodotus (ii. 161) and Diodorus (i. 68) designate Wahibre Haaibre, a pharaoh of Egypt (589 BC570 BC), the fourth king (counting from Psamtik I) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt.

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Archaeology of Northern Europe

The archaeology of Northern Europe studies the prehistory of Scandinavia and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland and the Netherlands.

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Archimedes

Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Ashoka

Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.

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Aspelta

Aspelta was a ruler of the kingdom of Kush (c. 600 – c. 580 BCE).

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Augustus

Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Austronesian peoples

The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.

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Axial Age

Axial Age (also Axis Age, from Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE.

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Axum

Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.

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Babylonian captivity

The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.

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Bantu expansion

The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.

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Baskakeren

Baskakeren was a king of Kush (about 400 BC).

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Bath, Somerset

Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.

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Battle of Actium

The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.

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Battle of Corinth (146 BC)

The Battle of Corinth was a battle fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek city-state of Corinth and its allies in the Achaean League in 146 BC, which resulted in the complete and total destruction of Corinth.

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Battle of Marathon

The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.

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Battle of Thermopylae

The Battle of Thermopylae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Battle of Zama

The Battle of Zama—fought in 202 BC near Zama (Tunisia)—marked the end of the Second Punic War.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Calima culture

Calima culture (200 BCE–400 CE) is a series of pre-Columbian cultures from the Valle del Cauca in Colombia.

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Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Cast iron

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Chanakya

Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.

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Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.

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Chavín de Huantar

Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site in Peru, containing ruins and artifacts constructed beginning at least by 1200 BC and occupied by later cultures until around 400-500 BC by the Chavín, a major pre-Inca culture.

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Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Cleopatra

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Confucius

Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Corinthian War

The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, who were initially backed by Persia.

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Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.

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Darius I

Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

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David

David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.

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Democritus

Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

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Diolkos

The Diolkos (Δίολκος, from the Greek διά, dia "across" and ὁλκός, holkos "portage machine") was a paved trackway near Corinth in Ancient Greece which enabled boats to be moved overland across the Isthmus of Corinth.

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Djenné

Djenné (also Djénné, Jenné and Jenne) is a town and an urban commune in the Inland Niger Delta region of central Mali.

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Double spout and bridge vessel

The double spout and bridge vessel was a form of usually ceramic drinking container developed sometime before 500 BC by indigenous groups on the Peruvian coast.

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Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.

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Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

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Etruscan civilization

The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.

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Euclid

Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

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First Punic War

The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.

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Formal system

A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.

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Gallic Wars

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Ge'ez script

Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Ghana Empire

The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.

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Gonghe Regency

The Gonghe Regency was an interregnum period in Chinese history from 841 to 828 BC, after King Li of Zhou was exiled by his nobles until the ascension of his son, King Xuan of Zhou.

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Grave Creek Mound

The Grave Creek Mound in the Ohio River Valley in West Virginia is one of the largest conical-type burial mounds in the United States, standing high and in diameter.

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Hannibal

Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.

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Hanno the Navigator

Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer of the sixth or fifth century BC, best known for his supposed naval exploration of the western coast of Africa.

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Harsiotef

Harsiotef was a Kushite King of Meroe (about 404 – 369 BC).

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Hasdrubal the Boetharch

Hasdrubal the Boetharch was a Carthaginian general during the Third Punic War.

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Helladic chronology

Helladic chronology is a relative dating system used in archaeology and art history.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Herod the Great

Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Historical Vedic religion

The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.

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History of crossbows

It is not clear where and when the crossbow originated, but it is believed to have appeared in Europe and China around the 7th to 5th centuries BC.

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Homer

Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Hopewell tradition

The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.

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Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast

The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they share certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.

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Indo-Greek Kingdom

The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.

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Ipiutak Site

The Ipiutak Site is a large archaeological site at Point Hope in northwest Alaska, United States.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian religions

Iranian religions are religions which originated in Greater Iran.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Isaiah

Isaiah (or;; ܐܹܫܲܥܝܵܐ ˀēšaˁyā; Greek: Ἠσαΐας, Ēsaïās; Latin: Isaias; Arabic: إشعيا Ašaʿyāʾ or šaʿyā; "Yah is salvation") was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet for whom the Book of Isaiah is named.

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Israelites

The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.

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Jainism

Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Jeremiah

Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern:, Tiberian:; Ἰερεμίας; إرميا meaning "Yah Exalts"), also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jonathan Apphus

Jonathan Apphus (Hebrew: יונתן אפפוס Yōnāṯān 'Apefūs, Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE.

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Joseph Campbell

Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American Professor of Literature at Sarah Lawrence College who worked in comparative mythology and comparative religion.

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Joseph Needham

Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Kalinga War

The Kalinga War was fought in what is now India between the Maurya Empire under Ashoka and the state of Kalinga, an independent feudal kingdom located on the east coast, in the present-day state of Odisha and north of Andhra Pradesh.

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Kaminaljuyu

Kaminaljuyu (pronounced) is a Pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization that was primarily occupied from 1500 BC to AD 1200.

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Karl Jaspers

Karl Theodor Jaspers (23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy.

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Kashta

Kashta was a king of the Kushite Dynasty and the successor of Alara.

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Khabash

Khabash, also Khababash or Khabbash, resided at Sais in the fifth nome of Lower Egypt in the fourth century BCE.

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Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.

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Kyrenia ship

The Kyrenia ship is the wreck of a 4th-century BC Greek merchant ship.

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La Venta

La Venta is a pre-Columbian archaeological site of the Olmec civilization located in the present-day Mexican state of Tabasco.

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Laozi

Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.

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Leonidas I

Leonidas I (or; Doric Λεωνίδας, Leōnídas; Ionic and Attic Greek: Λεωνίδης, Leōnídēs; "son of the lion"; died 11 August 480 BC) was a warrior king of the Greek city-state of Sparta.

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Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (Ancient Greek: ὁ Φάρος τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας, contemporary Koine), was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom, during the reign Ptolemy II Philadelphus (280–247 BC) which has been estimated to be in overall height.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Magna Graecia

Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.

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Mago II of Carthage

Mago II was Shofet of Carthage from 396 to 375 BCE, and was a member of the Magonid dynasty.

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Mahavira

Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malagana

Malagana, also known as the Malagana Treasure is an archaeological site of Colombia named after the same name sugarcane estate where it was accidentally discovered in 1992 (Malagana being a misspelling of Málaga).

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Masinissa

Masinissa, or Masensen, (Berber: Masensen, ⵎⵙⵏⵙⵏ; c.238 BC – 148 BC)—also spelled Massinissa and Massena—was the first King of Numidia.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor

The Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Qin Shi Huang) is located in Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province of China.

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Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

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Maya script

Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.

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Mencius

Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.

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Meroë

Meroë (also spelled Meroe; Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: مرواه and مروى Meruwi; Ancient Greek: Μερόη, Meróē) is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum.

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Meroitic alphabet

The Meroitic script refers to two alphasyllabaric scripts developed to write the Kushite language at the beginning of the Meroitic Period (3rd century BC) of the Kingdom of Kush.

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Mesoamerican ballgame

The Mesoamerican ballgame was a sport with ritual associations played since 1400 BCSee Hill, Blake and Clark (1998); Schuster (1998).

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Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.

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Moche culture

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Monotheism

Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Monte Albán

Monte Albán is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site in the Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán Municipality in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca (17.043° N, 96.767°W).

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Mound Builders

The various cultures collectively termed Mound Builders were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes.

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Nastasen

Nastasen was a king of the North African Nubian civilisation of Kush (335 - 315/310 BC).

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Nazca culture

The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from beside the arid, southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nok culture

The Nok culture is an early Iron Age population whose material remains are named after the Ham village of Nok in Kaduna State of Nigeria, where their famous terracotta sculptures were first discovered in 1928.

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Numa Pompilius

Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.

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Osorkon I

The son of Shoshenq I and his chief consort, Karomat A, Osorkon I was the second king of Egypt's 22nd Dynasty and ruled around 922 BC – 887 BC.

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Paracas culture

The Paracas culture was an Andean society existing between approximately 800 BCE and 100 BCE, with an extensive knowledge of irrigation and water management and that made significant contributions in the textile arts.

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Parshvanatha

Parshvanatha, also known as Parshva, was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism.

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Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.

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Pericles

Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.

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Pingala

Pingala (Devanagari: पिङ्गल) (c. 3rd/2nd century BC) was an ancient Indian mathematician who authored the (also called Pingala-sutras), the earliest known treatise on Sanskrit prosody.

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Piye

Piye (once transliterated as Piankhi; d. 714 BC) was an ancient Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from 744–714 BC.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Poverty Point

Poverty Point State Historic Site (Pointe de Pauvreté; 16 WC 5) is a prehistoric earthworks of the Poverty Point culture, located in present-day northeastern Louisiana.

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Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

Proto-Indo-Iranian religion means the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples prior to the earliest Hindu and Zoroastrian scriptures.

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Psamtik I

Wahibre Psamtik I, known by the Greeks as Psammeticus or Psammetichus (Latinization of translit), who ruled 664–610 BC, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt.

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Psamtik II

Psamtik II (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus) was a king of the Saite-based Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (595 BC – 589 BC).

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Psusennes I

Psusennes I (Greek Ψουσέννης) was the third pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047–1001 BC.

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Psusennes II

Titkheperure or Tyetkheperre Psusennes II or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut II, was the last king of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt.

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Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

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Records of the Grand Historian

The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romulus and Remus

In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán

San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán (or San Lorenzo) is the collective name for three related archaeological sites—San Lorenzo, Tenochtitlán and Potrero Nuevo—located in the southeast portion of the Mexican state of Veracruz.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sappho

Sappho (Aeolic Greek Ψαπφώ, Psappho; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos.

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Scipio Africanus

Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time.

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Scythians

or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Second Punic War

The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.

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Shanakdakhete

Shanakhdakheto or Shanakdakhete was a queen regnant of the Kingdom of Kush, when the polity was centered at Meroë.

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Shoshenq I

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq, Tamazight: ⵛⵉⵛⵓⵏⵇ cicunq), (reigned c. 943–922 BC)—also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq)—was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt.

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Shoshenq II

Heqakheperre Shoshenq II or Shoshenq IIa was a pharaoh of the 22nd dynasty of Egypt.

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Siege engine

A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sima Qian

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).

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Socrates

Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Solomon

Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.

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Spring and Autumn period

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.

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Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.

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Sun Tzu

Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.

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Taharqa

Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo (Manetho's Tarakos, Strabo's Tearco), was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore (king) of the Kingdom of Kush.

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Takelot II

Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot II Si-Ese was a pharaoh of the Twenty-third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt in Middle and Upper Egypt.

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Tanakh

The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Tantamani

Tantamani (Assyrian UR-daname), Tanutamun or Tanwetamani (Egyptian) or Tementhes (Greek) (d. 653 BC) was a Pharaoh of Egypt and the Kingdom of Kush located in Northern Sudan and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt.

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Teotihuacan

Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.

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Terracotta Army

The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.

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Third Punic War

The Third Punic War (Latin: Tertium Bellum Punicum) (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Republic.

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Tifinagh

Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.

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Tres Zapotes

Tres Zapotes is a Mesoamerican archaeological site located in the south-central Gulf Lowlands of Mexico in the Papaloapan River plain.

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Trireme

A trireme (derived from Latin: trirēmis "with three banks of oars"; τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.

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United Nations geoscheme

The United Nations geoscheme is a system which divides the countries of the world into regional and subregional groups.

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Vedanta

Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.

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Vedic period

The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.

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Vercingetorix

Vercingetorix (– 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.

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Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Water clock

A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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Yayoi period

The is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC–300 AD.

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Zapotec civilization

The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.

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Zoroaster

Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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0s BC

This article concerns the period between 9 BC and 1 BC, the last nine years of the Before Christ era.

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1 BC

Year 1 BC was a common year starting on Friday or Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Proleptic Julian calendar.

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100 BC

Year 100 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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1000s BC (decade)

The 1000s BC is a decade which lasted from 1009 BC to 1000 BC.

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100s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 109 BC – 100 BC.

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10s BC

This article concerns the period 19 BC – 10 BC.

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10th century BC

The 10th century BC started the first day of 1000 BC and ended the last day of 901 BC.

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110s BC

This article concerns the period 119 BC – 110 BC.

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114 BC

Year 114 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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120s BC

This article concerns the period 129 BC – 120 BC.

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124 BC

Year 124 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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130s BC

This article concerns the period 139 BC – 130 BC.

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136 BC

Year 136 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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140s BC

This article concerns the period 149 BC – 140 BC.

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146 BC

Year 146 BCE was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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149 BC

Year 149 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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150s BC

This article concerns the period 159 BC – 150 BC.

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160s BC

This article concerns the period 169 BC – 160 BC.

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170s BC

This article concerns the period 179 BC – 170 BC.

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180s BC

This article concerns the period 189 BC – 180 BC.

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185 BC

Year 185 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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190s BC

This article concerns the period 199 BC – 190 BC.

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1st century BC

The 1st century BC, also known as the last century BC, started on the first day of 100 BC and ended on the last day of 1 BC.

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20 BC

Year 20 BC was either a common year starting on Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar.

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200 BC

Year 200 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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200s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 209 BC – 200 BC.

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202 BC

Year 202 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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206 BC

Year 206 BC the fifth year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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20s BC

This article concerns the period 29 BC – 20 BC.

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210s BC

This article concerns the period 219 BC – 210 BC.

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218 BC

Year 218 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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220s BC

This article concerns the period 229 BC – 220 BC.

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221 BC

Year 221 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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230s BC

This article concerns the period 239 BC – 230 BC.

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240s BC

This article concerns the period 249 BC – 240 BC.

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250 BC

Year 250 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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250s BC

This article concerns the period 259 BC – 250 BC.

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260s BC

This article concerns the period 269 BC – 260 BC.

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261 BC

Year 261 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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264 BC

Year 264 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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270s BC

This article concerns the period 279 BC – 270 BC.

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280s BC

This article concerns the period 289 BC – 280 BC.

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290s BC

During the 290s BC, Hellenistic civilization begins its emergence throughout the successor states of the former Argead Macedonian Empire of Alexander the Great, resulting in the diffusion of Greek culture throughout the Levant and advances in science, mathematics, philosophy, etc.

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2nd century BC

The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC.

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300 BC

Year 300 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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300s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 309 BC – 300 BC.

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30s BC

This article concerns the period 39 BC – 30 BC.

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31 BC

Year 31 BC was either a common year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday or Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar.

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310s BC

This article concerns the period 319 BC – 310 BC.

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320s BC

This article concerns the period 329 BC – 320 BC.

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321 BC

Year 321 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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330s BC

This article concerns the period 339 BC – 330 BC.

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332 BC

Year 332 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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334 BC

Year 334 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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338

Year 338 (CCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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340s BC

This article concerns the period 349 BC – 340 BC.

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343 BC

Year 343 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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350 BC

Year 350 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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350s BC

This article concerns the period 359 BC – 350 BC.

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360s BC

This article concerns the period 369 BC – 360 BC.

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370s BC

This article concerns the period 379 BC – 370 BC.

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380s BC

This article concerns the period 389 BC – 380 BC.

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390s BC

This article concerns the period 399 BC – 390 BC.

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395 BC

Year 395 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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3rd century BC

The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC.

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400 BC

Year 400 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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400s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 409 BC – 400 BC.

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40s BC

This article concerns the period 49 BC – 40 BC.

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410s BC

This decade witnessed the continuing decline of the Achaemenid Empire, fierce warfare amongst the Greek city-states during the Peloponnesian War, the ongoing Warring States period in Zhou dynasty China, and the closing years of the Olmec civilization (lasting from c. 1200–400 BC) in modern-day Mexico.

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420s BC

This article concerns the period 429 BC – 420 BC.

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430s BC

This article concerns the period 439 BC – 430 BC.

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431 BC

Year 431 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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440s BC

This article concerns the period 449 BC – 440 BC.

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450 BC

Year 450 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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450s BC

This article concerns the period 459 BC – 450 BC.

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460s BC

This article concerns the period 469 BC – 460 BC.

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470s BC

This article concerns the period 479 BC – 470 BC.

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476 BC

Year 476 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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479 BC

Year 479 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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480 BC

Year 480 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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480s BC

This article concerns the period 489 BC – 480 BC.

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486 BC

Year 486 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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490 BC

Year 490 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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490s BC

This article concerns the period 499 BC – 490 BC.

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4th century BC

The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC.

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50 BC

Year 50 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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500 BC

The year 500 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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500s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 509 BC – 500 BC.

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509 BC

The year 509 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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50s BC

This article concerns the period 59 BC – 50 BC.

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510s BC

This article concerns the period 519 BC – 510 BC.

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520s BC

This article concerns the period 529 BC – 520 BC.

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530s BC

This article concerns the period 539 BC – 530 BC.

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539 BC

The year 539 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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540s BC

This article concerns the period 549 BC – 540 BC.

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550s BC

This article concerns the period 559 BC – 550 BC.

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560s BC

This article concerns the period 569 BC – 560 BC.

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570s BC

This article concerns the period 579 BC – 570 BC.

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576 BC

The year 576 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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580s BC

This article concerns the period 589 BC – 580 BC.

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590s BC

This article concerns the period 599 BC – 590 BC.

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592 BC

The year 592 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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5th century BC

The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC.

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600 BC

The year 600 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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600s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 609 BC – 600 BC.

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60s BC

This article concerns the period 69 BC – 60 BC.

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610s BC

This article concerns the period 619 BC – 610 BC.

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620s BC

This article concerns the period 629 BC – 620 BC.

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630s BC

This article concerns the period 639 BC – 630 BC.

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631 BC

No description.

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640s BC

This article concerns the period 649 BC – 640 BC.

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650s BC

This article concerns the period 659 BC – 650 BC.

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660s BC

This article concerns the period 669 BC – 660 BC.

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670s BC

This article concerns the period 679 BC – 670 BC.

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671 BC

No description.

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674 BC

No description.

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680s BC

This article concerns the period 689 BC – 680 BC.

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690s BC

This article concerns the period 699 BC – 690 BC.

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6th century BC

The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC.

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700 BC

No description.

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700s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 709 BC – 700 BC.

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701 BC

No description.

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70s BC

This article concerns the period 79 BC – 70 BC.

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710s BC

This article concerns the period 719 BC – 710 BC.

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720s BC

This article concerns the period 729 BC – 720 BC.

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730s BC

This article concerns the period 739 BC – 730 BC.

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740 BC

No description.

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740s BC

This article concerns the period 749 BC – 740 BC.

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750s BC

This article concerns the period 759 BC – 750 BC.

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753 BC

No description.

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760s BC

This article concerns the period 769 BC – 760 BC.

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770s BC

This article concerns the period 779 BC – 770 BC.

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771 BC

No description.

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776 BC

No description.

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780s BC

This article concerns the period 789 BC – 780 BC.

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790s BC

The 790s BC witnessed the surging power of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, albeit a brief moment of weakness following in subsequent decades, the further decadence of Egypt, and the beginnings of modern civilization with the rise of the city-states in Ancient Greece.

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7th century BC

The 7th century BC began the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC.

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800 BC

No description.

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800s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 809 BC – 800 BC.

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80s BC

This article concerns the period 89 BC – 80 BC.

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810s BC

This article concerns the period 819 BC – 810 BC.

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814 BC

No description.

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820s BC

This article concerns the period 829 BC – 820 BC.

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830s BC

This article concerns the period 839 BC – 830 BC.

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840s BC

This article concerns the period 849 BC – 840 BC.

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850s BC

This article concerns the period 859 BC – 850 BC.

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860s BC

This article concerns the period 869 BC – 860 BC.

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870s BC

This article concerns the period 879 BC – 870 BC.

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880s BC

This article concerns the period 889 BC – 880 BC.

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890s BC

This article concerns the period 899 BC – 890 BC.

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8th century BC

The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC.

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900s BC (decade)

The 900s BC is a decade which lasted from 909 BC to 900 BC.

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90s BC

This article concerns the period 99 BC – 90 BC.

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91 BC

Year 91 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.

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910s BC

The 910s BC is a decade which lasted from 919 BC to 910 BC.

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920s BC

The 920s BC is a decade which lasted from 929 BC to 920 BC.

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930s BC

The 930s BC is a decade which lasted from 939 BC to 930 BC.

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940s BC

The 940s BC is a decade which lasted from 949 BC to 940 BC.

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950s BC

The 950s BC is a decade which lasted from 959 BC to 950 BC.

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960s BC

The 960s BC is a decade which lasted from 969 BC to 960 BC.

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970s BC

The 970s BC is a decade which lasted from 979 BC to 970 BC.

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980s BC

*First known pants found from this period in Western China.

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990s BC

The 990s BC is a decade which lasted from 999 BC to 990 BC.

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9th century BC

The 9th century BC started the first day of 900 BC and ended the last day of 801 BC.

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Redirects here:

1st Millenium BCE, 1st millenium BC, 1st millenium BCE, 1st millennium BCE, 3,000 years ago, First millennium B.C., First millennium BC, First millennium BCE.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_millennium_BC

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