40 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Airway obstruction, Albumin, Allosteric regulation, Altitude, Bisphosphoglycerate mutase, Bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase, Bohr effect, Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Conjugate acid, Creatinine, Effector (biology), Erythropoietin, Feedback, Fetal hemoglobin, Glycolysis, Heart failure, Hemodialysis, Hemoglobin, Hemoglobin A, High-altitude pulmonary edema, Histidine, Hypoxia (medical), Luebering–Rapoport pathway, Lysine, Molecular symmetry, Myoglobin, Oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve, PH, Phosphate, Phosphoglycerate kinase, Phosphoglycerate mutase, Red blood cell, Reinhold and Ruth Benesch, Serine, Umbilical artery, Urea, 1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Airway obstruction is a blockage of respiration in the airway.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
Bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) is an enzyme unique to erythrocytes and placental cells.
In enzymology, a bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 2,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate and H2O, whereas its two products are 3-phospho-D-glycerate and phosphate.
The Bohr effect is a physiological phenomenon first described in 1904 by the Danish physiologist Christian Bohr: hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity (see Oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve) is inversely related both to acidity and to the concentration of carbon dioxide.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity.
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Fetal hemoglobin, or foetal haemoglobin, (also hemoglobin F, HbF, or α2γ2) is the main oxygen transport protein in the human fetus during the last seven months of development in the uterus and persists in the newborn until roughly 6 months old.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hemoglobin A (HbA), also known as adult hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1 or α2β2, is the most common human hemoglobin tetramer, comprising over 97% of the total red blood cell hemoglobin.
High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) (HAPO spelled oedema in British English) is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs) that occurs in otherwise healthy mountaineers at altitudes typically above.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
In biochemistry, the Luebering–Rapoport pathway (also called the Luebering–Rapoport shunt) is a metabolic pathway in mature erythrocytes involving the formation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), which regulates oxygen release from hemoglobin and delivery to tissues.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of molecules according to their symmetry.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
2-Hb dissociation curve is a sigmoidal curve that represents the relationship between O2 concentration and the percentage saturation of Hb.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK 1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG) to ADP producing 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and ATP: Like all kinases it is a transferase.
Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM) is any enzyme that catalyzes step 8 of glycolysis.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Reinhold Benesch (August 13, 1919 – December 30, 1986) and Ruth Erica Benesch (February 25, 1925-March 25, 2000) were American biochemists at Columbia University whose forty year scientific collaboration primarily investigated hemoglobin.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The umbilical artery is a paired artery (with one for each half of the body) that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate or 1,3BPG) is a 3-carbon organic molecule present in most, if not all, living organisms.
3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).
2,3 BPG, 2,3 DPG, 2,3 Diphosphoglycerate, 2,3 diphosphoglycerate, 2,3-BPG, 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate, 2,3-DPG, 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate, 2,3-Disphosphoglyceric acid, 2,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.