43 relations: Amino acid, Aspartic acid, Beta oxidation, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Catalysis, Chromosome 8, Cis–trans isomerism, Coenzyme A, DECR2, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diurnal cycle, Enoyl CoA isomerase, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Exon, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavin mononucleotide, Gene, Homology (chemistry), Homotetramer, Iron–sulfur cluster, Knockout mouse, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, Lysine, Mitochondrion, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Oleic acid, Palmitoleic acid, Peroxisome, Post-translational modification, Protein, Proton, Rossmann fold, Serine, Short-chain fatty acid, Stressor, Ternary complex, Tyrosine, Unsaturated fat, Very long chain fatty acid, 2,4 Dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase 1.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Chromosome 8 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.
Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
Peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DECR2 gene.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
A diurnal cycle is any pattern that recurs every 24 hours as a result of one full rotation of the Earth around its own axis.
Enoyl-CoA-(∆) isomerase, also known as dodecenoyl-CoA-(∆) isomerase, 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase, ∆3(cis),∆2(trans)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, or acetylene-allene isomerase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cis-or trans-double bonds of fatty acids at gamma-carbon (position 3) to trans double bonds at beta-carbon (position 2).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues.
A homotetramer is a protein complex made up of four identical subunits which are associated but not covalently bound.
Iron–sulfur clusters are molecular ensembles of iron and sulfide.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.
Linolenic acid is a type of fatty acid.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils.
Palmitoleic acid, or (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid, is an omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid with the formula CH3(CH2)5CH.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The Rossmann fold is a structural motif found in proteins that bind nucleotides, such as enzyme cofactors FAD, NAD+, and NADP+.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.
A ternary complex is a protein complex containing three different molecules that are bound together.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
A very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) is a fatty acid with 22 or more carbons.
2,4 Dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism resulting in defective fatty acid oxidation caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 2,4 Dienoyl-CoA reductase.
2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DECR1 gene.