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2003 invasion of Iraq

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The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom). [1]

540 relations: Abdul Rahman Yasin, Abid Hamid Mahmud, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Afghanistan, Ahmed Chalabi, Air Force Reserve Command, Air National Guard, Air supremacy, Aircraft ordnance, Airstrike, Al Asad Airbase, Al Diwaniyah, Al Jazeera, Al Maliki I Government, Al-Faw Peninsula, Al-Qa'im (town), Al-Qaeda, Al-Shatrah, Ali Air Base, Ali Hassan al-Majid, Amarah, American Broadcasting Company, Amnesia, Amphibious warfare, Amy Goodman, Andrew Card, Ansar al-Islam, Anthony Zinni, Anti-French sentiment in the United States, Anti-war movement, April Fool (spy), Ar-Rutbah, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, Arabs, Arar, Saudi Arabia, Arizona, Armoured warfare, Army National Guard, Australia, Australian Defence Force, Axis of evil, Az Zubayr, Azores, Ba'athist Iraq, Babaker Zebari, Babylon, Baghdad, Baghdad International Airport, Baghdad Nuclear Research Facility, Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, ..., Bashar al-Assad, Basra, Basra Governorate, Battalion, Battle of Basra (2003), Battle of Debecka Pass, Battle of Haditha Dam, Battle of Nasiriyah, Battle of Umm Qasr, BBC, BBC News, Beirut, Berlin Wall, Bernard E. 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Newbold, Guinness World Records, Gulf War, H-1 Air Base, H-2 Air Base, H-3 Air Base, Haditha Dam, Halabja, Hans Blix, Hans Köchler, Heavy Metal: a Tank Company's Battle to Baghdad, History of Iraq (2003–2011), HM-14, Hopi, Hosni Mubarak, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hubert Védrine, Huda Salih Mahdi Ammash, Human rights in Saddam Hussein's Iraq, Human Rights Watch, Human shield, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Imam Ali Mosque, Improvised explosive device, Independent media, Independent Media Center, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infantry, Information warfare, Institute for Science and International Security, Intelligence Star, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Commission of Jurists, International Criminal Court, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Invasion of Kuwait, Investment in post-invasion Iraq, Iran, Iraq, Iraq and weapons of mass destruction, Iraq Body Count project, Iraq disarmament crisis, Iraq Liberation Act, Iraq Resolution, Iraq War, Iraqi Air Force, Iraqi aluminum tubes, Iraqi Armed Forces, Iraqi Army, Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), Iraqi Intelligence Service, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraqi National Congress, Iraqi Navy, Iraqi no-fly zones, Iraqi parliamentary election, January 2005, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamism, Israeli Military Censor, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Israeli–Palestinian peace process, Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri, Jalal Talabani, Jeremy Greenstock, Jessica Lynch, John Abizaid, John Denham (politician), John Keegan, John Kerry, John Negroponte, Joint Direct Attack Munition, Joint resolution, Joint session of the United States Congress, Jordan, José Manuel Barroso, José María Aznar, Joseph C. 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Bush, President of Iraq, President of the United States, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prince Hassan Air Base, Prisoner of war, Prisoner of War Medal, Private first class, Program on International Policy Attitudes, Project for the New American Century, Protests against the Iraq War, Queen's Royal Lancers, Qusay Hussein, Ra'ad al-Hamdani, Red Sea, Regime change, Republican Guard (Iraq), Republican Party (United States), Richard Perle, Ricin, Robin Cook, Rocket-propelled grenade, Roland (missile), Ron Paul, Roy Greenslade, Royal Air Force, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Engineers, Royal Fleet Auxiliary, Royal Logistic Corps, Royal Marines, Royal Navy, Royal Scots Dragoon Guards, Rumaila oil field, Rupert Murdoch, Saddam Hussein, Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations, Sanctions against Iraq, Scott Ritter, Scud, SEAL Team Six, Secretary-General of the United Nations, September 11 attacks, Seyla Benhabib, Shia Islam, Shock and awe, Shoshana Johnson, Simon & Schuster, Site exploitation, Socialist Worker, Soundtrack to War, Special Activities Division, Special Air Service, Special Air Service Regiment, Special Boat Service, Special forces, Special Forces (United States Army), Special Republican Guard (Iraq), State of the Union, Stealth aircraft, Steven Metz, Suicide attack, Syria, T-72, Taha Yassin Ramadan, Tahir Jalil Habbush al-Tikriti, Tariq Aziz, Task Force 121, Task Force 20, Task Force Tripoli, Ted Turner, The Arizona Republic, The Capital Times, The Christian Science Monitor, The Diane Rehm Show, The Economist, The Guardian, The Independent, The New York Times, The Pentagon, The Sun (United Kingdom), The Sunday Telegraph, The Three Trillion Dollar War, The Times, The Times Literary Supplement, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The Weekly Standard, Third Geneva Convention, Tikrit, Time (magazine), Timeline of the Iraq War, Tomahawk (missile), Tommy Franks, Tony Blair, Toyota Tacoma, Tuba City, Arizona, Turkey, Tuz Khurmatu, Uday Hussein, Umm Qasr, Undercover operation, United Kingdom, United Nations Charter, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council and the Iraq War, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441, United Nations Security Council Resolution 660, United Nations Security Council Resolution 678, United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, United Nations Special Commission, United States, United States Air Force, United States Air Force Combat Control Team, United States Air Force Pararescue, United States Armed Forces, United States Army, United States Army Reserve, United States Central Command, United States Coast Guard, United States Constitution, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of State, United States Joint Forces Command, United States Marine Corps, United States Marine Corps Reserve, United States National Security Council, United States Naval Institute, United States Navy, United States Navy Reserve, United States presidential election, 2000, United States presidential election, 2004, United States Senate, University of Maryland, College Park, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Victory Arch, Vietnam, Vincent Cannistraro, WAMU, War artist, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War on Terror, Warblog, Weapon of mass destruction, White House, White House Office of the Press Secretary, White House Press Secretary, Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq, World War II, Zainab Bahrani, ZSU-23-4, ZU-23-2, 101st Airborne Division, 10th Mountain Division, 10th Special Forces Group (United States), 15 February 2003 anti-war protests, 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit, 16 Air Assault Brigade, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, 1993 World Trade Center bombing, 1st (United Kingdom) Division, 1st Armored Division (United States), 1st Marine Division (United States), 1st Marine Regiment (United States), 1st Ranger Battalion (United States), 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2003 State of the Union Address, 2004 Madrid train bombings, 24th Special Tactics Squadron, 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit, 2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, 2nd Ranger Battalion (United States), 3 Commando Brigade, 32nd parallel north, 33rd parallel north, 3rd Cavalry Regiment (United States), 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 3rd Ranger Battalion (United States), 45 Commando, 4th Infantry Division (United States), 507th Maintenance Company, 5th Special Forces Group (United States), 70th Armor Regiment, 75th Ranger Regiment (United States), 7th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom), 8th Fighter Squadron, 9K32 Strela-2. 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Abdul Rahman Yasin

Abdul Rahman Yasin (عبد الرحمن يس; born April 10, 1960) is an Iraqi-American fugitive who helped make the bombs used in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing attack.

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Abid Hamid Mahmud

Lieutenant General Abid Al-Hamid Mahmud al-Tikriti (عبد الحميد محمود التكريتي) (c. 1957 – June 7, 2012) was an Iraqi military officer under Saddam Hussein's deposed government.

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Abu Musab al-Zarqawi

Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Ahmed Chalabi

Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi (أحمد عبد الهادي الجلبي; 30 October 1944 – 3 November 2015) was an Iraqi politician, a founder of the Iraqi National Congress (INC) and the President of the Governing Council of Iraq (37th Prime Minister of Iraq) He was interim Minister of Oil in Iraq in April–May 2005 and December 2005 – January 2006 and Deputy Prime Minister from May 2005 to May 2006.

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Air Force Reserve Command

The Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) is a Major Command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia.

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Air National Guard

The Air National Guard (ANG), also known as the Air Guard, is a federal military reserve force as well as the militia air force of each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

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Air supremacy

Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.

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Aircraft ordnance

Aircraft ordnance or ordnance (in the context of military aviation) is weapons (e.g. bombs, missiles, rockets and gun ammunition) used by aircraft.

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Airstrike

An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.

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Al Asad Airbase

Ayn al-Asad Airbase is an Iraqi Armed Forces and United States armed forces base located in the Al Anbar Governorate of western Iraq.

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Al Diwaniyah

Al Diwaniyah (الديوانية Ad Dīwānīyah), also spelt Diwaniya, is the capital city of Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Al Maliki I Government

The first government of Iraq led by Nouri al-Maliki took office on May 20, 2006 following approval by the members of the Iraqi National Assembly.

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Al-Faw Peninsula

The al-Faw Peninsula (شبه جزيرة الفاو; also transliterated as Fao or Fawr) is a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, located in the extreme southeast of Iraq.

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Al-Qa'im (town)

Al-Qa'im (القائم) is an Iraqi town located nearly 400 km northwest of Baghdad near the Syrian border and situated along the Euphrates River, and located in the Al Anbar Governorate.

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Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.

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Al-Shatrah

Al-Shatrah (also known as Shatrat al-Muntafiq) is a town in southern Iraq, located northeast of Nasiriyah.

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Ali Air Base

Nasiriyah Airport is a Military / Public located near Nasiriyah, Iraq.

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Ali Hassan al-Majid

Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (علي حسن عبد المجيد التكريتي; 1941? – 25 January 2010) was a Ba'athist Iraqi Defense Minister, Interior Minister, military commander and chief of the Iraqi Intelligence Service.

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Amarah

Amarah (العمارة Al ‘Amārah, also spelled Amara, is a city in south-eastern Iraq, located on a low ridge next to the Tigris River waterway south of Baghdad about 50 km from the border with Iran. It lies at the northern tip of the marshlands between the Tigris and Euphrates. Predominantly Shia Muslim, it had a population of about 340,000 as of 2002 and about 420,000 as of 2005. It is the administrative capital of the Maysan province. A major trading center for the surrounding agricultural area, it is known for woven goods and silverware.

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American Broadcasting Company

The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.

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Amnesia

Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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Amphibious warfare

Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.

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Amy Goodman

Amy Goodman is an American broadcast journalist, syndicated columnist, investigative reporter, and author.

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Andrew Card

Andrew Hill "Andy" Card Jr. (born May 10, 1947) is an American politician who was White House Chief of Staff under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006, as well as head of Bush's White House Iraq Group.

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Ansar al-Islam

Ansar al-Islam (أنصار الإسلام) or Ansar al-Islam fi Kurdistan (أنصار الإسلام في كردستان), also referred to as AAIChalk, Peter, Encyclopedia of Terrorism Volume 1, 2012, ABC-CLIO is a Sunni Muslim insurgent group in Iraq and Syria.

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Anthony Zinni

Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17, 1943) is a former United States Marine Corps general and a former Commander in Chief of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM).

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Anti-French sentiment in the United States

Anti-French sentiment in the United States is the manifestation of Francophobia by Americans.

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Anti-war movement

An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.

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April Fool (spy)

April Fool is the codename for the spy and double agent who allegedly played a key role in the downfall of the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein.

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Ar-Rutbah

Ar-Rutbah (الرطبة, also known as Rutba, Rutbah, Rutbah Wells, or Ar-Rutba) is an Iraqi town in western Al Anbar province, completely inhabited with Sunni Muslims.

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Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Arar, Saudi Arabia

Arar (عرعر) is the capital of Northern Borders Province in Saudi Arabia.

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Arizona

Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.

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Armoured warfare

Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.

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Army National Guard

The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Defence Force

The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia.

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Axis of evil

The phrase axis of evil was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, and often repeated throughout his presidency, to describe foreign governments that, during his administration, sponsored terrorism and sought weapons of mass destruction.

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Az Zubayr

Az Zubayr (الزبير) is a city in and the capital of Al-Zubair District, part of the Basra Governorate of Iraq.

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Azores

The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Ba'athist Iraq

Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.

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Babaker Zebari

Babaker Baderkhan Shawkat Zebari (بابكر بدرخان شوكت زيباري) is former Kurdish KDP politician and retired General in the Iraqi Army.

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Babylon

Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Baghdad International Airport

Baghdad International Airport, previously Saddam International Airport (مطار بغداد الدولي), is Iraq's largest international airport, located in a suburb about west of downtown Baghdad in the Baghdad Governorate.

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Baghdad Nuclear Research Facility

The Baghdad Nuclear Research Facility adjacent to the Tuwaitha "Yellow Cake Factory" or Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center contains the remains of nuclear reactors bombed by Iran in 1980, Israel in 1981 and the United States in 1991.

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Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti

Barzan Mohamed (17 February 1951 – 15 January 2007), also known as Barazan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, Barasan Ibrahem Alhassen and Barzan Hassan (برزان إبراهيم الحسن التكريتي; Barzan Mohamed), was one of three half-brothers of Saddam Hussein, and a leader of the Mukhabarat, the Iraqi intelligence service.

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Bashar al-Assad

Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.

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Basra

Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Basra Governorate

Basra Governorate (محافظة البصرة) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east.

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Battalion

A battalion is a military unit.

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Battle of Basra (2003)

The Battle of Basra lasted from 21 March to 6 April 2003 and was one of the first battles of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Battle of Debecka Pass

The Battle of Debecka Pass (Dibagah, Dibege, دیبه‌گه) on 6–7 April 2003, sometimes known as the Battle of Debecka Ridge or Debecka Crossroads, or otherwise referred to as the Alamo of the Iraq War, was a successful operation launched by U.S. Special Forces to secure a major crossroads near the village of Debecka (Dibege, دیبه‌گه in Kurdish), between Mosul and Kirkuk in northern Iraq.

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Battle of Haditha Dam

The Battle of Haditha Dam took place in 2003.

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Battle of Nasiriyah

The Battle of Nasiriyah was fought between the US 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade and Iraqi forces from the 23rd March to 2nd April 2003 during the US-led invasion of Iraq.

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Battle of Umm Qasr

The Battle of Umm Qasr was the first military confrontation in the Iraq War.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

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Bernard E. Trainor

Bernard E. Trainor (September 2, 1928 – June 2, 2018) was an American journalist and a United States Marine Corps lieutenant general.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Bill Nelson

Clarence William Nelson II (born September 29, 1942) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Florida, a seat he was first elected to in 2000.

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Biological agent

A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Biological Weapons Convention

The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC, or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BTWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.

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Black Watch

The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (3 SCOTS) is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland.

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Blair ministry

Tony Blair originally formed the Blair ministry in May 1997 after being invited by Queen Elizabeth II to form a new government following the resignation of the previous Prime Minister, John Major of the Conservative Party, as a result of the Labour Party's landslide victory at the 1997 general election.

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BM-21 Grad

The BM-21 "Grad" (БМ-21 "Град"), is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher.

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Boeing AH-64 Apache

The Boeing AH-64 Apache is an American twin-turboshaft attack helicopter with a tailwheel-type landing gear arrangement and a tandem cockpit for a two-man crew.

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Bombing of Iraq (1998)

The December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from 16 December 1998, to 19 December 1998, by the United States and United Kingdom.

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Boutros Boutros-Ghali

Boutros Boutros-Ghali (بطرس بطرس غالي,; 14 November 1922 – 16 February 2016) was an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) from January 1992 to December 1996.

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Brent Scowcroft

Brent Scowcroft (born March 19, 1925) is a retired United States Air Force lieutenant general who was the United States National Security Advisor under U.S. Presidents Gerald Ford and George H. W. Bush.

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Brian Burridge

Air Chief Marshal Sir Brian Kevin Burridge, (born 1949) is a retired Royal Air Force officer.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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Bunker buster

A bunker buster is a type of munition that is designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground, such as military bunkers.

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Bush Doctrine

The Bush Doctrine refers to various related foreign policy principles of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush.

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Camp Doha

Camp Doha was the main U.S. Army base in Kuwait, and played a pivotal role in the U.S. military presence in the Middle East since the 1991 Gulf War and in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Car bomb

A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.

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Carl Levin

Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is an American attorney and retired politician who served as a United States Senator from Michigan from 1979 - 2015.

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Carter Doctrine

The Carter Doctrine was a policy proclaimed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on January 23, 1980, which stated that the United States would use military force, if necessary, to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf.

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CBRN defense

Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear defense (CBRN defense or CBRNE defense) is protective measures taken in situations in which chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear warfare (including terrorism) hazards may be present.

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CBS

CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.

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CBS Evening News

CBS Evening News (titled as CBS Evening News with Jeff Glor for its weeknight broadcasts since December 4, 2017 and simply CBS Weekend News for its weekend broadcasts) is the flagship evening television news program of CBS News, the news division of the CBS television network in the United States.

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Center for Defense Information

The Center for Defense Information (CDI) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization based in Washington, DC.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Challenger 2

The FV4034 Challenger 2 (MOD designation "CR2") is a British main battle tank (MBT) in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman.

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Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

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Close air support

In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.

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Closed session of the United States Congress

In the Congress of the United States, a closed session (formally a session with closed doors) is a parliamentary procedure for the Senate or the House of Representatives to discuss matters requiring secrecy.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Coalition of the willing

The term coalition of the willing generally refers to the US-led Multi-National Force – Iraq.

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Coalition Provisional Authority

The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA; سلطة الائتلاف المؤقتة) was a transitional government of Iraq established following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the U.S.-led Multinational Force (or 'the coalition') and the fall of Ba'athist Iraq.

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Cobra II

Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq is a 2006 book written by Michael R. Gordon, chief military correspondent for The New York Times, and Bernard E. Trainor, a retired Marine Corps lieutenant general, which details the behind-the-scenes decision-making leading to the invasion of Iraq in 2003.

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Colin Powell

Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Command and control

Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...

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Constanța

Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.

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Containment

Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.

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Coordinated Universal Time

No description.

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Corn Laws

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.

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CounterPunch

CounterPunch is a magazine published six times per year in the United States that covers politics in a manner its editors describe as "muckraking with a radical attitude".

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Cult of personality

A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

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Curveball (informant)

Rafid Ahmed Alwan al-Janabi (رافد أحمد علوان الجنابي,; born 1968), known by the Defense Intelligence Agency cryptonym "Curveball", is a German citizen who defected from Iraq in 1999, claiming that he had worked as a chemical engineer at a plant that manufactured mobile biological weapon laboratories as part of an Iraqi weapons of mass destruction program.

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Daily Mirror

The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.

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David Rovics

David Rovics (born April 10, 1967) is an American indie singer/songwriter and anarchist.

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Death squad

A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.

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Decapitation strike

A decapitation strike is a military strategy aimed at removing the leadership or command and control of a hostile government or group.

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Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee

The Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, also referred to as the Defense Policy Board (DPBAC or DPB), is a federal advisory committee to the United States Department of Defense.

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Delta Force

The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D), commonly referred to as Delta Force, Combat Applications Group (CAG), "The Unit", Army Compartmented Element (ACE), or within JSOC as Task Force Green, is an elite special mission unit of the United States Army, under operational control of the Joint Special Operations Command.

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Democracy in the Middle East

According to the Democracy Index 2016 study, Israel (#29 worldwide) is the only democracy in the Middle East, while Tunisia (#69 worldwide) is the only democracy in North Africa.

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Democracy Now!

Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.

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Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Dennis Kucinich

Dennis John Kucinich (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician.

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Desert Patrol Vehicle

The Desert Patrol Vehicle (DPV), formerly called the Fast Attack Vehicle (FAV), is a high-speed, lightly armored sandrail-like vehicle first used in combat during the Gulf War in 1991.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Dick Cheney

Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Dissent (American magazine)

Dissent is a left-wing intellectual magazine edited by Michael Kazin and founded in 1954.

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Dominique de Villepin

Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (born 14 November 1953) is a French retired diplomat and politician who served as the Prime Minister of France from 31 May 2005 to 17 May 2007.

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Dominique Reynié

Dominique Reynié (born 17 June 1960, Rodez, France) is a French academic.

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Donald Rumsfeld

Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.

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Donald Walters

Donald Ralph Walters (September 16, 1969 – March 23, 2003) was a United States Army Quartermaster Corps sergeant, officially listed as killed in action in southern Iraqi city of Nasiriyah on March 23, 2003 in the same ambush in which Jessica Lynch was captured.

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Dora, Baghdad

Dora (also al-Dura, or ad-Durah, Arabic,الدورة) is a neighborhood in Al Rashid administrative district, southern Baghdad, Iraq.

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Douglas J. Feith

Douglas Jay Feith (born July 16, 1953) served as the under secretary of Defense for Policy for United States president George W. Bush, from July 2001 until August 2005.

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East Coast of the United States

The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.

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Efforts to impeach Dick Cheney

In April 2007, United States Representative Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) filed an impeachment resolution against Vice President Dick Cheney, seeking his trial in the Senate on three charges.

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Elizabeth Wilmshurst

Elizabeth Susan Wilmshurst CMG (born 28 August 1948), Distinguished Fellow of the International Law Programme at Chatham House (the Royal Institute of International Affairs), and Professor of International Law at University College London, is best known for her role as Deputy Legal Adviser at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom on the eve of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Embedded journalism

Embedded journalism refers to news reporters being attached to military units involved in armed conflicts.

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Erbil

Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.

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Eric Shinseki

Eric Ken Shinseki (born November 28, 1942) is a retired United States Army general who served as the seventh United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs (2009–2014).

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Espionage

Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Evan Wright

Evan Alan Wright (born 1966) is an American writer, known for his extensive reporting on subcultures for Rolling Stone and Vanity Fair.

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FactCheck.org

FactCheck.org is a nonprofit non-partisan website that describes itself as a "consumer advocate for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics".

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Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II

The Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin turbofan engine, straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force (USAF).

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Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting

Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR) is a media criticism organization based in New York City.

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Fareed Zakaria

Fareed Rafiq Zakaria (born January 20, 1964) is an Indian-American journalist and author.

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Fedayeen

Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn) is a term used to refer to various military groups willing to sacrifice themselves.

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Fedayeen Saddam

Fedayeen Saddam (Arabic: فدائيي صدام) was a paramilitary organization loyal to the Ba'athist government of Saddam Hussein.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Fiasco (book)

Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq (2006) is a book by Washington Post Pentagon correspondent Thomas E. Ricks.

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Firdos Square

Firdos Square (Sāḥat al-Firdaus) is a public open space in Baghdad, Iraq.

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Foreign policy of the United States

The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States.

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Forward-looking infrared

Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) cameras, typically used on military and civilian aircraft, use a thermographic camera that senses infrared radiation.

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Fox News

Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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France–United States relations

French–American relations refers to the relations between France and the United States since 1776.

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Francophobia

Anti-French sentiment (Francophobia) refers to an extreme or irrational fear of France, the French people, the French government or the Francophonie (set of political entities that use French as an official language or whose French-speaking population is numerically or proportionally large).

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Freedom fries

Freedom fries was a political euphemism for French fries in the United States.

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French fries

French fries (North American English), chips (British and Commonwealth English), finger chips (Indian English), or French-fried potatoes are ''batonnet'' or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes.

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Friendly fire

Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.

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Frontline (U.S. TV series)

Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.

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G.I. (military)

G.I. is an acronym used to describe the soldiers of the United States Army and airmen of the United States Army Air Forces and also for general items of their equipment.

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GBU-27 Paveway III

The GBU-27 Paveway III (Guided Bomb Unit) is a laser-guided bomb with bunker buster capabilities, it is a GBU-24 Paveway III (fitted on the warhead of the BLU-109 bomb body) that has been redesigned to be used by the F-117A Nighthawk stealth ground attack aircraft.

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GBU-43/B MOAB

The GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB, commonly known as "Mother of All Bombs") is a large-yield bomb, developed for the United States military by Albert L. Weimorts, Jr.

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Geoff Hoon

Geoffrey William Hoon (born 6 December 1953) is a British Labour politician who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Ashfield from 1992 to 2010.

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George Gittoes

George Noel Gittoes (born 7 December 1949) is an Australian artist, film producer, director and writer.

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George H. W. Bush

George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Governmental positions on the Iraq War prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq

This article describes the positions of world governments before the actual initiation of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and not their current positions as they may have changed since then.

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Gregory S. Newbold

Lieutenant General Gregory S. Newbold is a retired United States Marine Corps 3-star general who served as Director of Operations (J-3) for the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 2000 until he retired in October 2002.

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Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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H-1 Air Base

H-1 Air Base (code-named 202A) is a former Iraqi Air Force base in the Al-Anbar Governorate of Iraq.

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H-2 Air Base

H-2 Air Base (code-named 202B) is a former Iraqi Air Force base in the Al-Anbar Governorate of Iraq.

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H-3 Air Base

H-3 Air Base (code-named 202C, 202D) is part of a cluster of former Iraqi Air Force bases in the Al-Anbar Governorate of Iraq. It is a cluster of airfields located in a remote stretch of Iraq's western desert, about 435 kilometers from Baghdad in western Iraq. It is close to the Syrian-Iraqi border, and near the highway that connects Jordan with Baghdad. H-3 Main is supported by two dispersal airfields, H-3 Southwest, and H-3 Northwest, and a Highway strip, 42 kilometers to the west. H-3 Southwest is served by a single 9,700 foot runway and has a parallel taxiway that could be used as an alternate runway. The complex was one of eight major operating bases of the Iraqi Air Force prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Coalition forces. It was later de-militarized by the Coalition and today is abandoned.

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Haditha Dam

The Haditha Dam (سد حديثة) or Qadisiya Dam is an earth-fill dam on the Euphrates, north of Haditha (Iraq), creating Lake Qadisiyah (Buhayrat al-Qadisiyyah).

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Halabja

Halabja (Kurdish: Hełebce) is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan and the capital of Halabja Governorate, located about northeast of Baghdad and from the Iranian border.

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Hans Blix

Hans Martin Blix (born 28 June 1928) is a Swedish diplomat and politician for the Liberal People's Party.

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Hans Köchler

Hans Köchler (born 18 October 1948) is a retired professor of philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and president of the International Progress Organization, a non-governmental organization in consultative status with the United Nations.

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Heavy Metal: a Tank Company's Battle to Baghdad

Heavy Metal: a Tank Company's Battle to Baghdad is a book by Captain Jason Conroy with Ron Martz published in 2005 by Potomac Books.

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History of Iraq (2003–2011)

The history of Iraq from 2003 to 2011 is characterized by a large United States military deployment on Iraqi territory, beginning with the U.S.-led invasion of the country in March 2003 which overthrew the Ba'ath Party government of Saddam Hussein and ending with the departure of US troops from the country in 2011 (though the Iraq War that commenced in 2003 continued and subsequently intensified during 2013).

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HM-14

Helicopter Mine Countermeasures Squadron 14 (HM-14) is a United States Navy helicopter squadron established in 1978 based at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia.

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Hopi

The Hopi are a Native American tribe, who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona.

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Hosni Mubarak

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Hubert Védrine

Hubert Védrine (born 31 July 1947 in Saint-Silvain-Bellegarde, Creuse) is a French Socialist politician.

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Huda Salih Mahdi Ammash

Huda Salih Mahdi Ammash (هدى صالح مهدي عماش) is an Iraqi scientist, dubbed Mrs.

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Human rights in Saddam Hussein's Iraq

Iraq's era under President Saddam Hussein was notorious for its severe violations of human rights.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Human shield

Human shield is a military and political term describing the deliberate placement of non-combatants in or around combat targets to deter the enemy from attacking these combat targets.

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I Marine Expeditionary Force

The I Marine Expeditionary Force ("I" pronounced "One") is a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) of the United States Marine Corps primarily composed of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, and 1st Marine Logistics Group.

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Imam Ali Mosque

The Imam 'Ali Holy Shrine (Ḥaram al-Imām ‘Alī), also known as the Mosque of 'Ali (Masjid ‘Alī), located in Najaf, Iraq, is the Holy site for Shia Muslims.

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Improvised explosive device

An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.

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Independent media

Independent media refers to any form of media, such as radio, television, newspapers or the Internet, that is free of influence by government or corporate interests.

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Independent Media Center

The Independent Media Center (also known as Indymedia or IMC) is a far-left open publishing network of journalist collectives that report on political and social issues.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Infantry

Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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Information warfare

Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent.

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Institute for Science and International Security

The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) is a nonprofit, non-governmental institution to inform the public about "science and policy issues affecting international security." Founded in 1993, the group is led by founder and former United Nations IAEA nuclear inspector David Albright.

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Intelligence Star

The Intelligence Star is an award given by the Central Intelligence Agency to its officers for "voluntary acts of courage performed under hazardous conditions or for outstanding achievements or services rendered with distinction under conditions of grave risk".

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Commission of Jurists

The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-governmental organization.

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International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.

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International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

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Invasion of Kuwait

The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country.

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Investment in post-invasion Iraq

Investment in post-2003 Iraq refers to international efforts to rebuild the infrastructure of Iraq since the Iraq War in 2003.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraq and weapons of mass destruction

Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs.

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Iraq Body Count project

Iraq Body Count project (IBC) is a web-based effort to record civilian deaths resulting from the US-led 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Iraq disarmament crisis

The Iraq disarmament crisis was claimed as one of primary issues that led to the multinational invasion of Iraq on 20 March 2003.

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Iraq Liberation Act

The Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 is a United States Congressional statement of policy stating that "It should be the policy of the United States to support efforts to remove the regime headed by Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq..." It was signed into law by President Bill Clinton, and states that it is the policy of the United States to support democratic movements within Iraq.

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Iraq Resolution

The Iraq Resolution (formally the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002, (pdf)) is a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 as Public Law No: 107-243, authorizing military action against Iraq.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Iraqi Air Force

The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF or IrAF; Arabic: القوات الجوية العراقية, Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Iraqiya) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Iraqi Armed Forces, responsible for the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets.

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Iraqi aluminum tubes

Aluminum tubes purchased by the nation of Iraq were intercepted in Jordan in 2001.

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Iraqi Armed Forces

The Iraqi Armed Forces are the military forces of the Government of Iraq.

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Iraqi Army

The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.

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Iraqi insurgency (2003–11)

An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).

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Iraqi Intelligence Service

The Iraqi Intelligence Service (Jihaz Al-Mukhabarat Al-Amma), also known as the Mukhabarat, General Directorate of Intelligence, or Party Intelligence, was the main state intelligence organization in Iraq under Saddam Hussein.

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Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.

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Iraqi National Congress

The Iraqi National Congress (INC; Arabic: المؤتمر الوطني العراقي Al-Moutammar Al-Watani Al-'Iraqi) is an Iraqi political party that was led by Ahmed Chalabi who died in 2015.

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Iraqi Navy

The Iraqi Navy (IqN) is one of the components of the military of Iraq.

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Iraqi no-fly zones

The Iraqi no-fly zones were a set of two separate no-fly zones (NFZs), and were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq and Shiite Muslims in the south.

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Iraqi parliamentary election, January 2005

Elections for the National Assembly of Iraq were held on January 30, 2005 in Iraq.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Israeli Military Censor

The Israeli Military Censor (הצנזורה הצבאית) is a unit in the IDF Directorate of Military Intelligence which watches over the publication of information regarding the military network, and generally, the security of Israel.

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Israeli–Palestinian conflict

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.

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Israeli–Palestinian peace process

The peace process in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict refers to intermittent discussions held during the ongoing violence which has prevailed since the beginning of the conflict.

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Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri

Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri (عزة إبراهيم الدوري ‘Izzat Ibrāhīm ad-Dūrī; born 1 July 1942) is a former Iraqi statesman and military commander.

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Jalal Talabani

Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: جەلال تاڵەبانی Celal Tallebanî, جلال طالباني; 1933 – 3 October 2017) was an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as President of Iraq from 2006 to 2014, as well as the President of the Governing Council of Iraq.

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Jeremy Greenstock

Sir Jeremy Quentin Greenstock, GCMG (born 27 July 1943) is a retired British diplomat, active from 1969 to 2004.

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Jessica Lynch

Jessica Dawn Lynch (born April 26, 1983) is a former United States Army soldier who served in the 2003 invasion of Iraq by U.S. and allied forces.

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John Abizaid

John Philip Abizaid (born April 1, 1951) is a retired United States Army general and former U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) commander, overseeing American military operations in a 27-country region, from the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, to South and Central Asia, covering much of the Middle East.

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John Denham (politician)

John Yorke Denham FRSA (born 15 July 1953) is an English Labour Party politician who served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Southampton Itchen from 1992 to 2015.

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John Keegan

Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.

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John Kerry

John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.

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John Negroponte

John Dimitri Negroponte (born July 21, 1939) is an American diplomat.

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Joint Direct Attack Munition

The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a guidance kit that converts unguided bombs, or "dumb bombs", into all-weather precision-guided munitions.

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Joint resolution

In the United States Congress, a joint resolution is a legislative measure that requires approval by the Senate and the House and is presented to the president for his approval or disapproval.

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Joint session of the United States Congress

A joint session of the United States Congress is a gathering of members of the two chambers of the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States: the Senate and the House of Representatives.

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Jordan

Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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José Manuel Barroso

José Manuel Durão Barroso (born 23 March 1956) is a Portuguese politician who is the current non-executive chairman at Goldman Sachs International.

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José María Aznar

José María Alfredo Aznar López (born 25 February 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as the Prime Minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004.

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Joseph C. Wilson

Joseph Charles Wilson IV (born November 6, 1949) is a former United States diplomat best known for his 2002 trip to Niger to investigate allegations that Saddam Hussein was attempting to purchase yellowcake uranium; his New York Times op-ed piece, "What I Didn't Find in Africa"; and the subsequent leaking of information pertaining to his wife Valerie Plame's identity as a CIA agent.

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Joseph Stiglitz

Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.

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Jus ad bellum

Jus ad bellum (Latin for "right to war") is a set of criteria that are to be consulted before engaging in war in order to determine whether entering into war is permissible, that is, whether it is a just war.

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JW GROM

JW GROM (full name: Jednostka Wojskowa GROM im. Cichociemnych Spadochroniarzy Armii Krajowej, English: "Military Unit GROM named in honour of the Silent Unseen of the Home Army") is Poland's elite counter-terrorism unit.

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Karbala

Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.

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Kirkuk

Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Kosrat Rasul Ali

Kosrat Rasul Ali, also known as Kosret Rasoul Ali, is an Iraqi Kurdish politician, First Deputy for the Secretary General of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), veteran Peshmerga military leader, Second Prime Minister of KRG and Vice President of the Kurdistan Region.

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Kurdistan Democratic Party

The Kurdistan Democratic Party (Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê), usually abbreviated as KDP or PDK, is one of the main Kurdish parties in Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Kurdistan Islamic Group

Kurdistan Islamic Group (کۆمه‌لی ئیسلامیی کوردستان / عێراق Komelî Îslamî Kurdistan / 'Êraq; الجماعة الإسلامية الكردستانیة / العراق al-Jumāʿa al-islāmiya al-Kurdistaniya - al-ʿIrāq) is a movement in Iraqi Kurdistan established in May 2001 by Ali Bapir, a former leader of the Islamic Movement of Kurdistan.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kut

Al-Kūt (الكوت Al Kūt), also spelled Kut al-Imara or Kut El Amara, is a city in eastern Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris River, about south east of Baghdad.

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Kuwait

Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Kuwaiti oil fires

The Kuwaiti oil fires were caused by Iraqi military forces setting fire to a reported 605 to 732 oil wells along with an unspecified number of oil filled low-lying areas, such as oil lakes and fire trenches, as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in 1991 due to the advances of Coalition military forces in the Persian Gulf War.

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Lake Milh

Lake Milh (literally Sea of Salt, pronounced Bahr al-Milh), also known as Razzaza Lake, is located a few miles west of Karbala, Iraq.

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Lake Qadisiyah

A man-made reservoir in Al-Anbar, Iraq, Lake Qadisiyah (بحيرة القادسية) sits on the north side of the Haditha Dam.

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Lebanese Americans

Lebanese Americans (أمريكيون لبنانيون) are Americans of Lebanese descent.

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Liberal Democrats (UK)

The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.

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Linda Bilmes

Linda J. Bilmes (born 1960) is the Daniel Patrick Moynihan Senior Lecturer in Public Policy at Harvard University.

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List of aviation shootdowns and accidents during the Iraq War

This list of aviation shootdowns and accidents during the Iraq War includes incidents with Coalition and civilian aircraft during the Iraq War.

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List of people associated with the 2003 invasion of Iraq

List of people associated with the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.

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List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll.

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Lockheed AC-130

The Lockheed AC-130 gunship is a heavily armed, long-endurance ground-attack variant of the C-130 Hercules transport fixed-wing aircraft.

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Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk

The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk is an American single-seat, twin-engine stealth attack aircraft that was developed by Lockheed's secretive Skunk Works division and operated by the United States Air Force (USAF).

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Lockheed Martin

Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.

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Lockheed Martin KC-130

The Lockheed Martin KC-130 is the basic designation for a family of the extended-range tanker version of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft modified for aerial refueling.

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Lockheed S-3 Viking

The Lockheed S-3 Viking is a four-seat, twin-engine turbofan-powered jet aircraft that was used by the U.S. Navy primarily for anti-submarine warfare.

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Lockheed U-2

The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Looting

Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.

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Lori Piestewa

Lori Ann Piestewa (December 14, 1979 – March 23, 2003) was a United States Army soldier killed during the Iraq War.

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Luis Moreno Ocampo

Luis Gabriel Moreno OcampoMoreno Ocampo's surnames are often hyphenated in English-language media to distinguish Moreno as a surname, rather than a given name.

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M1 Abrams

The M1 Abrams is an American third-generation main battle tank named for General Creighton Abrams.

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M142 HIMARS

The M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) is a U.S. light multiple rocket launcher mounted on a standard Army M1140 truck frame.

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M2 Browning

The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning.

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M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System

The M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (M270 MLRS) is an armored, self-propelled, multiple rocket launcher; a type of rocket artillery.

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Madrid

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Main battle tank

A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.

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Main supply route

A main supply route (MSR) is the route or routes designated within an area of operations upon which the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations and humanitarian operations.

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Marine Air Control Group 28

Marine Air Control Group 28 (MACG-28) is a United States Marine Corps aviation command and control unit based at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point that is currently composed of 4 squadrons and a battalion that provide the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing with airspace coordination, air control, immediate air support, fires integration, air traffic control (ATC), radar surveillance, aviation combat element (ACE) communications support, and an integrated ACE command post in support of the II Marine Expeditionary Force.

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Masoud Barzani

Masoud Barzani (Mesûd Barzanî; born 16 August 1946) is a Kurdish politician who had been President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region from 2005 to 2017.

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Master sergeant

A master sergeant is the military rank for a senior non-commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries.

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Matthew Bogdanos

Colonel Matthew Bogdanos is an Assistant District Attorney in Manhattan (since 1988), author, and a colonel in the United States Marine Corps Reserves.

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McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation).

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MD Helicopters MH-6 Little Bird

The Boeing A/MH-6M Little Bird (nicknamed the Killer Egg), and its attack variant '''AH-6''', are light helicopters used for special operations in the United States Army.

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Mechanized infantry

Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force).

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Michael R. Gordon

Michael R. Gordon is the chief military correspondent for The New York Times.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Military occupation

Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.

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MIM-104 Patriot

The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations.

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Mk 19 grenade launcher

The Mk 19 grenade launcher (pronounced Mark 19) is an American 40 mm belt-fed automatic grenade launcher that was first developed during the Vietnam War.

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Mohamed ElBaradei

Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.

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Mohammed Odeh al-Rehaief

Mohammed Odeh al-Rehaief (Arabic: محمد عودة الرهيف, born circa 1970) is an Iraqi attorney who helped the United States armed forces rescue prisoner of war Jessica Lynch from a hospital in Nasiriyah.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Morale

Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.

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Most-wanted Iraqi playing cards

During the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition, the U.S. military developed a set of playing cards to help troops identify the most-wanted members of President Saddam Hussein's government, mostly high-ranking members of the Iraqi Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party or members of the Revolutionary Command Council.

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Mosul

Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.

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MSNBC

MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.

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Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf

Mohammed Saeed al-Sahhaf (محمد سعيد الصحاف; born 30 July 1940) is a former Iraqi diplomat and politician.

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Multi-National Force – Iraq

The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.

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Najaf

Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.

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Nasiriyah

Nasiriyah (الناصرية; BGN: An Nāşirīyah; also spelled Nassiriya or Nasiriya) is a city in Iraq.

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National Military Command Center

The National Military Command Center (NMCC) is a Pentagon command and communications center for the National Command Authority (i.e., the President of the United States and the United States Secretary of Defense).

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National Museum of Iraq

The National Museum of Iraq (Arabic: المتحف العراقي) is a museum located in Baghdad, Iraq.

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National Security Advisor (United States)

The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.

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National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Neoconservatism

Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon when labelling its adherents) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among liberal hawks who became disenchanted with the increasingly pacifist foreign policy of the Democratic Party, and the growing New Left and counterculture, in particular the Vietnam protests.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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New Statesman

The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.

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New York Post

The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.

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Niger uranium forgeries

The Niger uranium forgeries were forged documents initially released by SISMI (Italian military intelligence), which seem to depict an attempt made by Saddam Hussein in Iraq to purchase yellowcake uranium powder from Niger during the Iraq disarmament crisis.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Nukhayb

An Nukhayb (النخيب, alt. Nukhaib, Nkheeb) is a town in Al Anbar Governorate, Iraq.

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Office of Special Plans

The Office of Special Plans (OSP), which existed from September 2002 to June 2003, was a Pentagon unit created by Paul Wolfowitz and Douglas Feith, and headed by Feith, as charged by then-United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, to supply senior George W. Bush administration officials with raw intelligence (unvetted by intelligence analysts, see Stovepiping) pertaining to Iraq.

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Old Europe and New Europe

Old Europe and New Europe are rhetorical terms used by conservative political analysts in the United States to describe European post-Communist era countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

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Operation Desert Badger

Operation Desert Badger was a U.S. plan for response if a pilot was shot down while patrolling the Iraqi no-fly zones.

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Operation Northern Delay

No description.

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Operation Red Dawn

Operation Red Dawn was an American military operation conducted on 13 December 2003 in the town of ad-Dawr, Iraq, near Tikrit, that led to the capture of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein.

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Operation Southern Focus

Operation Southern Focus was a period in the months leading up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq (called "Operation Iraqi Freedom" in the United States) in which the military responses to violations of the southern Iraqi no-fly zones were increased, with more intensive bombing of air defense artillery installations and other military complexes.

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Operation Southern Watch

Operation Southern Watch was an air-centric military operation conducted by the United States Department of Defense from Summer 1992 to Spring 2003.

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Operation Telic

Operation Telic (Op TELIC) was the codename under which all of the United Kingdom's military operations in Iraq were conducted between the start of the Invasion of Iraq on 19 March 2003 and the withdrawal of the last remaining British forces on 22 May 2011.

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Operation Viking Hammer

Operation Viking Hammer was an unconventional warfare operation during the Iraq War which took place in northern Iraq, commonly known as Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Osama bin Laden

Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.

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Osama El-Baz

Osama El-Baz (1931 – September 14, 2013) was an Egyptian diplomat and a Senior Advisor to former President Hosni Mubarak.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Pan Am Flight 103

Pan Am Flight 103 was a regularly scheduled Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt to Detroit via London and New York.

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Pandur I

The Pandur is an APC developed and produced by the Austrian company Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeuge (SSF).

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Parachute Regiment (United Kingdom)

The Parachute Regiment, colloquially known as the Paras, is an elite airborne infantry regiment of the British Army.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Patriotic Union of Kurdistan

The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK; Yekêtiy Niştîmaniy Kurdistan; Yekîtiya Nîştimanî ya Kurdistanê) is a Kurdish political party in Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Paul Berman

Paul Lawrence Berman (born 1949) is an American writer on politics and literature.

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Paul H. O'Neill

Paul Henry O'Neill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bush's first term.

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Paul Wolfowitz

Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American political scientist and diplomat who served as the 10th President of the World Bank, United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, and former dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Perfidy

In the context of war, perfidy is a form of deception in which one side promises to act in good faith (such as by raising a flag of truce) with the intention of breaking that promise once the unsuspecting enemy is exposed (such as by coming out of cover to attack the enemy coming to take the "surrendering" prisoners into custody).

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Peshmerga

Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Peter Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith

Peter Henry Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith (born 5 January 1950) is a British barrister and a former Attorney General for England and Wales and for Northern Ireland.

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Petrodollar recycling

Petrodollar recycling is the international spending or investment of a country's revenues from petroleum exports ("petrodollars").

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Philip Hunt, Baron Hunt of Kings Heath

Philip Alexander Hunt, Baron Hunt of Kings Heath, OBE, PC (born 19 May 1949) is a former health administrator and a Labour Co-operative member of the House of Lords.

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Pinzgauer High-Mobility All-Terrain Vehicle

The Pinzgauer is a family of high-mobility all-terrain 4WD (4×4) and 6WD (6×6) military utility vehicles.

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Plan of Attack

Plan of Attack is a 2004 book by the American author and investigative reporter Bob Woodward.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish Navy

The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna, "War Navy") is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations.

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Popular opinion in the United States on the invasion of Iraq

The United States public's opinion on the invasion of Iraq has changed significantly since the years preceding the incursion.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Preparations for 2003 invasion of Iraq

The 2003 invasion of Iraq began on March 20.

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Presidency of Bill Clinton

The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.

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Presidency of George W. Bush

The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.

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President of Iraq

The President of Iraq is the head of state of Iraq and "safeguards the commitment to the Constitution and the preservation of Iraq's independence, sovereignty, unity, the security of its territories in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution".

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Prince Hassan Air Base

Prince Hassan Air Base (H5) is a Royal Jordanian Air Force base, located 72.4 miles east-northeast of Amman, Jordan.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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Prisoner of War Medal

The Prisoner of War Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces which was authorized by Congress and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 8 November 1985.

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Private first class

Private First Class (PFC) is a military rank held by junior enlisted personnel.

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Program on International Policy Attitudes

The Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) is an institution devoted to research on the public opinion of international politics.

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Project for the New American Century

The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) was a neoconservative First Impressions, Second Thoughts: Reflections on the Changing Role of Think Tanks in U.S. Foreign Policy, Abelson, Critical Issues of Our Time, v.8, Center for American Studies, University of Western Ontario, 2011 think tank based in Washington, D.C. that focused on United States foreign policy.

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Protests against the Iraq War

Beginning in 2002, and continuing after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, large-scale protests against the Iraq War were held in many cities worldwide, often coordinated to occur simultaneously around the world.

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Queen's Royal Lancers

The Queen's Royal Lancers (QRL) was a cavalry regiment of the British Army.

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Qusay Hussein

Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (or Qusai, قصي صدام حسين; –) was the second son of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.

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Ra'ad al-Hamdani

Ra'ad Majid Rashid al-Hamdani (رعد مجيد الحمداني) was a General of the Iraqi Republican Guard, and was one of Saddam Hussein's favourite officers.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Regime change

Regime change is the replacement of one government regime with another.

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Republican Guard (Iraq)

The Iraqi Republican Guard (حرس العراق الجمهوري Ḥaras al-‘Irāq al-Jamhūriyy) was a branch of the Iraqi military from 1964 to 2003, primarily during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.

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Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

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Richard Perle

Richard Norman Perle (born September 16, 1941) is an American statesman who served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Global Strategic Affairs under President Ronald Reagan.

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Ricin

Ricin, a lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a highly potent toxin.

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Robin Cook

Robert Finlayson Cook (28 February 1946 – 6 August 2005) was a Scottish Labour Party politician, who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Livingston from 1983 until his death, and served in the Cabinet as Foreign Secretary from 1997 until 2001, when he was replaced by Jack Straw.

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Rocket-propelled grenade

A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.

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Roland (missile)

The Roland is a Franco-German mobile short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system.

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Ron Paul

Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas's 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013.

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Roy Greenslade

Roy Greenslade (born 31 December 1946) is Professor of Journalism at City University London and has been a media commentator since 1992, most especially for The Guardian.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Australian Navy

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force.

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Royal Engineers

The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.

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Royal Fleet Auxiliary

The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is a civilian-manned fleet owned by the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence, whose purpose is to support the Royal Navy to maintain operations around the world.

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Royal Logistic Corps

The Royal Logistic Corps (RLC) provides logistic support functions to the British Army.

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Royal Marines

The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Royal Scots Dragoon Guards

The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers and Greys) (SCOTS DG) is a cavalry regiment of the British Army, and the senior Scottish regiment.

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Rumaila oil field

The Rumaila oil field is a super-giant oil field located in southern Iraq, approximately from the Kuwaiti border.

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Rupert Murdoch

Keith Rupert Murdoch, (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian-born American media mogul.

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Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

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Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations

Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations were made by the U.S. government officials who claimed that a highly secretive relationship existed between Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and the radical Islamist militant organization Al-Qaeda between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS).

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Sanctions against Iraq

The sanctions against Iraq were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on Ba'athist Iraq.

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Scott Ritter

William Scott Ritter Jr. (born July 15, 1961) was a United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq from 1991 to 1998, and later a critic of United States foreign policy in the Middle East.

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Scud

Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

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SEAL Team Six

The United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (NSWDG), commonly known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six, is the U.S. Navy component of the Joint Special Operations Command.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Seyla Benhabib

Seyla Benhabib (born September 9, 1950) is a Turkish-Sephardic-American philosopher.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shock and awe

Shock and awe (technically known as rapid dominance) is a tactic based on the use of overwhelming power and spectacular displays of force to paralyze the enemy's perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight.

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Shoshana Johnson

Shoshana Nyree Johnson (born January 18, 1973) is a Panamanian-born former United States soldier, and the first African-American female prisoner of war in the military history of the United States.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Site exploitation

Site Exploitation is a military term used by the United States to describe "collecting information, material, and persons from a designated location and analyzing them to answer information requirements, facilitate subsequent operations, or support criminal prosecution." Also called tactical site exploitation or sensitive site exploitation (SSE).

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Socialist Worker

Socialist Worker is the name of a number of newspapers currently or formerly associated with the International Socialist Tendency (IST).

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Soundtrack to War

Soundtrack to War is a 90-minute documentary by Australian war artist George Gittoes.

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Special Activities Division

The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.

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Special Air Service

The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.

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Special Air Service Regiment

The Special Air Service Regiment, officially abbreviated SASR though commonly known as the SAS, is a special forces unit of the Australian Army.

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Special Boat Service

The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the special forces unit of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy.

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Special forces

Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.

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Special Forces (United States Army)

The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.

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Special Republican Guard (Iraq)

The Iraqi Special Republican Guard (SRG) (الحرس الجمهوري الخاص ""Ḥaris al-‘Irāq al-Jamhūriyy al-Khas"), also known as the Special Forces Brigade of the Presidential Palace, Republican Guard Special Protection Forces, or the Golden Division, was an Iraqi personal security force founded in either early 1992 or March 1995 in Ba'athist Iraq.

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State of the Union

The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.

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Stealth aircraft

Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.

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Steven Metz

Steven Kent Metz (born June 30, 1956 in Charleston, West Virginia) is an American author, Director of Research, and Research Professor of National Security Affairs at the U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) where he specializes in insurgency and counterinsurgency, American defense policy, strategic theory, the African security environment, and future warfare.

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Suicide attack

A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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T-72

The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971.

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Taha Yassin Ramadan

Taha Yasin Ramadan al-Jizrawi (طه ياسين رمضان الجزراوي; 1938 – 20 March 2007) was a prominent Iraqi Kurd, serving as one of the two Vice Presidents of Iraq from March 1991 to the fall of Saddam Hussein in April 2003.

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Tahir Jalil Habbush al-Tikriti

Tahir Jalil Habbush al Takriti (طاهر جليل حبوش التكريتي) is a former Iraqi intelligence official who served under the regime of Saddam Hussein; in 2001, he was Iraq's head of intelligence and as such, informed MI6 in January 2003 (shortly before the start of the Iraq War) that Iraq had no WMD.

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Tariq Aziz

Tariq Aziz (طارق عزيز, born Mikhail Yuhanna, ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܝܘܚܢܢ, ميخائيل يوحنا, baptized Manuel Christo; 28 April 1936 – 5 June 2015) was Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister (1979–2003) and Foreign Minister (1983–1991) and a close advisor of President Saddam Hussein.

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Task Force 121

Task Force 121 was a United States Department of Defense special operations task force.

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Task Force 20

Task Force 20 is a temporary combat force designation that has been used at least twice by separate parts of the United States armed forces.

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Task Force Tripoli

Task Force Tripoli (TFT) was a United States Marine Corps air-ground task force formed after the fall of Baghdad during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Ted Turner

Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III (born November 19, 1938) is an American media mogul and philanthropist.

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The Arizona Republic

The Arizona Republic is an American daily newspaper published in Phoenix.

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The Capital Times

The Capital Times (or Cap Times) is a newspaper published in Madison, Wisconsin by The Capital Times Company.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.

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The Diane Rehm Show

The Diane Rehm Show was an American NPR (National Public Radio) call-in show based in the United States.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Pentagon

The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.

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The Sun (United Kingdom)

The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

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The Sunday Telegraph

The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, and is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings.

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The Three Trillion Dollar War

The Three Trillion Dollar War is a 2008 book by Nobel Prize laureate Joseph Stiglitz and Harvard Professor Linda Bilmes, both of whom are American economists.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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The Times Literary Supplement

The Times Literary Supplement (or TLS, on the front page from 1969) is a weekly literary review published in London by News UK, a subsidiary of News Corp.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The Weekly Standard

The Weekly Standard is an American conservative opinion magazine published 48 times per year.

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Third Geneva Convention

The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.

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Tikrit

Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Timeline of the Iraq War

The following is a timeline of major events during the Iraq War, following the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Tomahawk (missile)

The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile that is primarily used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship and submarine-based land-attack operations.

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Tommy Franks

Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945) is a retired general in the United States Army.

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Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

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Toyota Tacoma

The Toyota Tacoma is a pickup truck manufactured in the U.S. by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota since 1995.

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Tuba City, Arizona

Tuba City (Tó Naneesdizí) is an unincorporated town in Coconino County, Arizona, on Navajo lands, in the United States.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Tuz Khurmatu

Tuz Khurmatu (طوزخورماتو, Tuzhurmatu also spelled as Tuz Khurma and Tuz Khormato or just Khurmatu) is the central city of Tooz District in Saladin Province, Iraq, located 55 miles south of Kirkuk.

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Uday Hussein

Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (عُدي صدّام حُسين) (18 June 1964 – 22 July 2003) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein by his first wife, Sajida Talfah, and the brother of Qusay Hussein.

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Umm Qasr

Umm Qasr (أم قصر, also transliterated as Um-qasir, Um-qasser), is a port city in southern Iraq.

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Undercover operation

To go "undercover" is to avoid detection by the entity one is observing, and especially to disguise one's own identity or use an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn or confirm confidential information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gather information or evidence.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations Charter

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission

The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created through the adoption of United Nations Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 December 1999 and its mission lasted until June 2007.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council and the Iraq War

In March 2003 the United States government announced that "diplomacy has failed" and that it would proceed with a "coalition of the willing" to rid Iraq under Saddam Hussein of weapons of mass destruction the US insisted it possessed.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 660

United Nations Security Council resolution 660, adopted on 2 August 1990, after noting its alarm of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Council condemned the invasion and demanded Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally to positions as they were on 1 August 1990.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 678

United Nations Security Council Resolution 678, adopted on 29 November 1990, after reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674 and 677 (all 1990), the Council noted that despite all the United Nations efforts, Iraq continued to defy the Security Council.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 687

United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, adopted on 3 April 1991, after reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677, 678 (all 1990) and 686 (1991), the Council set the terms, in a comprehensive resolution, with which Iraq was to comply after losing the Gulf War.

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United Nations Special Commission

United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was an inspection regime created by the United Nations to ensure Iraq's compliance with policies concerning Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction after the Gulf War.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Air Force Combat Control Team

United States Air Force Combat Control Teams, singular Combat Controller (CCT) (AFSC 1C2X1), are American special operations forces (specifically known as "special tactics operators") who specialize in all aspects of air-ground communication, including air traffic control, fire support (including fixed and rotary wing close air support), and command, control, and communications in covert, forward, or austere environments.

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United States Air Force Pararescue

Pararescuemen (also known as PJs) are United States Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) and Air Combat Command (ACC) operators tasked with recovery and medical treatment of personnel in humanitarian and combat environments.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army Reserve

The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army.

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United States Central Command

The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.

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United States Coast Guard

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States Joint Forces Command

United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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United States Marine Corps Reserve

The Marine Forces Reserve (MARFORRES or MFR), also known as the United States Marine Corps Reserve (USMCR) and the U.S. Marine Corps Forces Reserve, is the reserve force of the United States Marine Corps.

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United States National Security Council

The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.

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United States Naval Institute

The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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United States Navy Reserve

The United States Navy Reserve (USNR), known as the United States Naval Reserve from 1915 to 2005, is the Reserve Component (RC) of the United States Navy.

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United States presidential election, 2000

The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.

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United States presidential election, 2004

The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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University of Maryland, College Park

The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

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Victory Arch

The Victory Arch (قوس النصر Qaws an-Naṣr), officially known as the Swords of Qādisīyah، and popularly called the Hands of Victory or the Crossed Swords, are a pair of triumphal arches in central Baghdad, Iraq.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vincent Cannistraro

Vincent Cannistraro was Director of Intelligence Programs for the United States National Security Council (NSC) from 1984 to 1987; Special assistant for Intelligence in the Office of the Secretary of Defense until 1988; and Chief of Operations and Analysis at the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) Counterterrorist Center until 1991.

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WAMU

WAMU (88.5 FM) is a public news/talk station that services the greater Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.

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War artist

A war artist is an artist that depicts scenes or aspects of war through their art.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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War on Terror

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.

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Warblog

A warblog or milblog is a weblog devoted mostly or wholly to covering news events concerning an ongoing war.

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Weapon of mass destruction

A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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White House Office of the Press Secretary

The White House Office of the Press Secretary, or the Press Office, is responsible for gathering and disseminating information to three principal groups: the President, the White House staff, and the media.

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White House Press Secretary

The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act as spokesperson for the executive branch of the United States government administration, especially with regard to the President, senior executives, and policies.

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Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq

The withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Iraq began in December 2007 with the end of the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 and was completed by December 2011, bringing an end to the Iraq War.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zainab Bahrani

Zainab Bahrani (زينب البحرانى) (born 1962) is an Iraqi professor of Ancient Near Eastern Art and Archaeology at Columbia University.

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ZSU-23-4

The ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" is a lightly armored Soviet self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG).

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ZU-23-2

The ZU-23-2, also known as ZU-23, is a Soviet towed 23 mm anti-aircraft twin-barreled autocannon.

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101st Airborne Division

The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is an elite modular specialized light infantry division of the US Army.

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10th Mountain Division

The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division in the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York.

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10th Special Forces Group (United States)

The 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne) (10th SFG(A) or 10th Group) is an active duty United States Army Special Forces (SF) Group.

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15 February 2003 anti-war protests

On 15 February 2003, there was a coordinated day of protests across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressed opposition to the imminent Iraq War.

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15th Marine Expeditionary Unit

The 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit (15th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps.

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16 Air Assault Brigade

16 Air Assault Brigade (16 Air Asslt Bde) is a formation of the British Army based in Colchester in the county of Essex.

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160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne)

The United States Army 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), abbreviated as the 160th SOAR (A) and also known as Night Stalkers, or within JSOC as Task Force Brown, is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides helicopter aviation support for general purpose forces and special operations forces.

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173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team

The 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team ("Sky Soldiers") is an airborne infantry brigade combat team of the United States Army based in Vicenza, Italy.

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1993 World Trade Center bombing

The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City.

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1st (United Kingdom) Division

The 1st (United Kingdom) Division, formerly known as the 1st Armoured Division, is a division of the British Army, currently the only British division to be stationed in Germany.

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1st Armored Division (United States)

The 1st Armored Division—nicknamed "Old Ironsides"—is a combined arms division of the United States Army.

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1st Marine Division (United States)

The 1st Marine Division (1st MARDIV) is a Marine infantry division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

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1st Marine Regiment (United States)

The 1st Marine Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

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1st Ranger Battalion (United States)

The 1st Ranger Battalion, currently based at Hunter Army Airfield in Savannah, Georgia, United States, is the first of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.

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2003 invasion of Iraq

The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).

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2003 State of the Union Address

The 2003 State of the Union Address was a speech delivered by U.S. President George W. Bush, the 43rd United States President, on Tuesday, January 28, 2003.

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2004 Madrid train bombings

The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known in Spain as 11-M) were nearly simultaneous, coordinated bombings against the Cercanías commuter train system of Madrid, Spain, on the morning of 11 March 2004 – three days before Spain's general elections.

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24th Special Tactics Squadron

The 24th Special Tactics Squadron is one of the Special Tactics units of the United States Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC).

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26th Marine Expeditionary Unit

The 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (26th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps.

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2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion

2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion is a fast and mobilized armored terrestrial reconnaissance battalion of the United States Marine Corps.

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2nd Ranger Battalion (United States)

The 2nd Ranger Battalion, currently based at Joint Base Lewis–McChord south of Seattle, Washington, United States, is the second of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.

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3 Commando Brigade

3 Commando Brigade is a commando formation of the British Armed Forces and the main manoeuvre formation of the Royal Marines.

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32nd parallel north

The 32nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 32 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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33rd parallel north

The 33rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 33 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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3rd Cavalry Regiment (United States)

The 3rd Cavalry Regiment, formerly 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment ("Brave Rifles") is a regiment of the United States Army currently stationed at Fort Hood, Texas.

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3rd Infantry Division (United States)

The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed "The Rock of the Marne)" is an Infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia.

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3rd Ranger Battalion (United States)

The 3rd Ranger Battalion, currently based at Fort Benning, Georgia, is the third of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.

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45 Commando

45 Commando Royal Marines (pronounced "four-five commando") is a battalion sized unit of the British Royal Marines and subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet.

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4th Infantry Division (United States)

The 4th Infantry Division is a division of the United States Army based at Fort Carson, Colorado.

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507th Maintenance Company

The 507th Maintenance Company was a United States Army unit which was ambushed during the Battle of Nasiriyah in the rapid advance towards Baghdad during 2003 invasion of Iraq on 23 March 2003.

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5th Special Forces Group (United States)

The 5th Special Forces Group (5th SFG(A)) is one of the most decorated active duty United States Army Special Forces groups in the U.S. armed forces.

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70th Armor Regiment

The 70th Armor Regiment is an armored (tank) unit of the United States Army.

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75th Ranger Regiment (United States)

The 75th Ranger Regiment, also known as Army Rangers, is a light infantry airborne special operations force that is part of the United States Army Special Operations Command.

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7th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 7th Armoured Brigade was an armoured brigade formation of the British Army.

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8th Fighter Squadron

The 8th Fighter Squadron is an active United States Air Force squadron, assigned to the 54th Fighter Group, stationed at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico.

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9K32 Strela-2

The 9K32 Strela-2 (Cтрела, "arrow"; NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile system (MANPADS) with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2003_invasion_of_Iraq

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