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2011–12 Moroccan protests

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The Moroccan protests are a series of demonstrations across Morocco which occurred from 20 February 2011 to the spring of 2012. [1]

44 relations: Abdelilah Benkirane, Agence France-Presse, Al Hoceima, Al Jazeera, Arab Spring, Arabic, BBC News, Berber languages, Berber Spring, Boycott, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, Civil disobedience, Demonstration (protest), Electoral fraud, Fez, Morocco, Guelmim, Hassaniya Arabic, Internet activism, Islamism, Justice and Development Party (Morocco), Ksar el-Kebir, Larache, Makhzen, Mamfakinch, Marrakesh, Mohammed VI of Morocco, Moroccan constitutional referendum, 2011, Moroccan general election, 2011, Morocco, My Makhzen and Me, North Africa, Police brutality, Political censorship, Rabat, Riot, Sahrawi nationalism, Sahrawi people, Sefrou, Self-immolation, Sidi Bernoussi, Tétouan, The New York Times, 2011 Western Saharan protests.

Abdelilah Benkirane

Abdelilah Benkirane (Arabic: عبد الإله بنكيران, born 2 April 1954) is a Moroccan politician who was Prime Minister of Morocco from November 2011 to March 2017.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Al Hoceima

Al Hoceima (in the Berber language: Eřḥusima or Elḥusima, Taɣzut, Taghzut and also Tijdit, in Arabic: الحسيمة, in Spanish: Alhucemas) is a city in the north of Morocco, on the northern edge of the Rif Mountains and on the Mediterranean coast.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Arab Spring

The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Berber Spring

The Berber Spring (in Berber: Tafsut Imaziɣen or simply Tafsut for "Spring") was a period of political protest and civil activism in 1980 claiming recognition of the Berber identity and language in Algeria with events mainly taking place in Kabylie and Algiers.

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A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.

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Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.

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Chefchaouen (شفشاون (pronounced IPA); Ashawen), also known as Chaouen, is a city in northwest Morocco.

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Civil disobedience

Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.

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Demonstration (protest)

A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.

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Electoral fraud

Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.

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Fez, Morocco

Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.

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Guelmim (in Gʷelmim, ⴳⵯⴻⵍⵎⵉⵎ, in گلميم, also spelled in European sources: Glaimim, Goulimine or Guelmin), is a city in southern Morocco, often called Gateway to the Desert.

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Hassaniya Arabic

Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.

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Internet activism

Internet activism (also known as web activism, online activism, digital campaigning, digital activism, online organizing, electronic advocacy, cyberactivism, e-campaigning, and e-activism) is the use of electronic communication technologies such as social media, e-mail, and podcasts for various forms of activism to enable faster and more effective communication by citizen movements, the delivery of particular information to large and specific audiences as well as coordination.

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Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Justice and Development Party (Morocco)

The Justice and Development Party, JDP (حزب العدالة والتنمية; Berber: Akabar en Tnezzarfut ed Tneflit, KNN; Parti de la justice et du développement, PJD) is the party that has led the executive branch of the government of Morocco since 29 November 2011.

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Ksar el-Kebir

El-Ksar el Kebir (Arabic: القصر الكبير; Berber: ⵍⵇⵚⵔ ⵍⴽⴱⵉⵔ) is a city in northwest Morocco, about 160 km from Rabat, 32 km from Larache and 110 km from Tangier.

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Larache (also El Araich; Arabic: العرايش; Berber: Leɛrayec or Aɛrich: the attic or shed) is an important harbour town in the region of Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima in northern Morocco.

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Makhzen (Moroccan Arabic: لمخزن, Berber: Elmexzen / Eřmexzen) is the governing institution in Morocco and in pre-1957 Tunisia, centered on the king and consisting of royal notables, top-ranking military personnel, landowners, security service bosses, civil servants and other well-connected members of the establishment.

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Mamfakinch, which means "no concession" or "not giving in", is a Moroccan citizen media website co-founded by Hisham Almiraat, among others.

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Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Mohammed VI of Morocco

Mohammed VI (محمد السادس,; born 21 August 1963) is the King of Morocco.

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Moroccan constitutional referendum, 2011

A referendum on constitutional reforms was held in Morocco on 1 July 2011.

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Moroccan general election, 2011

An early parliamentary election was held in Morocco on 25 November 2011, brought forward from 2012 and then postponed from 7 October 2011.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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My Makhzen and Me

My Makhzen and Me is a 2012 documentary Moroccan film directed, produced and shot by Nadir Bouhmouch.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Police brutality

Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.

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Political censorship

Political censorship exists when a government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets.

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Rabat (الرِّبَاط,; ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ) is the capital city of Morocco and its third largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million.

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A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.

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Sahrawi nationalism

Sahrawi nationalism is a political ideology that seeks self-determination of the Sahrawi people, the indigenous population of Western Sahara.

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Sahrawi people

The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people (صحراويون; Berber: ⵉⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉⵢⴻⵏ; Moroccan Arabic: صحراوة; Saharaui), are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara (claimed by the Polisario and mostly controlled by Morocco), other parts of southern Morocco not claimed by the Polisario, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria.

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Sefrou is a city in central Morocco situated in the Fès-Meknès region.

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Self-immolation is an act of killing oneself as a sacrifice.

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Sidi Bernoussi

Sidi Bernoussi (سيدي برنوصي) is a district and suburb of northeastern Casablanca, in the Casablanca-Settat region of Morocco.

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Tétouan (تطوان, ⵜⵉⵟⵟⴰⵡⵉⵏ, Tétouan, Tetuán) is a city in northern Morocco.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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2011 Western Saharan protests

The 2011 Western Saharan protests began on 25 February 2011 as a reaction to the failure of police to prevent anti-Sahrawi looting in the city of Dakhla, Western Sahara, and blossomed into protests across the territory.

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20 February Movement, 2011 Moroccan protests, 2011 Morocco protests, 2011-2012 Moroccan protests, 2011–2012 Moroccan protests, February 20 Movement, February 20th Movement, Jasmine Revolution in Morocco, Moroccan protests (2011–present).


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011–12_Moroccan_protests

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