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20 July plot

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On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia. [1]

222 relations: Abwehr, Adolf Hitler, Albert Speer, Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim, Alexander von Falkenhausen, Alfons Heck, Alleged plot to kidnap Pope Pius XII, Allen Dulles, Allensbach Institute, Allies of World War II, Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof, American Heroes Channel, Anatole Litvak, Andreas Hermes, Arthur Nebe, Axel von dem Bussche, Battle of Stalingrad, Bavaria, Bayerischer Rundfunk, BBC, Bendlerblock, Berchtesgaden, Berghahn Books, Bernhard Letterhaus, Bernhard Wicki, Beyond Castle Wolfenstein, Black and white, Brad Davis (actor), Brandenburg an der Havel, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, Carl Langbehn, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel, Centre Party (Germany), Cesare Amè, Chancellor of Germany, Chief of staff, Christian Gerlach, Claus von Stauffenberg, Commander-in-chief, Confessing Church, Counterintelligence, Court-martial, Days That Shook the World, Detonation, Deutsche Welle, Deutschlandfunk, Die Stunde der Offiziere, Docudrama, Drumhead court-martial, East Prussia, ..., Eberhard von Breitenbuch, Eduard Wagner, Erich Fellgiebel, Erich Hoepner, Erich von Manstein, Ernst John von Freyend, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Erwin Planck, Erwin Rommel, Erwin von Lahousen, Erwin von Witzleben, Eugen Bolz, Ewald Loeser, Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin, Fabian von Schlabrendorff, Führer, Fedor von Bock, Field marshal, Firing pin, Forced labour under German rule during World War II, Franz Halder, Friedrich Fromm, Friedrich Olbricht, Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg, Fritz Lindemann, Gauleiter, Günther von Kluge, Generalfeldmarschall, Generaloberst, Gerald Reitlinger, Gerd von Rundstedt, German Army (Wehrmacht), German military administration in occupied France during World War II, German National People's Party, German resistance to Nazism, Gestapo, Hannes Heer, Hans Koch, Hans Mommsen, Hans Oster, Hans Speidel, Heinkel He 111, Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort, Heinrich Himmler, Heinz Brandt, Heinz Höhne, Hellmuth Stieff, Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Henning von Tresckow, Herman Wouk, Hermann Göring, Heuaktion, Holocaust denial, Invasion of Poland, Jackboot Mutiny, James Mason, Joachim von Kortzfleisch, Johannes Popitz, John Carson (actor), Josef Wirmer, Joseph Furst, Joseph Goebbels, Julius Leber, Kangaroo court, Karl Blessing, Karl Freiherr von Thüngen, Karl Strölin, Kętrzyn, Klaus Naumann (historian), Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Konstantin von Neurath, Kreisau Circle, Krzyżowa, Świdnica County, Leipzig, Liberation (film series), List of assassination attempts on Adolf Hitler, List of members of the 20 July plot, List of military decorations of Nazi Germany, List of people killed or wounded in the 20 July plot, Ludwig Beck, Margarethe von Oven, Max Planck, McGill University, Munich, Muse Software, MythBusters (2010 season), Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Nazi salute, Neo-Nazism, OB West, Oberkommando des Heeres, Obersalzberg, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Foxley, Operation Spark (1940), Operation Valkyrie, Ordnungspolizei, Otto Ernst Remer, Otto Skorzeny, Pan-Germanism, Panzer-Grenadier-Division Großdeutschland, Paul Löbe, Paul Lejeune-Jung, Paul von Hase, Pencil detonator, Penguin Group, People's Court (Germany), Percussion cap, Perforated eardrum, Peter Hoffmann (historian), Philipp von Boeselager, Plastic explosive, Poland, Pope Pius XII, President of Germany, Prussia, R. J. Adams, Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, Replacement Army, Richard Scheibe, Robert Powell, Roger Moorhouse, Roland Freisler, Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff, Rudolph Cartier, Salzburg, Schloss Klessheim, Schutzstaffel, Sebastian Koch, Shirt of Nessus, Sicherheitsdienst, Sippenhaft, Smolensk, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Socialist Reich Party, Stauffenberg (film), Sturmabteilung, Tannenberg Memorial, Tatiana von Metternich-Winneburg, The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel, The Holocaust, The Night of the Generals, The Plot to Assassinate Hitler, The Plot to Kill Hitler, The Restless Conscience: Resistance to Hitler Within Germany 1933-1945, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Wednesday Play, Theodor Heuss, Tom Cruise, Ulrich von Hassell, Unsolved History, Valkyrie (film), Vienna, Walther von Brauchitsch, War and Remembrance (miniseries), Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Wehrmacht, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Werner von Haeften, Wessel Freytag von Loringhoven, Wilhelm Canaris, Wilhelm Keitel, Wilhelm Leuschner, Wilhelmstrasse, William L. Shirer, Wolf's Lair, Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorff, Wolfgang Preiss, Wound Badge, 1st Army (Wehrmacht). Expand index (172 more) »

Abwehr

The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Albert Speer

Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.

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Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim

Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim (25 March 1905 – 21 July 1944) was a German Army colonel and a resistance fighter in Nazi Germany involved in the 20 July plot against Adolf Hitler.

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Alexander von Falkenhausen

Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen (29 October 1878 – 31 July 1966) was a German General and military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek.

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Alfons Heck

Alfons Heck (3 November 1928 – 12 April 2005) was a Hitler Youth member who eventually became a Hitler Youth Officer and a fanatical adherent of Nazism during the Third Reich.

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Alleged plot to kidnap Pope Pius XII

Several authors have alleged that there was a plot to kidnap Pope Pius XII by the Nazis when they occupied Rome during World War II.

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Allen Dulles

Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.

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Allensbach Institute

The Allensbach Institute, formally the Allensbach Institute for Public Opinion Research or Allensbach Institute for Public Opinion Polling (Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach), is a private conservative opinion polling institute based in Allensbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof

Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof (Alter Sankt-Matthäus-Kirchhof or Old St. Matthew's Churchyard) is a cemetery in Schöneberg, Berlin, Germany.

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American Heroes Channel

American Heroes Channel (AHC; formerly Military Channel and originally Discovery Wings Channel) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by Discovery Inc. The network carries programs related to the military, warfare, and military history and science.

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Anatole Litvak

Anatole Litvak (Анато́ль Литва́к; May 21, 1902 – December 15, 1974) was a Russian-born American filmmaker who wrote, directed, and produced films in various countries and languages.

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Andreas Hermes

Andreas Hermes (16 July 1878 – 4 January 1964) was a German agricultural scientist and politician.

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Arthur Nebe

(13 November 1894 – 21 March 1945) was a key functionary in the security and police apparatus of Nazi Germany and a Holocaust perpetrator.

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Axel von dem Bussche

Axel von dem Bussche (Baron Axel von dem Bussche-Streithorst b. 24 April 1919 – d. 26 January 1993) was a German officer during World War II who was a member of the German Resistance.

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Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bayerischer Rundfunk

Bayerischer Rundfunk (Bavarian Broadcasting, BR) is a public-service radio and television broadcaster, based in Munich, capital city of the Free State of Bavaria in Germany.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bendlerblock

The Bendlerblock is a building complex in the Tiergarten district of Berlin, Germany, located on Stauffenbergstraße (formerly named Bendlerstraße).

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Berchtesgaden

Berchtesgaden is a municipality in the Bavarian Alps of southeastern Germany.

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Berghahn Books

Berghahn Books is a publisher of scholarly books and academic journals in the humanities and social sciences, with a special focus on social & cultural anthropology, European history, politics, and film & media studies.

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Bernhard Letterhaus

Bernhard Letterhaus (10 July 1894, Barmen – 14 November 1944) was a German Catholic Trade Unionist and member of the resistance to Nazism.

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Bernhard Wicki

Bernhard Wicki (28 October 1919 – 3 January 2000) was an Austrian actor and film director.

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Beyond Castle Wolfenstein

Beyond Castle Wolfenstein is a 1984 World War II stealth game.

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Black and white

Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.

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Brad Davis (actor)

Robert Creel Davis (November 6, 1949September 8, 1991), known professionally as Brad Davis, was an American actor, known for starring in the 1978 film Midnight Express and 1982 film Querelle.

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Brandenburg an der Havel

Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, which served as the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg until replaced by Berlin in 1417.

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Carl Friedrich Goerdeler

Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (31 July 1884 – 2 February 1945) was a monarchist conservative German politician, executive, economist, civil servant, and opponent of the Nazi regime.

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Carl Langbehn

Carl Langbehn (6 December 1901 – 12 October 1944) was a German lawyer and member of the resistance to Nazism.

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Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel

Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel (2 January 1886 – 30 August 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who was an army level commander.

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Centre Party (Germany)

The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.

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Cesare Amè

Cesare Amè (18 November 1892 – 30 June 1983) was an Italian general and intelligence officer.

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Chancellor of Germany

The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.

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Chief of staff

The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.

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Christian Gerlach

Hans Christian Gerlach is professor of Modern History at the University of Bern.

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Claus von Stauffenberg

Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and member of the Bavarian noble family von Stauffenberg, who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.

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Confessing Church

The Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) was a movement within German Protestantism during Nazi Germany that arose in opposition to government-sponsored efforts to unify all Protestant churches into a single pro-Nazi Protestant Reich Church.

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Counterintelligence

Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.

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Court-martial

A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.

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Days That Shook the World

Days That Shook the World is a British documentary television series that premiered on BBC Two on 17 September 2003.

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Detonation

Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Deutschlandfunk

Deutschlandfunk (DLF) is a German public broadcasting radio station, broadcasting national news and current affairs.

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Die Stunde der Offiziere

Die Stunde der Offiziere (The Hour of the Officers) is a German semi-documentary movie of 2003 telling in chronological order about the German resistance attempts to kill Adolf Hitler and seize power in Germany in the 20 July plot of 1944.

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Docudrama

A docudrama (or documentary drama) is a genre of radio and television programming, feature film, and staged theatre, which features dramatized re-enactments of actual events.

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Drumhead court-martial

A drumhead court-martial is a court-martial held in the field to hear urgent charges of offences committed in action.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.

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Eberhard von Breitenbuch

Eberhard von Breitenbuch (20 July 1910 – 21 September 1980) was a German cavalry officer who served in Army Group Centre of the Wehrmacht during World War II with the rank of Rittmeister and took part in the military-based conspiracy against Adolf Hitler that culminated in the 20 July Plot.

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Eduard Wagner

Eduard Wagner (1 April 1894 – 23 July 1944) was a general in the Army of Nazi Germany who served as quartermaster-general in World War II.

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Erich Fellgiebel

Fritz Erich Fellgiebel (4 October 1886 – 4 September 1944) was an anti-Nazi German Army general and a conspirator in the 20 July plot to assassinate Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler.

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Erich Hoepner

Erich Hoepner (14 September 1886 – 8 August 1944) was a German general during World War II.

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Erich von Manstein

Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was a German commander of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during the Second World War.

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Ernst John von Freyend

Ernst John von Freyend (25 March 1909. Retrieved 25 October 2013– 24 March 1980) was a German Oberkommando der Wehrmacht officer who served during World War II as the adjutant to Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel.

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Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 190316 October 1946) was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Erwin Planck

Erwin Planck (12 March 1893 – 23 January 1945) was a German politician, and a resistance fighter against the Nazi regime.

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Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.

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Erwin von Lahousen

Generalmajor Erwin von Lahousen (25 October 1897 – 24 February 1955) was a high-ranking Abwehr official during the Second World War, as well as a member of the German Resistance and a key player in attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler on 13 March 1943 and 20 July 1944.

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Erwin von Witzleben

Job Wilhelm Georg Erdmann Erwin von Witzleben (4 December 1881 – 8 August 1944) was a German officer, by 1940 in the rank of Generalfeldmarschall (General Field Marshal), and army commander in the Second World War.

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Eugen Bolz

Eugen Anton Bolz (15 December 1881 – 23 January 1945) was a German politician and a member of the resistance to the Nazi régime.

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Ewald Loeser

Ewald Oskar Ludwig Löser (11 April 1888 – 23 December 1970) was a German lawyer, a board member of Krupp AG and a member of the resistance to Nazism.

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Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin

Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin (10 July 1922 – 8 March 2013) was a German publisher and convenor of the Munich Conference on Security Policy until 1998.

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Fabian von Schlabrendorff

Fabian Ludwig Georg Adolf Kurt von Schlabrendorff (1 July 1907 – 3 September 1980), was a German jurist, soldier, and member of the resistance against Adolf Hitler.

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Führer

Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".

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Fedor von Bock

Fedor von Bock (3 December 1880 – 4 May 1945) was a German field marshal who served in the German army during the Second World War.

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Field marshal

Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.

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Firing pin

A firing pin or striker is part of the firing mechanism used in a firearm or explosive device e.g. an M14 landmine or bomb fuze.

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Forced labour under German rule during World War II

The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.

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Franz Halder

Franz Halder (30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.

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Friedrich Fromm

Friedrich Fromm (8 October 1888 – 12 March 1945) was a German army officer.

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Friedrich Olbricht

Friedrich Olbricht (4 October 1888 – 21 July 1944) was a German general during World War II and one of the plotters involved in the 20 July Plot, an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944.

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Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg

Friedrich-Werner Graf von der Schulenburg (20 November 1875 – 10 November 1944) was a German diplomat who served as the last German ambassador to the Soviet Union before Operation Barbarossa, the German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941.

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Fritz Lindemann

General Fritz Lindemann (11 April 1894 – 22 September 1944) was a German officer in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany and member of the resistance to Adolf Hitler.

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Gauleiter

A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.

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Günther von Kluge

Günther von Kluge (30 October 1882 – 19 August 1944) was a German field marshal during World War II.

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Generalfeldmarschall

Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.

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Generaloberst

Generaloberst, in English Colonel General, was, in Germany and Austria-Hungary—the German Reichswehr and Wehrmacht, the Austro-Hungarian Common Army, and the East German National People's Army, as well as the respective police services—the second highest general officer rank, ranking above full general but below general field marshal.

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Gerald Reitlinger

Gerald Roberts Reitlinger (born 1900 in London, United Kingdom – died 1978 in St Leonards-on-Sea, United Kingdom) was an art historian, especially of Asian ceramics, and a scholar of historical changes in taste in art and their reflection in art prices.

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Gerd von Rundstedt

Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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German Army (Wehrmacht)

The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.

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German military administration in occupied France during World War II

The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.

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German National People's Party

The German National People's Party (DNVP) was a national conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.

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German resistance to Nazism

German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.

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Gestapo

The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.

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Hannes Heer

Hans Georg Heer (known as Hannes) (born 16 March 1941 in Wissen, Rhine Province) is a German historian, chiefly known for the "Wehrmachtsausstellung" (German Army Exhibition) in the 1990s.

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Hans Koch

Hans Koch (16 August 1893 – 24 April 1945) was a German lawyer, a member of the Confessional Church and a member of the German resistance against Nazism.

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Hans Mommsen

Hans Mommsen (5 November 1930 – 5 November 2015) was a German historian, known for his studies in German social history, and for his functionalist interpretation of the Third Reich, especially for arguing that Hitler was a weak dictator.

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Hans Oster

Hans Paul Oster (9 August 1887 – 9 April 1945) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany who was also a leading figure of the German resistance from 1938 to 1943.

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Hans Speidel

Hans Speidel (28 October 1897 – 28 November 1984) was a German general during the Second World War and the Cold War, who served as Supreme Commander of the NATO ground forces in Central Europe from 1957 to 1963.

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Heinkel He 111

The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934.

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Heinrich Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort

Heinrich Ahasverus Graf von Lehndorff-Steinort (22 June 1909 – 4 September 1944) was a member of the 20 July plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

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Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.

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Heinz Brandt

Generalmajor Heinz Brandt (11 March 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German officer during World War II who served as an aide to General Adolf Heusinger, the head of the operations unit of the General Staff.

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Heinz Höhne

Heinz Höhne (1926 Berlin, Germany - 27 March 2010 in Großhansdorf) was a German journalist and historian who specialized in Nazi and intelligence history.

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Hellmuth Stieff

Hellmuth Stieff (6 June 1901 – 8 August 1944) was a German general and a member of the OKH (German Army Headquarters) during World War II.

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Helmuth James Graf von Moltke

Helmuth James Graf von Moltke (11 March 1907 – 23 January 1945) was a German jurist who, as a draftee in the German Abwehr, acted to subvert German human-rights abuses of people in territories occupied by Germany during World War II and subsequently became a founding member of the Kreisau Circle resistance group, whose members opposed the government of Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany.

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Helmuth von Moltke the Elder

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (26 October 1800, Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 24 April 1891, Berlin) was a German Field Marshal.

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Henning von Tresckow

Hermann Henning Karl Robert von Tresckow (10 January 1901 – 21 July 1944) was an officer in the German Army who helped organize German resistance against Adolf Hitler.

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Herman Wouk

Herman Wouk (born May 27, 1915) is an American author.

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Hermann Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.

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Heuaktion

The Heuaktion (literally: harvesting of hay, or hay operation) was a Nazi German World War II operation, whereas 40,000 to 50,000 Polish children aged 10 to 14 were kidnapped by the German occupational forces and transported to Germany proper as slave labourers.

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Holocaust denial

Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.

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Invasion of Poland

The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.

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Jackboot Mutiny

Jackboot Mutiny (Es geschah am 20., literally It Happened on 20 July) is a 1955 German film directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst about the 20 July Plot to kill Adolf Hitler.

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James Mason

James Neville Mason (15 May 1909 – 27 July 1984) was an English actor.

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Joachim von Kortzfleisch

Joachim von Kortzfleisch (3 January 1890 – 20 April 1945) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II.

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Johannes Popitz

Johannes Popitz (2 December 1884 – 2 February 1945) was a Prussian finance minister and a member of the German Resistance against the National Socialist regime in Germany.

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John Carson (actor)

John Derek Carson-Parker (28 February 1927 – 5 November 2016), known as John Carson, was an English actor known for his appearances in film and television.

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Josef Wirmer

Josef Wirmer (19 March 1901 – 8 September 1944) was a German jurist and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime.

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Joseph Furst

Joseph Fürst (13 February 1916 – 29 November 2005) was an Austrian-born international film and television actor known for his English language roles in Britain and Australia, after first appearing on the Canadian stage.

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Joseph Goebbels

Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.

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Julius Leber

Julius Leber (16 November 1891 – 5 January 1945) was a German politician of the SPD and a member of the German Resistance against the Nazi régime.

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Kangaroo court

A kangaroo court is a court that ignores recognized standards of law or justice, and often carries little or no official standing in the territory within which it resides.

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Karl Blessing

Karl Blessing (5 February 1900 – 25 April 1971) was a German banker.

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Karl Freiherr von Thüngen

Karl Freiherr von Thüngen (26 June 1893 – 24 October 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who was executed in 1944 after the failed 20 July Plot.

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Karl Strölin

Dr.

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Kętrzyn

Kętrzyn (Rastenburg; former Polish name: Rastembork), is a town in northeastern Poland with 28,351 inhabitants (2004).

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Klaus Naumann (historian)

Klaus Naumann (born 1949) is a German historian and author who specialises in modern European history.

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Konrad Adenauer Foundation

The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V. (KAS; Konrad Adenauer Foundation) is a German political party foundation associated with but independent of the centrist Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

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Konstantin von Neurath

Konstantin Hermann Karl Freiherr von Neurath (2 February 1873 – 14 August 1956) was a German diplomat remembered mostly for having served as Foreign minister of Germany between 1932 and 1938.

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Kreisau Circle

The Kreisau Circle (German: Kreisauer Kreis) (1940–1944) was a group of about twenty-five German dissidents led by Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, who met at his estate in the rural town of Kreisau, Silesia.

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Krzyżowa, Świdnica County

Krzyżowa (Kreisau, until 1930: Creisau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Świdnica, within Świdnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in southwestern Poland.

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Leipzig

Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.

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Liberation (film series)

Liberation (Освобождение, translit. Osvobozhdenie, Befreiung, Wyzwolenie) is a film series released in 1970 and 1971, directed by Yuri Ozerov and shot in wide-format NIKFI process (70 mm).

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List of assassination attempts on Adolf Hitler

This is an incomplete list of documented, realized attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

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List of members of the 20 July plot

On 20 July 1944, Adolf Hitler and his top military associates entered the briefing hut of the Wolf's Lair military headquarters, a series of concrete bunkers and shelters located deep in the forest East Prussia, not far from the World War I Battle of Tannenberg.

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List of military decorations of Nazi Germany

The military decorations of Nazi Germany were awards and medals bestowed by the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS between 1935 and 1945, during the rule of the Nazi Party in Germany and the years of World War II.

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List of people killed or wounded in the 20 July plot

On 22 June 1944, the Soviet Armed Forces launched a massive attack against the German forces based in Belorussia, which were made up of two strategic army groups known as Army Group Centre.

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Ludwig Beck

Ludwig August Theodor Beck (29 June 1880 – 21 July 1944) was a German general and Chief of the German General Staff during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II.

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Margarethe von Oven

Margarethe von Oven (1904, Berlin – 5 February 1991, Göttingen) was a secretary in the Bendlerblock and an accomplice in the 20 July plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

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Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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McGill University

McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Munich

Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.

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Muse Software

Micro Users Software Exchange, Inc., doing business as Muse Software, was an American video game developer based in Baltimore, Maryland, focusing on the development of games for the first generation of home computers.

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MythBusters (2010 season)

The cast of the television series MythBusters perform experiments to verify or debunk urban legends, old wives' tales, and the like.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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Nazi salute

The Nazi salute, or Hitler salute (Hitler Greeting), is a gesture that was used as a greeting in Nazi Germany.

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Neo-Nazism

Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism.

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OB West

The German Army Command in the West (Oberbefehlshaber West (German: initials OB West) was the overall command of the Westheer, the German Armed Forces on the Western Front during World War II. It was directly subordinate to German Armed Forces High Command. The area under the command of the OB West varied as the war progressed. At its farthest extent it reached the French Atlantic coast. By the end of World War II in Europe it was reduced to commanding troops in Bavaria.

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Oberkommando des Heeres

The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.

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Obersalzberg

Obersalzberg is a mountainside retreat situated above the market town of Berchtesgaden in Bavaria, Germany.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Operation Foxley

During World War II Operation Foxley was a 1944 plan to assassinate Adolf Hitler, conceived by the British Special Operations Executive (SOE).

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Operation Spark (1940)

Operation Spark (sometimes translated as "Operation Flash") was the code name for the planned assassination of Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler by the anti-Nazi conspiracy of German Army officers and political conservatives, known as the Schwarze Kapelle ("black band") during World War II.

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Operation Valkyrie

Operation Valkyrie (Unternehmen Walküre) was a German World War II emergency continuity of government operations plan issued to the Territorial Reserve Army of Germany to execute and implement in case of a general breakdown in civil order of the nation.

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Ordnungspolizei

The Ordnungspolizei (Order Police), abbreviated Orpo, were the uniformed police force in Nazi Germany between 1936 and 1945.

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Otto Ernst Remer

Otto-Ernst Remer (18 August 1912 – 4 October 1997) was a German Wehrmacht officer who played a decisive role in stopping the 20 July plot of 1944 against Adolf Hitler.

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Otto Skorzeny

Otto Skorzeny (12 June 19085 July 1975) was an Austrian born SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) in the Waffen-SS during World War II.

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Pan-Germanism

Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.

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Panzer-Grenadier-Division Großdeutschland

The Panzer Grenadier Division Großdeutschland (also commonly referred to simply as Großdeutschland or Großdeutschland Division) was an elite combat unit of the German Army (Heer) that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.

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Paul Löbe

Paul Löbe (14 December 1875 – 3 August 1967) was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as President of the Reichstag.

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Paul Lejeune-Jung

Paul Adolf Franz Lejeune-Jung, (actually Lejeune genannt Jung, meaning called Jung) (16 March 1882 in Cologne – 8 September 1944 in Berlin, executed) was a German economist, politician, syndic in the pulp industry, and resistance fighter against Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.

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Paul von Hase

Karl Paul Immanuel von Hase (24 July 1885 – 8 August 1944) was a German career soldier and figured among the members of the resistance against Adolf Hitler's Nazi régime.

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Pencil detonator

A pencil detonator or time pencil is a time fuze designed to be connected to a detonator or short length of safety fuse.

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Penguin Group

The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.

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People's Court (Germany)

The People's Court (Volksgerichtshof) was a Sondergericht ("special court") of Nazi Germany, set up outside the operations of the constitutional frame of law.

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Percussion cap

The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, is a type of single-use ignition device used on muzzleloading firearms that enabled them to fire reliably in any weather conditions.

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Perforated eardrum

A perforated eardrum or punctured eardrum is a rupture or perforation (hole) of the eardrum which can occur as a result of otitis media (ear infection), trauma (e.g. by trying to clean the ear with sharp instruments), explosion, loud noise or surgery (accidental creation of a rupture).

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Peter Hoffmann (historian)

Peter C.W. Hoffmann, FRSC (born 13 August 1930, in Dresden) is a German-Canadian professor of history at McGill University in Montreal, Canada.

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Philipp von Boeselager

Philipp von Boeselager (6 September 1917 – 1 May 2008) was the second-to-last surviving member of the 20 July Plot, a conspiracy among Wehrmacht officers to assassinate German dictator Adolf Hitler in 1944.

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Plastic explosive

Plastic explosive is a soft and hand-moldable solid form of explosive material.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Pope Pius XII

Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.

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President of Germany

The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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R. J. Adams

R.

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Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, RMVP or Propagandaministerium) was a Nazi government agency to enforce Nazi ideology.

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Replacement Army

The Replacement Army was part of the Imperial German Army during World War I and part of the Wehrmacht during World War II.

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Richard Scheibe

Richard Scheibe (19 April 1879, Chemnitz – 6 October 1964, Berlin) was a German artist primarily remembered as a sculptor.

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Robert Powell

Robert Powell (born 1 June 1944) is an English television and film actor, best known for the title role in Jesus of Nazareth (1977) and as the fictional secret agent Richard Hannay.

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Roger Moorhouse

Roger Moorhouse (born 1968 in Stockport, Cheshire) is a British historian and author.

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Roland Freisler

Roland Freisler (30 October 1893 – 3 February 1945) was a jurist and judge of Nazi Germany.

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Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff

Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff (27 March 1905 – 27 January 1980) was an officer in the German Army.

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Rudolph Cartier

Rudolph Cartier (born Rudolph Kacser, renamed himself in Germany to Rudolph Katscher; 17 April 1904 – 7 June 1994) was an Austrian television director, filmmaker, screenwriter and producer who worked predominantly in British television, exclusively for the BBC.

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Salzburg

Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.

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Schloss Klessheim

Schloss Klessheim is a Baroque palace located in Wals-Siezenheim, west of Salzburg, Austria.

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Schutzstaffel

The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.

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Sebastian Koch

Sebastian Koch (born 31 May 1962) is a German television and film actor.

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Shirt of Nessus

In Greek mythology, the Shirt of Nessus, Tunic of Nessus, Nessus-robe, or Nessus' shirt was the poisoned shirt that killed Heracles.

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Sicherheitsdienst

Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.

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Sippenhaft

Sippenhaft or Sippenhaftung (kin liability) is a German term referring to the idea that a family can share the responsibility for a crime or act committed by one of its members; that is, it is a form of collective punishment because of family association.

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Smolensk

Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.

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Social Democratic Party of Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.

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Socialist Reich Party

The Socialist Reich Party of Germany (Sozialistische Reichspartei Deutschlands) was a West German Strasserist and Neo-fascist political party founded in the aftermath of World War II in 1949 as an openly Neo-fascist oriented split-off from the national conservative German Right Party (DKP-DRP).

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Stauffenberg (film)

Stauffenberg is a 2004 Germano–Austrian TV film by Das Erste (German TV ARD), about Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg and the 20 July 1944 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

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Sturmabteilung

The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Tannenberg Memorial

The Tannenberg Memorial was a monument to the German soldiers of the Battle of Tannenberg (1914), the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes and the medieval Battle of Tannenberg (1410).

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Tatiana von Metternich-Winneburg

Tatiana von Metternich-Winneburg (Tatiana Hilarionowna Princess of Metternich-Winneburg, born Princess Tatiana Hilarionovna Vassiltchikova (Татья́на Илларио́новна Васи́льчикова); 1 January 1915 – 26 July 2006) was a German patron of the arts of Russian birth.

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The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel

The Desert Fox is a 1951 black-and-white biographical film from 20th Century Fox about Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in the later stages of World War II.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The Night of the Generals

The Night of the Generals is a 1967 Franco-British-American Second World War crime mystery film directed by Anatole Litvak and produced by Sam Spiegel.

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The Plot to Assassinate Hitler

The Plot to Assassinate Hitler (German: Der 20. Juli) is a German feature film produced by CCC Film on the failed 20 July 1944 attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

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The Plot to Kill Hitler

The Plot to Kill Hitler is a 1990 television film based on the July 20 plot by German High Command to kill Adolf Hitler in 1944.

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The Restless Conscience: Resistance to Hitler Within Germany 1933-1945

The Restless Conscience: Resistance to Hitler Within Germany 1933-1945 is a 1992 American documentary film directed by Hava Kohav Beller.

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The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.

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The Wednesday Play

The Wednesday Play is an anthology series of British television plays which ran on BBC1 from October 1964 to May 1970.

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Theodor Heuss

Theodor Heuss (31 January 1884 – 12 December 1963) was a liberal German politician who served as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany (then West Germany) from 1949 to 1959.

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Tom Cruise

Thomas Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV; July 3, 1962) is an American actor and producer.

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Ulrich von Hassell

Christian August Ulrich von Hassell (12 November 1881 – 8 September 1944) was a German diplomat during World War II.

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Unsolved History

Unsolved History is an American documentary television series that aired from 2002 to 2005.

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Valkyrie (film)

Valkyrie is a 2008 historical thriller film set in Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Walther von Brauchitsch

Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army during the Nazi era.

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War and Remembrance (miniseries)

War and Remembrance is an American miniseries based on the novel of the same name written by Herman Wouk, which aired from November 13, 1988, to May 14, 1989.

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Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship

Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship or Warmia-Masuria Province or Warmia-Mazury Province (in Województwo warmińsko-mazurskie,.

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Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.

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Werner von Haeften

Werner Karl von Haeften (9 October 1908 – 21 July 1944) was an Oberleutnant in the Wehrmacht, who took part in the military-based conspiracy against Adolf Hitler known as the 20 July plot.

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Wessel Freytag von Loringhoven

Wessel Freytag von Loringhoven (10 November 1899 – 26 July 1944), was a colonel in the High Command of the German Armed Forces (OKW) and a member of the German Resistance (Widerstand) against Adolf Hitler. Loringhoven was a friend of Claus von Stauffenberg, who was the leader of the 20 July Plot to assassinate Hitler in 1944.

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Wilhelm Canaris

Wilhelm Franz Canaris (1 January 1887 – 9 April 1945) was a German admiral and chief of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944.

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Wilhelm Keitel

Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Wilhelm Leuschner

Wilhelm Leuschner (15 June 1890, Bayreuth, Bavaria – 29 September 1944, Berlin-Plötzensee) was a social-democratic politician who opposed the Third Reich.

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Wilhelmstrasse

Wilhelmstrasse (Wilhelmstraße, see ß) is a major thoroughfare in the central Mitte and Kreuzberg districts of Berlin, Germany.

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William L. Shirer

William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.

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Wolf's Lair

Wolf's Lair (German: Wolfsschanze; Polish: Wilczy Szaniec) was Adolf Hitler's first Eastern Front military headquarters in World War II.

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Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorff

Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorff (14 October 1896 – 15 August 1944) was a German police official and politician, who served as a Member of the Prussian Parliament during the Weimar Republic, as a Member of the German Parliament for the Nazi Party from 1933 and as president of police in Potsdam and Berlin.

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Wolfgang Preiss

Wolfgang Preiss (27 February 1910 – 27 November 2002) was a German theatre, film and television actor.

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Wound Badge

The Wound Badge (Verwundetenabzeichen) was a military decoration first promulgated by Wilhelm II, German Emperor on 3 March 1918, which was awarded to wounded or frostbitten soldiers of the Imperial German Army, during World War I. Between the world wars, it was awarded to members of the German armed forces who fought on the Nationalist side of the Spanish Civil War, 1938–39, and received combat related wounds.

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1st Army (Wehrmacht)

The 1st Army (1.) was a World War II field army.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20_July_plot

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