198 relations: Adobe After Effects, Adobe Flash, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Advertising, Affine transformation, Aliasing, Angle of rotation, Anisotropy, ANTIC, Apple Inc., Arc (geometry), Arcade game, Area, Atari, Axis–angle representation, Bit blit, Bitmap, Bitwise operation, Blitter, Business, Capcom, Cartesian coordinate system, Cartography, Cartoon, Character (computing), Chess, Circle, Color gradient, Commodore International, Commutative property, Computer, Computer animation, Computer graphics, Computer monitor, Computer mouse, Computer science, Coordinate system, Coprocessor, CorelDRAW, CP System, CTIA and GTIA, Desktop publishing, Determinant, Diagonalizable matrix, Diameter, Digital image, Digital image processing, Digital photography, Dilation (metric space), ..., Drawing, Engineering, Equation, Euclidean geometry, Euclidean group, Euclidean space, Euclidean vector, Euler's rotation theorem, Even–odd rule, Exclusive or, Framebuffer, Fujitsu, Function (mathematics), Geometric primitive, Geometric shape, Geometric transformation, Geometry, GIMP, Gouraud shading, Graphic art software, Graphical user interface, Graphics, Graphics library, Graphics processing unit, Graphics software, Graphics tablet, Group (mathematics), Home computer, Homogeneous coordinates, Homography, Homothetic transformation, Hudson Soft, Hudson Soft HuC6270, If and only if, Image, Image (mathematics), Image file formats, Image resolution, Image scaling, Inbetweening, Inkscape, Input device, Integrated circuit, Isometry, Isotropy, Layer, Line segment, Linear algebra, Linear map, List of home computers by video hardware, List of Sega arcade system boards, MacDraw, Macintosh, MacOS, MacPaint, Mahjong, Map, Matrix (mathematics), Matrix multiplication, Method (computer programming), Microsoft Windows, MOS Technology, MOS Technology VIC, MOS Technology VIC-II, NEC, NEC µPD7220, Normal subgroup, Object (computer science), Object-oriented programming, Operator (mathematics), Orientation (vector space), Origin (mathematics), Original Chip Set, Orthogonal group, Orthogonal matrix, Output device, PaintShop Pro, Palette (computing), Paradigm, Photography, Physics, Picture Processing Unit, Pixel, Pixel art, Polygonal chain, PostScript, Printing, Projection (linear algebra), Projective geometry, Quotient group, Raster graphics, Real number, Reflection (physics), Refraction, Rendering (computer graphics), RETAS, Ricoh, Rotation, Rotation (mathematics), Row and column vectors, Scale factor, Scaling (geometry), Screentone, Sega, Set (mathematics), Shadow, Shape, Signal processing, Similarity (geometry), Solitaire, Spatial anti-aliasing, Sprite (computer graphics), Square matrix, String (computer science), Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Technical drawing, Television Interface Adaptor, Texas Instruments, Texas Instruments TMS9918, Translation (geometry), Transparency (graphic), Transparency and translucency, Triangle, Turtle graphics, Typeface, Typesetting, Typography, UbiArt Framework, Vector graphics, Vector graphics editor, Vector space, Video card, Video display controller, Video game, Video game console, Volume, Web colors, Window manager, X Window System, Xfig, Yamaha Corporation, Yamaha V9938, Yamaha V9958, 16-bit, 2.5D, 2D geometric model, 3D computer graphics, 8-bit. Expand index (148 more) »

## Adobe After Effects

Adobe After Effects is a digital visual effects, motion graphics, and compositing application developed by Adobe Systems and used in the post-production process of film making and television production.

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## Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.

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## Adobe Illustrator

Adobe Illustrator is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Adobe Systems.

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## Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.

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## Advertising

Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.

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## Affine transformation

In geometry, an affine transformation, affine mapBerger, Marcel (1987), p. 38.

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## Aliasing

In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.

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## Angle of rotation

In mathematics, the angle of rotation is a measurement of the amount, the angle, by which a figure is rotated counterclockwise about a fixed point, often the center of a circle.

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## Anisotropy

Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

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## ANTIC

Alphanumeric Television Interface Controller (ANTIC) is an LSI ASIC dedicated to generating 2D computer graphics to be shown on a television screen or computer display.

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## Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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## Arc (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, an arc (symbol: ⌒) is a closed segment of a differentiable curve.

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## Arcade game

An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades.

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## Area

Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.

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## Atari

Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive, a subsidiary of the French publisher Atari, SA.

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## Axis–angle representation

In mathematics, the axis–angle representation of a rotation parameterizes a rotation in a three-dimensional Euclidean space by two quantities: a unit vector indicating the direction of an axis of rotation, and an angle describing the magnitude of the rotation about the axis.

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## Bit blit

Bit blit (also written BITBLT, BIT BLT, BitBLT, Bit BLT, Bit Blt etc., which stands for bit block transfer) is a data operation commonly used in computer graphics in which several bitmaps are combined into one using a boolean function.

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## Bitmap

In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits.

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## Bitwise operation

In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.

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## Blitter

A blitter is a circuit, sometimes as a coprocessor or a logic block on a microprocessor, dedicated to the rapid movement and modification of data within a computer's memory.

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## Business

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).

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## Capcom

is a Japanese video game developer and publisher known for creating numerous multi-million selling game franchises, including Street Fighter, Mega Man, Resident Evil, Devil May Cry, Ace Attorney, Monster Hunter, and Dead Rising, as well as games based on the Disney animated properties.

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## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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## Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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## Cartoon

A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style.

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## Character (computing)

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

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## Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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## Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape.

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## Color gradient

In computer graphics, a color gradient (sometimes called a color ramp or color progression) specifies a range of position-dependent colors, usually used to fill a region.

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## Commodore International

Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.

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## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

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## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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## Computer animation

Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images.

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## Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

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## Computer monitor

A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.

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## Computer mouse

A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.

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## Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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## Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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## Coprocessor

A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).

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## CorelDRAW

CorelDraw (styled CorelDRAW) is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Corel Corporation.

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## CP System

The, Capcom Play System or CPS is an arcade system board developed by Capcom that ran game software stored on removable ROM cartridges.

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## CTIA and GTIA

Color Television Interface Adaptor (CTIA) and its successor Graphic Television Interface Adaptor (GTIA) are custom chips used in the Atari 8-bit family of computers and in the Atari 5200 console.

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## Desktop publishing

Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer primarily for print.

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## Determinant

In linear algebra, the determinant is a value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.

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## Diagonalizable matrix

In linear algebra, a square matrix A is called diagonalizable if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix P such that P−1AP is a diagonal matrix.

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## Diameter

In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.

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## Digital image

A digital image is a numeric representation, normally binary, of a two-dimensional image.

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## Digital image processing

In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.

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## Digital photography

Digital photography is a form of photography that uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors to capture images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film.

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## Dilation (metric space)

In mathematics, a dilation is a function f from a metric space into itself that satisfies the identity for all points (x, y), where d(x, y) is the distance from x to y and r is some positive real number.

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## Drawing

Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.

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## Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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## Equation

In mathematics, an equation is a statement of an equality containing one or more variables.

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## Euclidean geometry

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.

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## Euclidean group

In mathematics, the Euclidean group E(n), also known as ISO(n) or similar, is the symmetry group of n-dimensional Euclidean space.

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## Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

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## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

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## Euler's rotation theorem

In geometry, Euler's rotation theorem states that, in three-dimensional space, any displacement of a rigid body such that a point on the rigid body remains fixed, is equivalent to a single rotation about some axis that runs through the fixed point.

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## Even–odd rule

The even–odd rule is an algorithm implemented in vector-based graphic software, like the PostScript language and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), which determines how a graphical shape with more than one closed outline will be filled.

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## Exclusive or

Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ (one is true, the other is false).

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## Framebuffer

A framebuffer (frame buffer, or sometimes framestore) is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display.

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## Fujitsu

is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

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## Geometric primitive

The term geometric primitive, or prim, in computer graphics and CAD systems is used in various senses, with the common meaning of the simplest (i.e. 'atomic' or irreducible) geometric objects that the system can handle (draw, store).

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## Geometric shape

A geometric shape is the geometric information which remains when location, scale, orientation and reflection are removed from the description of a geometric object.

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## Geometric transformation

A geometric transformation is any bijection of a set having some geometric structure to itself or another such set.

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## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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## GIMP

GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks.

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## Gouraud shading

Gouraud shading, named after Henri Gouraud, is an interpolation method used in computer graphics to produce continuous shading of surfaces represented by polygon meshes.

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## Graphic art software

Graphic art software is a subclass of application software used for graphic design, multimedia development, stylized image development, technical illustration, general image editing, or simply to access graphic files.

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## Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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## Graphics

Graphics (from Greek γραφικός graphikos, "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain.

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## Graphics library

A graphics library is a program library designed to aid in rendering computer graphics to a monitor.

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## Graphics processing unit

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

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## Graphics software

In computer graphics, graphics software refers to a program or collection of programs that enable a person to manipulate images or models visually on a computer.

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## Graphics tablet

A graphic tablet (also known as a digitizer, drawing tablet, digital drawing tablet, pen tablet, or digital art board) is a computer input device that enables a user to hand-draw images, animations and graphics, with a special pen-like stylus, similar to the way a person draws images with a pencil and paper.

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## Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

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## Home computer

Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.

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## Homogeneous coordinates

In mathematics, homogeneous coordinates or projective coordinates, introduced by August Ferdinand Möbius in his 1827 work Der barycentrische Calcül, are a system of coordinates used in projective geometry, as Cartesian coordinates are used in Euclidean geometry.

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## Homography

In projective geometry, a homography is an isomorphism of projective spaces, induced by an isomorphism of the vector spaces from which the projective spaces derive.

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## Homothetic transformation

In mathematics, a homothety (or homothecy, or homogeneous dilation) is a transformation of an affine space determined by a point S called its center and a nonzero number λ called its ratio, which sends in other words it fixes S, and sends any M to another point N such that the segment SN is on the same line as SM, but scaled by a factor λ. In Euclidean geometry homotheties are the similarities that fix a point and either preserve (if) or reverse (if) the direction of all vectors.

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## Hudson Soft

, commonly known by its brand name Hudson, was a Japanese video game company that released numerous games for video game consoles, home computers and mobile phones, mainly from the 1980s to the 2000s.

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## Hudson Soft HuC6270

HuC6270 is a video display controller (VDC) developed by Hudson Soft and manufactured for Hudson Soft by Seiko Epson.

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## If and only if

In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.

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## Image

An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

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## Image (mathematics)

In mathematics, an image is the subset of a function's codomain which is the output of the function from a subset of its domain.

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## Image file formats

Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images.

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## Image resolution

Image resolution is the detail an image holds.

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## Image scaling

In computer graphics and digital imaging, image scaling refers to the resizing of a digital image.

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## Inbetweening

Inbetweening or tweening is a key process in all types of animation, including computer animation.

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## Inkscape

Inkscape is a free and open-source vector graphics editor; it can be used to create or edit vector graphics such as illustrations, diagrams, line arts, charts, logos and complex paintings.

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## Input device

In computing, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.

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## Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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## Isometry

In mathematics, an isometry (or congruence, or congruent transformation) is a distance-preserving transformation between metric spaces, usually assumed to be bijective.

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## Isotropy

Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").

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## Layer

Layer often refers to.

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## Line segment

In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line between its endpoints.

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## Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

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## Linear map

In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.

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## List of home computers by video hardware

This is a list of home computers, sorted alphanumerically, which lists all relevant details of their video hardware.

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## List of Sega arcade system boards

The following is a list of arcade system boards released by Sega.

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## MacDraw

MacDraw was a vector graphic drawing application released along with the first Apple Macintosh systems in 1984.

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## Macintosh

The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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## MacOS

macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

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## MacPaint

MacPaint is a raster graphics editor developed by Apple Computer and released with the original Macintosh personal computer on January 24, 1984.

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## Mahjong

Mahjong (Mandarin) is a tile-based game which was developed in China in the Qing dynasty and has spread throughout the world since the early 20th century.

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## Map

A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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## Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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## Matrix multiplication

In mathematics, matrix multiplication or matrix product is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices with entries in a field, or, more generally, in a ring or even a semiring.

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## Method (computer programming)

A method in object-oriented programming (OOP) is a procedure associated with a message and an object.

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## Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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## MOS Technology

MOS Technology, Inc. ("MOS" being short for Metal Oxide Semiconductor), also known as CSG (Commodore Semiconductor Group), was a semiconductor design and fabrication company based in Norristown, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

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## MOS Technology VIC

The VIC (Video Interface Chip), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6560 (NTSC version) / 6561 (PAL version), is the integrated circuit chip responsible for generating video graphics and sound in the Commodore VIC-20 home computer.

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## MOS Technology VIC-II

The VIC-II (Video Interface Chip II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 (NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 (PAL), is the microchip tasked with generating Y/C video signals (combined to composite video in the RF modulator) and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers.

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## NEC

is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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## NEC µPD7220

The High-Performance Graphics Display Controller 7220 (commonly µPD7220 or NEC 7220) is a video interface controller capable of drawing lines, circles, arcs, and character graphics to a bit-mapped display.

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## Normal subgroup

In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup is a subgroup which is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part.

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## Object (computer science)

In computer science, an object can be a variable, a data structure, a function, or a method, and as such, is a value in memory referenced by an identifier.

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## Object-oriented programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").

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## Operator (mathematics)

In mathematics, an operator is generally a mapping that acts on the elements of a space to produce other elements of the same space.

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## Orientation (vector space)

In mathematics, orientation is a geometric notion that in two dimensions allows one to say when a cycle goes around clockwise or counterclockwise, and in three dimensions when a figure is left-handed or right-handed.

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## Origin (mathematics)

In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

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## Original Chip Set

The Original Chip Set (OCS) is a chipset used in the earliest Commodore Amiga computers and defined the Amiga's graphics and sound capabilities.

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## Orthogonal group

In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension, denoted, is the group of distance-preserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations.

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## Orthogonal matrix

In linear algebra, an orthogonal matrix is a square matrix whose columns and rows are orthogonal unit vectors (i.e., orthonormal vectors), i.e. where I is the identity matrix.

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## Output device

In computing, an output device is a piece of computer hardware equipment that uses received data and commands from an information processing system (such as a computer or information appliance) in order to perform a task.

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## PaintShop Pro

PaintShop Pro (PSP) is a raster and vector graphics editor for Microsoft Windows.

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## Palette (computing)

In computer graphics, a palette is a finite set of colors.

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## Paradigm

In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.

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## Photography

Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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## Picture Processing Unit

The PPU (Picture Processing Unit), more specifically known as Ricoh RP2C02 (NTSC version) / RP2C07 (PAL version), is the integrated circuit in the Nintendo Entertainment System responsible for generating video signals from graphic data stored in memory.

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## Pixel

In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

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## Pixel art

Pixel art is a form of digital art, created through the use of software, where images are edited on the pixel level.

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## Polygonal chain

In geometry, a polygonal chain is a connected series of line segments.

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## PostScript

PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.

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## Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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## Projection (linear algebra)

In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that.

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## Projective geometry

Projective geometry is a topic in mathematics.

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## Quotient group

A quotient group or factor group is a mathematical group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves the group structure.

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## Raster graphics

In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.

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## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

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## Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.

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## Refraction

Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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## Rendering (computer graphics)

Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.

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## RETAS

RETAS (Revolutionary Engineering Total Animation System) is a 2D animation software bundle developed and sold by Celsys that is available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It handles the entire animation production from digitally drawing or tracing to exporting in Flash and QuickTime, and is considered to be a leader in Japan's anime industry.

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## Ricoh

is a Japanese multinational imaging and electronics company.

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## Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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## Rotation (mathematics)

Rotation in mathematics is a concept originating in geometry.

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## Row and column vectors

In linear algebra, a column vector or column matrix is an m × 1 matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single column of m elements, Similarly, a row vector or row matrix is a 1 × m matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single row of m elements Throughout, boldface is used for the row and column vectors.

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## Scale factor

A scale factor is a number which scales, or multiplies, some quantity.

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## Scaling (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, uniform scaling (or isotropic scaling) is a linear transformation that enlarges (increases) or shrinks (diminishes) objects by a scale factor that is the same in all directions.

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## Screentone

Screentone is a technique for applying textures and shades to drawings, used as an alternative to hatching.

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## Sega

Sega Games Co., Ltd., originally short for Service Games and officially styled as SEGA, is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, with offices around the world.

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## Set (mathematics)

In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

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## Shadow

A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object.

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## Shape

A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture or material composition.

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## Signal processing

Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.

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## Similarity (geometry)

Two geometrical objects are called similar if they both have the same shape, or one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other.

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## Solitaire

Solitaire is any tabletop game which one can play by oneself.

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## Spatial anti-aliasing

In digital signal processing, spatial anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution image at a lower resolution.

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## Sprite (computer graphics)

In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene.

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## Square matrix

In mathematics, a square matrix is a matrix with the same number of rows and columns.

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## String (computer science)

In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.

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## Super Nintendo Entertainment System

The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (officially abbreviated the Super NES or SNES, and colloquially shortened to Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Australasia (Oceania), and 1993 in South America.

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## Technical drawing

Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed.

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## Television Interface Adaptor

The Television Interface Adaptor (TIA) is the custom computer chip that is the heart of the Atari 2600 game console, generating the screen display, sound effects, and reading input controllers.

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## Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.

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## Texas Instruments TMS9918

VDP TMS9918A VDP TMS9918A VDP TMS9928A The TMS9918 is a Video Display Controller (VDC) manufactured by Texas Instruments, introduced in 1979.

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## Translation (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction.

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## Transparency (graphic)

Transparency is possible in a number of graphics file formats.

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## Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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## Triangle

A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.

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## Turtle graphics

In computer graphics, turtle graphics are vector graphics using a relative cursor (the "turtle") upon a Cartesian plane.

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## Typeface

In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.

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## Typesetting

Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.

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## Typography

Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.

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## UbiArt Framework

UbiArt Framework is a 2.5D video game engine developed by Ubisoft Montpellier.

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## Vector graphics

Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes.

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## Vector graphics editor

A vector graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to compose and edit vector graphics images interactively on a computer and save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats, such as EPS, PDF, WMF, SVG, or VML.

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## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

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## Video card

A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).

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## Video display controller

A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit which is the main component in a video signal generator, a device responsible for the production of a TV video signal in a computing or game system.

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## Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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## Video game console

A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

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## Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

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## Web colors

Web colors are colors used in displaying web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors.

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## Window manager

A window manager is system software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface.

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## X Window System

The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.

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## Xfig

Xfig is a free and open-source vector graphics editor which runs under the X Window System on most UNIX-compatible platforms.

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## Yamaha Corporation

() is a Japanese multinational corporation and conglomerate with a very wide range of products and services, predominantly musical instruments, electronics and power sports equipment.

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## Yamaha V9938

The Yamaha V9938 is a video display processor (VDP) used on the MSX2 home computer, as well as on the Geneve 9640 enhanced TI-99/4A clone.

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## Yamaha V9958

The Yamaha V9958 is a Video Display Processor (VDP) used in MSX 80s home computers.

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## 16-bit

16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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## 2.5D

The two-and-a-half-dimensional (2.5D, alternatively three-quarter and pseudo-3D) perspective is either 2D graphical projections and similar techniques used to cause images or scenes to simulate the appearance of being three-dimensional (3D) when in fact they are not, or gameplay in an otherwise three-dimensional video game that is restricted to a two-dimensional plane or has a virtual camera with a fixed angle.

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## 2D geometric model

A 2D geometric model is a geometric model of an object as a two-dimensional figure, usually on the Euclidean or Cartesian plane.

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## 3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.

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## 8-bit

8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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## Redirects here:

2-D computer graphics, 2D Computer Graphics, 2D graphics, 2d computer graphics, 2d graphics.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2D_computer_graphics