134 relations: Active radar homing, AGM-88 HARM, AIM-7 Sparrow, Algeria, Angolan Civil War, Antonov An-2, Aouzou Strip, Ardalion Rastov, Area 51, Armenia, Army of Republika Srpska, Aspide, AT-T, Baghdad, Beirut, Beqaa Valley, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Brno, Buk missile system, Central Intelligence Agency, Chad, Chadian Civil War (1965–79), Command guidance, Continuous track, Continuous wave, Cube, Damascus, Dassault Mirage F1, Donguz test site, Doppler radar, Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, E band (NATO), Electronic counter-countermeasure, Electronic countermeasure, Faya-Largeau, Federation of American Scientists, G band (NATO), G5 howitzer, GBU-12 Paveway II, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, George Lee Butler, German reunification, GM chassis, GRAU, Grudziądz, Guelta Zemmur, Gulf War, H band (NATO), Height finder, Identification friend or foe, ..., Ilyushin Il-28, Iran–Iraq War, Iraqi no-fly zones, Irfan Ljubijankić, Israeli Air Force, Kalinin Machine-Building Plant, Kielce, Kosovo War, Laser-guided bomb, Libya, London, M-11 Shtorm, Mach number, Martel (missile), McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, MIM-104 Patriot, Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant, Namibe Province, NATO reporting name, Niš Constantine the Great Airport, Northrop F-5, Opération Épervier, Operation Excite/Hilti, Operation Mole Cricket 19, Operation Protea, Operation Southern Watch, Orenburg Oblast, P-12 radar, P-15 radar, P-40 radar, Package Q Strike, People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola, People's Liberation Army of Namibia, Poles, Polisario Front, Probability of kill, Proximity fuze, R-27 (air-to-air missile), R-77, Radar, Radar jamming and deception, Radar warning receiver, Ramjet, Rocket engine, Routledge, Royal Moroccan Air Force, S-125 Neva/Pechora, S-200 (missile), S-75 Dvina, Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Scott O'Grady, Semi-active radar homing, SEPECAT Jaguar, Serbian Army, Solid fuel, Soviet involvement in the Iran-Iraq War, Soviet Union, Surface-to-air missile, Syrian Civil War, Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design, Time (magazine), Ton, Transporter erector launcher, Tupolev Tu-22, Ultra high frequency, Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant, United States Air Force, Ustka, Večernje novosti, Vertex (geometry), Very high frequency, Viktor Tikhomirov, Vympel NPO, Warning system, Western Sahara War, Yemeni Civil War (2015–present), Yom Kippur War, Yugoslav Wars, Zahlé, 1982 Lebanon War, 2011 military intervention in Libya, 2018 missile strikes against Syria, 2K11 Krug, 9K33 Osa. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
Active radar homing (ARH) is a missile guidance method in which a missile contains a radar transceiver (in contrast to semi-active radar homing, which uses only a receiver) and the electronics necessary for it to find and track its target autonomously.
The AGM-88 HARM (High-speed Anti-radiation Missile) is a tactical, air-to-surface anti-radiation missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions coming from surface-to-air radar systems.
The AIM-7 Sparrow is an American, medium-range semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile operated by the United States Air Force, United States Navy and United States Marine Corps, as well as other various air forces and navies.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.
The Antonov An-2 (Russian nickname: "Annushka" or "Annie"; "kukuruznik" - corn crop duster; USAF/DoD reporting name Type 22, NATO reporting name Colt) is a Soviet mass-produced single-engine biplane utility/agricultural aircraft designed and manufactured by the Antonov Design Bureau beginning in 1946.
The Aouzou Strip (Arabic قطاع أوزو Qiṭāʿ Awzū, Bande d'Aozou) is a strip of land in northern Chad which lies along the border with Libya, extending south to a depth of about 100 kilometers into Chad's Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region for an area of 114,000 km² and is named after the small town and oasis Aouzou.
Ardalion Ardalionovich Rastov (Ардалион Ардалионович Растов, born 17 June 1926, Moscow, USSR – died 31 July 2012, Moscow, Russia) was a Soviet engineer and chief designer of both Kub and Buk self-propelled missile launchers.
The United States Air Force facility commonly known as Area 51 is a highly classified remote detachment of Edwards Air Force Base, within the Nevada Test and Training Range.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Army of Republika Srpska (Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske; ВРС/VRS), commonly referred to in English as the Bosnian Serb Army (BSA), was the military of Republika Srpska (RS), the self-proclaimed Serb secessionist republic, a territory within the newly independent Bosnia and Herzegovina (formerly part of Yugoslavia), which it defied, active during the Bosnian War (1992–95).
Aspide (the Italian name for the adder) is an Italian medium range air-to-air and surface-to-air missile produced by Selenia (now part of the Alenia consortium).
Artilleriyskiy Tyagach Tyazholiy, or AT-T (Артиллерийский Тягач, Тяжёлый (АТ-Т), meaning heavy artillery tractor) was a Soviet Cold War era artillery tractor.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
The Buk missile system ("Бук"; “beech” (tree)) is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The First Chadian Civil War started in 1965 and ended in 1979, with riots and insurgency against Chadian president François Tombalbaye's rule, known for its authoritarianism and distrust of democracy.
Command guidance is a type of missile guidance in which a ground station or aircraft relay signals to a guided missile via radio control or through a wire connecting the missile to the launcher and tell the missile where to steer in order to intercept its target.
Continuous track, also called tank tread or caterpillar track, is a system of vehicle propulsion in which a continuous band of treads or track plates is driven by two or more wheels.
A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency, almost always a sine wave, that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Dassault Mirage F1 is a French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
Donguz test site (Донгузский полигон, full name: Испытательный Полигон Федерального бюджетного учреждения 3-го центрального научно-исследовательского института Министерства обороны Российской Федерации, formerly known as Научно-испытательный полигон ПВО МО РФ, в/ч 33157,Научно-Испытательный Зенитно-Артиллерийский Полигон — НИЗАП) is a military proving ground in Orenburg Oblast, Russia.
A Doppler radar is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance.
The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk is a single seat subsonic carrier-capable attack aircraft developed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps in the early 1950s.
The NATO E band is a designation given to the radio frequencies from 2 000 to 3 000 MHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 15 and 10 cm) during the cold war period.
Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) is a part of electronic warfare which includes a variety of practices which attempt to reduce or eliminate the effect of electronic countermeasures (ECM) on electronic sensors aboard vehicles, ships and aircraft and weapons such as missiles.
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.
Faya-Largeau (also known as Faya, فايا لارجو or فايا) is the largest city in northern Chad and was the capital of the region of Bourkou-Ennedi-Tibesti.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
The NATO G band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 4 000 to 6 000 MHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 7.5 and 5 cm) during the cold war period.
The G5 is a South African towed howitzer of 155 mm calibre designed and developed in South Africa by Denel Land Systems.
The GBU-12 Paveway II is an American aerial laser-guided bomb, based on the Mk 82 500-pound general-purpose bomb, but with the addition of a nose-mounted laser seeker and fins for guidance.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
George Lee Butler (born June 17, 1939), sometimes known as Lee Butler, was commander in chief, United States Strategic Command, and the last commander of Strategic Air Command.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Tor missile system on GM-5955 chassis. GM (Russian: Gusenichnaya Mashina, Гусеничная машина, lit. tracked machine) is a series of tracked vehicle chassis.
The Main Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (GRAU) (translit) is a department of the Russian (ex-Soviet) Ministry of Defense.
Grudziądz (Graudenz, Graudentum or Graudentium or Grudentia); the form Grudentia is used by, e.g., A. Lentz, Philologus 23 (1866), p. 175.
Guelta Zemmur (or Guelta Zemour, Tamazight for "olive tree pool") is a small town or village in the Moroccan-administered territory of Western Sahara.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The NATO H band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 6 000 to 8 000 MHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 5 and 3.75 cm) during the cold war period.
A height finder is a ground-based aircraft altitude measuring device.
Identification, friend or foe (IFF) is an identification system designed for command and control.
The Ilyushin Il-28 (Илью́шин Ил-28 NATO reporting name: Beagle) is a jet bomber of the immediate postwar period that was originally manufactured for the Soviet Air Forces.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iraqi no-fly zones were a set of two separate no-fly zones (NFZs), and were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq and Shiite Muslims in the south.
Irfan Ljubijankić (26 November 1952 – 28 May 1995) was a Bosnian facial surgeon, classical music composer, politician and diplomat.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
JSC Kalinin Machine-Building Plant, ZiK or MZiK for short (Машиностроительный завод имени М.И.Калинина, ЗиК, МЗиК) is a large Soviet/Russian industrial factory, now part of Almaz-Antey holding.
Kielce is a city in south central Poland with 199,475 inhabitants.
A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a guided bomb that uses semi-active laser guidance to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than an unguided bomb.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The M-11 Shtorm (М-11 «Шторм»; Storm) is a Russian naval surface-to-air missile system.
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.
The Martel is an Anglo-French anti-radiation missile (ARM).
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.
The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations.
Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant (Мытищинский машиностроительный завод) is a Russian manufacturer of dump trucks and armored tracked vehicles.
Namibe Province is a province of Angola.
NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment of Russia, China, and, historically, the former Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and other nations of the Warsaw Pact).
Niš Constantine the Great Airport (Аеродром Константин Велики Ниш / Aerodrom Konstantin Veliki Niš), located northwest of downtown Niš in the suburbs of Medoševac and Popovac.
The Northrop F-5A and F-5B Freedom Fighter and the F-5E and F-5F Tiger II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation.
Opération Épervier (Sparrowhawk) was the codename, from 1986 until 2014, for the French military presence in Chad.
Operation Excite/Hilti (aka Operation Hilti and Operation Prone)Wilsworth, Clive (2012).
Operation Mole Cricket 19 (מבצע ערצב-19, Mivtza ʻArtzav Tsha-Esreh) was a suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) campaign launched by the Israeli Air Force (IAF) against Syrian targets on June 9, 1982, at the outset of the 1982 Lebanon War.
Operation Protea was a military operation during the South African Border War and Angolan Civil War in which South African Defence Forces (SADF) destroyed a number of South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) bases in Angola.
Operation Southern Watch was an air-centric military operation conducted by the United States Department of Defense from Summer 1992 to Spring 2003.
Orenburg Oblast (Оренбу́ргская о́бласть, Orenburgskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
The P-12 "Yenisei" (also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Spoon Rest" in the west) was an early VHF 3D radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-15 "Tropa" ("Тропа"; "trail") or 1RL13 (also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Flat Face A" in the west) is a 2D UHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-40 "Armour" or 1S12 (also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Long Track" in the west) is a 3-D UHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The Package Q Airstrike was the largest airstrike of the Persian Gulf War, lucky-devils.net.
The People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola (Forças Armadas Populares de Libertação de Angola) or FAPLA was originally the armed wing of the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) but later (1975–1991) became Angola's official armed forces when the MPLA took control of the government.
The People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) was the military wing of the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO).
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polisario Front, Frente Polisario, FRELISARIO or simply POLISARIO, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro ("Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro" الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير ساقية الحمراء و وادي الذهب Al-Jabhat Al-Sha'abiyah Li-Tahrir Saqiya Al-Hamra'a wa Wadi Al-Dhahab, Front populaire de Libération de la Seguia el Hamra et du Rivière d'or), is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in the Western Sahara.
Computer games, simulations, models, and operations research programs often require a mechanism to determine statistically whether the engagement between a weapon and a target resulted in a kill, or the probability of kill.
A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.
The Vympel R-27 missile (NATO reporting name AA-10 Alamo) is a medium-to-long-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union.
The Vympel NPO R-77 missile (NATO reporting name: AA-12 Adder) is a Russian medium range, active radar homing air-to-air missile system.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radar jamming and deception (electronic countermeasures) is the intentional emission of radio frequency signals to interfere with the operation of a radar by saturating its receiver with noise or false information.
Radar warning receiver (RWR) systems detect the radio emissions of radar systems.
A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd (an abbreviation of aero thermodynamic duct), is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Moroccan Air Force, RMAF, (Arabic: القوات الجوية الملكية; Berber: Adwas ujenna ageldan; French: Forces royales air) is the air force branch of the Moroccan Armed Forces.
The S-125 Neva/Pechora (С-125 "Нева"/"Печора", NATO reporting name SA-3 Goa) Soviet surface-to-air missile system was designed by Aleksei Mihailovich Isaev to complement the S-25 and S-75.
The NPO Almaz S-200 Angara/Vega/Dubna (Russian Ангара\Вега\Дубна), NATO reporting name SA-5 Gammon (initially Tallinn), is a very long range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system designed in the 1960s to defend large areas from bomber attack or other strategic aircraft.
The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.
Scott Francis O'Grady (born October 12, 1965) is a former United States Air Force fighter pilot.
Semi-active radar homing (SARH) is a common type of missile guidance system, perhaps the most common type for longer-range air-to-air and surface-to-air missile systems.
The SEPECAT Jaguar is a British-French jet attack aircraft originally used by the British Royal Air Force and the French Air Force in the close air support and nuclear strike role.
The Serbian Army (Копнена Војска / Kopnena Vojska, lit.) is the land-based component of the Serbian Armed Forces, responsible for defending the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia from foreign hostiles; participating in peacekeeping operations; and providing humanitarian aid and disaster relief.
Solid fuel refers to various forms of solid material that can be burnt to release energy, providing heat and light through the process of combustion.
The policy of the Soviet Union towards the Iran–Iraq War of 1980 to 1988 varied, beginning with a stance of "strict neutrality" and moving towards massive military support for Iraq in the final phase of the war.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
JSC V.V. Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (ОАО «Научно-исследовательский институт приборостроения имени В.В.Тихомирова», НИИП, NIIP) is a joint stock company, one of the major Russian enterprises in the development of weaponry control systems for fighter planes and mobile medium range anti-aircraft SAM defense vehicles.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The ton is a unit of measure.
A transporter erector launcher (TEL) is a missile vehicle with an integrated prime mover that can carry, elevate to firing position and launch one or more missiles.
The Tupolev Tu-22 (NATO reporting name: Blinder) was the first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant or UMP for short (translit. Ulyanovsk Mekhanicheskiy Zavod, UMZ) is a Soviet/Russian military enterprise, now part of Almaz-Antey holding.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
Ustka (Stolpmünde; Kashubian Ùskô) is a town in the Middle Pomerania region of northwestern Poland with 17,100 inhabitants (2001).
Večernje novosti (Вечерње новости; Evening News) is a Serbian daily tabloid newspaper.
In geometry, a vertex (plural: vertices or vertexes) is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet.
Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.
Victor (or Viktor) Vasilievitch Tikhomirov (Dec. 10 (23), 1912 – Jan. 8, 1985) was an outstanding Soviet engineer and scientist in the fields of radio electronics and automation.
Vympel NPO is a Russian research and production company based near Moscow, mostly known for their air-to-air missiles.
Warning system is any system of biological or technical nature deployed by an individual or group to inform of a future danger.
The Western Sahara War (حرب الصحراء الغربية, Guerre du Sahara occidental, Guerra del Sahara Occidental) was an armed struggle between the Sahrawi indigenous Polisario Front and Morocco between 1975 and 1991, being the most significant phase of the Western Sahara conflict.
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions, each claiming to constitute the Yemeni government, along with their supporters and allies.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Zahlé (زحلة) is the capital and the largest city of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon.
The 1982 Lebanon War, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg) by the Israeli government, later known in Israel as the Lebanon War or the First Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון הראשונה, Milhemet Levanon Harishona), and known in Lebanon as "the invasion" (الاجتياح, Al-ijtiyāḥ), began on 6 June 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) invaded southern Lebanon, after repeated attacks and counter-attacks between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operating in southern Lebanon and the IDF that had caused civilian casualties on both sides of the border.
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
On 14 April 2018, beginning at 04:00 Syrian time (UTC+3), the United States, France, and the United Kingdom carried out a series of military strikes involving aircraft and ship-based missiles against multiple government sites in Syria.
The 2K11 Krug (2К11 «Круг»; circle) is a Soviet and now Russian medium-range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system.
The 9K33 Osa (wasp) is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system designed in the Soviet Union.
1S91, 2K12, 2K12M Kub-M, 2К12 Kub, 3M9 Kub, Gainful, Kub Missile System, Kub missile, Kub missile system, NIIP 3M9 Kub, SA 6, SA-6, SA-6 Gainful, SA6, SAM 6, SAM-6, Straight Flash, Straight Flash radar, Straight Flush radar, Straight flush radar, Strait Flush.