110 relations: Acute toxicity, Addiction, Adulterant, Agonist, Alkene, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor, Amine alkylation, Amphetamine, Animal testing, Anorectic, Antidepressant, Beta-adrenergic agonist, Cardiotoxicity, Carl Mannich, Chirality (chemistry), Claudio Naranjo, Clinical trial, Controlled substance, Convulsion, Cough medicine, Cytochrome P450, Darzens reaction, Death, Derivative (chemistry), Dopamine, Dopamine transporter, Drug, Drug possession, Empathogen–entactogen, Empathy, Essential oil, Euphoria, Functional group, Gordon Alles, Hallucination, Hallucinogen, Halogen, Harold Blauer, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Illegal drug trade, International nonproprietary name, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Kidney, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Malondialdehyde, MDMA, ..., Mineral acid, Monoamine releasing agent, Monoamine transporter, Mood (psychology), Neuroglia, Neuron, Neurotoxicity, Nitroaldol reaction, Nitroethane, Nor-, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine transporter, Organic redox reaction, Organic synthesis, Oxime, Parkinson's disease, Perspiration, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacology, Piperonal, Precursor (chemistry), Project MKUltra, Protokylol, Psychedelic drug, Psychomotor agitation, Psychotherapy, Recreational drug use, Reduction of nitro compounds, Reductive amination, Research chemical, Reuptake inhibitor, Reward system, Safrole, Serotonergic, Serotonin, Serotonin transporter, Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent, Smith, Kline & French, Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, Stimulant, Stroke, Substituent, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine, Substituted phenethylamine, Substrate (chemistry), TAAR1, Tachycardia, Tranquilizer, Truth serum, United States Army, Vesicular monoamine transporter, Wacker process, 2,3-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenylpropan-2-one, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short period of time (usually less than 24 hours).
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An adulterant is a pejorative term for a substance found within other substances such as food, fuels or chemicals even though it is not allowed for legal or other reasons.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.
The alpha-2C adrenergic receptor (α2C adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2C, is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Amine alkylation (amino-de-halogenation) is a type of organic reaction between an alkyl halide and ammonia or an amine.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result in easier breathing.
Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage.
Carl Ulrich Franz Mannich (March 8, 1877 in Breslau – March 5, 1947 in Karlsruhe) was a German chemist.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Claudio Benjamín Naranjo Cohen (born November 24, 1932) is a Chilean-born psychiatrist of Arabic/Moorish, Spanish and Jewish descent who is considered a pioneer in integrating psychotherapy and the spiritual traditions.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
The Darzens reaction (also known as the Darzens condensation or glycidic ester condensation) is the chemical reaction of a ketone or aldehyde with an α-haloester in the presence of a base to form an α,β-epoxy ester, also called a "glycidic ester".
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drug possession is the crime of having one or more illegal drugs in one's possession, either for personal use, distribution, sale or otherwise.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Gordon A. Alles (November 26, 1901 – January 21, 1963), was an American chemist and pharmacologist who did much research on the isolation and properties of insulin for the treatment of diabetics.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Harold Blauer (1910 – January 8, 1953) was an American tennis player who died as a result of injections of 450 mg 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (code-named EA-1298) as part of Project MKUltra, a covert CIA mind-control and chemical interrogation research program, run by the Office of Scientific Intelligence.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the organic compound with the nominal formula CH2(CHO)2.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds.
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
The Henry Reaction (also referred to as the nitro-aldol reaction) is a classic carbon–carbon bond formation reaction in organic chemistry.
Nitroethane is an organic compound having the chemical formula C2H5NO2.
In chemical nomenclature, nor- is a prefix to name a structural analog that can be derived from a parent compound by the removal of one carbon atom along with the accompanying hydrogen atoms.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Piperonal, also known as heliotropin, is an organic compound which is commonly found in fragrances and flavors.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Project MKUltra, also called the CIA mind control program, is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects that were designed and undertaken by the United States Central Intelligence Agency—and which were, at times, illegal.
Protokylol (Asmetil, Caytine, Palison, Ventaire) is a β-adrenergic receptor agonist used as a bronchodilator in Europe and the United States.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
The chemical reactions described as reduction of nitro compounds can be affected by many reagents and reaction conditions.
Reductive amination (also known as reductive alkylation) is a form of amination that involves the conversion of a carbonyl group to an amine via an intermediate imine.
Research chemicals are chemical substances used by scientists for medical and scientific research purposes.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Safrole is a phenylpropene.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
A serotonin–norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA), also known as a triple releasing agent (TRA), is a type of drug which induces the release of serotonin, norepinephrine/epinephrine, and dopamine in the brain and body.
Smith, Kline & French (SKF) was an American pharmaceutical company.
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted methylenedioxy- phenethylamines (MDxx) are a large chemical class of derivatives of the phenethylamines, which includes many psychoactive drugs that act as entactogens, psychedelics, and/or stimulants, as well as entheogens.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.
"Truth serum" is a colloquial name for any of a range of psychoactive drugs used in an effort to obtain information from subjects who are unable or unwilling to provide it otherwise.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons.
The Wacker process or the Hoechst-Wacker process (named after the chemical companies of the same name) refers to the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde in the presence of palladium(II) chloride as the catalyst.
2,3-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (2,3-MDA) or ORTHO-MDA is an amphetamine derivative which is mentioned in PIHKAL as a fairly potent and long-lasting stimulant drug, but with little or none of the entactogenic effects associated with its better-known structural isomer MDA.
3,4-Methylenedioxyphenylpropan-2-one or piperonyl methyl ketone (MDP2P or PMK) is a chemical compound consisting of a phenylacetone moiety substituted with a methylenedioxy functional group.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.