151 relations: Aaton Digital, Academy Awards, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Academy ratio, Acetate, Additive color, Agfa-Gevaert, American Cinematographer, American Cinematographer Manual, Anamorphic format, Anti-halation backing, Anything Else, Aspect ratio, Aspect ratio (image), Auguste and Louis Lumière, Barriers to entry, Beam splitter, Bell & Howell, Billboard (magazine), Biograph Company, Bipack, Birt Acres, Black and white, Brewster Color, Bromine, Camera lens, Cellulose acetate film, Cellulose diacetate, Cellulose triacetate, Chlorine, Chroma key, Cinecolor, CinemaScope, Cinerama, Color motion picture film, Compact disc, Complementary colors, D. W. Griffith, Dance Craze, Digital cinema, Digital intermediate, Digital video, Dolby Digital, Dolby Stereo, DTS (sound system), Duplitized film, Dye coupler, Emulsion, Film, Film base, ..., Film format, Film frame, Film gate, Film gauge, Film grain, Film perforations, Film speed, Film stock, Film tinting, Filmmaking, Fox Film, Front projection effect, Fujifilm, Gelatin, George Eastman, Halogen, Hannibal Goodwin, Henri Chrétien, High-definition television, History of film, Home movies, Industrial Light & Magic, Infrared photography, Iodine, John Dykstra, Kinemacolor, Kinetoscope, Kodachrome, Kodak, Latent image, Leica Camera, Leica Standard, List of motion picture film formats, List of motion picture film stocks, Lucasfilm, Masking (art), Mat (picture framing), Matte (filmmaking), Motion picture film scanner, Motion Picture Patents Company, Movie projector, Movie theater, Multicolor, Negative pulldown, Niche market, Nitrocellulose, Optical printer, Original camera negative, Oskar Barnack, Panavision, Paramount Pictures, Phonograph, Photographic emulsion, Photographic film, Photographic processing, Polyester, Prizma, Rear projection effect, Redundancy (engineering), Reel, Reversal film, Rochester, New York, Shane (film), Silver, Silver halide, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Sony Dynamic Digital Sound, Sound-on-disc, Sound-on-film, Star Wars (film), Still photography, Super 35, Tabular-grain film, Technicolor, Technirama, Techniscope, Telecine, Television, The Robe (film), The Toll of the Sea, Thomas Edison, Thunder Bay (film), Timecode, Trust (business), University of California, Los Angeles, Variety (magazine), Visible spectrum, VistaVision, Warner Bros., William Kennedy Dickson, Wired (magazine), 120 film, 135 film, 16 mm film, 17.5 mm film, 20th Century Fox, 28 mm film, 3D film, 70 mm film, 8 mm film, 9.5 mm film. Expand index (101 more) » « Shrink index
Aaton Digital (formerly known as Aaton) is a French motion picture equipment manufacturer, based in Grenoble, France.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS (often pronounced as am-pas), also known as simply the Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures.
The Academy ratio of 1.375:1 (abbreviated as 1.37:1) is an aspect ratio of a frame of 35mm film when used with 4-perf pulldown.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Additive color is a method to create color by mixing a number of different light colors, with shades of red, green, and blue being the most common primary colors used in additive color system.
Agfa-Gevaert N.V. (Agfa) is a Belgian-German multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products and systems, as well as IT solutions.
American Cinematographer is a magazine published monthly by the American Society of Cinematographers.
The American Cinematographer Manual is a filmmaking manual published by the American Society of Cinematographers.
Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio.
An anti-halation backing is a layer found in most photographic films.
Anything Else is a 2003 American romantic comedy film written and directed by Woody Allen, produced by his sister Letty Aronson, and starring Jason Biggs, Christina Ricci, Allen, Stockard Channing, Danny DeVito, Jimmy Fallon, Erica Leerhsen and KaDee Strickland.
The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.
The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height.
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.
A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two.
Bell and Howell is a U.S.-based former manufacturer of motion picture machinery, founded in 1907 by two projectionists, and was originally headquartered in Wheeling, Illinois.
Billboard (styled as billboard) is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries.
The Biograph Company, also known as the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, was a motion picture company founded in 1895 and active until 1916.
In cinematography, bipacking, or a bipack, is the process of loading two reels of film into a camera, so that they both pass through the camera gate together.
Birt Acres (23 July 1854 – 27 December 1918) was an American and British photographer and film pioneer.
Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.
Brewster Color was an early subtractive color-model film process.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.
Cellulose acetate film, or safety film, is used in photography as a base material for photographic emulsions.
Cellulose diacetate, sometimes simply called diacetate, is a synthetic polymer made by treating cellulose with acetic acid.
Cellulose triacetate, (triacetate, CTA or TAC) is a chemical compound produced from cellulose and a source of acetate esters, typically acetic anhydride.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a visual effects/post-production technique for compositing (layering) two images or video streams together based on color hues (chroma range).
Cinecolor was an early subtractive color-model two color motion picture process, based upon the Prizma system of the 1910s and 1920s and the Multicolor system of the late 1920s and 1930s.
CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, for shooting widescreen movies.
Cinerama is a widescreen process that originally projected images simultaneously from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply curved screen, subtending 146° of arc.
Color motion picture film refers both to unexposed color photographic film in a format suitable for use in a motion picture camera, and to finished motion picture film, ready for use in a projector, which bears images in color.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined, cancel each other out.
David Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American director, writer, and producer who pioneered modern cinematic techniques.
Dance Craze is a 1981 British documentary film about the English 2 Tone music genre.
Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film.
Digital intermediate (typically abbreviated to DI) is a motion picture finishing process which classically involves digitizing a motion picture and manipulating the color and other image characteristics.
Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data.
Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories.
Dolby Stereo is a trademark of Dolby Laboratories, for its various stereo sound formats.
DTS (Dedicated To Sound) is a series of multichannel audio technologies owned by Xperi Corporation (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems, Inc.), an American company specializing in digital surround sound formats used for both commercial/theatrical and consumer grade applications.
Duplitized film was a type of motion picture print film stock used for some two-color natural color processes.
Dye coupler is present in chromogenic film and paper used in photography, primarily color photography.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
A film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it.
A film format is a technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film, for either stills or filmmaking.
In filmmaking, video production, animation, and related fields, a frame is one of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture.
The film gate is the rectangular opening in the front of a motion picture camera where the film is exposed to light.
Film gauge is a physical property of photographic or motion picture film stock which defines its width.
Film grain or granularity is the random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small particles of a metallic silver, or dye clouds, developed from silver halide that have received enough photons.
Film perforations, also known as perfs and sprocket holes, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (by sprockets and claws) and steadying (by pin registration) the film.
Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system.
Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation.
Film tinting is the process of adding color to black-and-white film, usually by means of soaking the film in dye and staining the film emulsion.
Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
The Fox Film Corporation was an American company that produced motion pictures, formed by William Fox on 1 February 1915.
A front projection effect is an in-camera visual effects process in film production for combining foreground performance with pre-filmed background footage.
, trading as Fujifilm (stylized as FUJiFILM), or simply Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
George Eastman (July 12, 1854 – March 14, 1932) was an American entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Hannibal Williston Goodwin (April 21, 1822 – December 31, 1900), was an Episcopal priest at the House of Prayer Episcopal Church and Rectory in Newark, New Jersey, patented a method for making transparent, flexible roll film out of nitrocellulose film base, which was used in Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope, an early machine for viewing motion pictures.
Henri Jacques Chrétien (1 February 1879, Paris – 6 February 1956, Washington, D.C.) was a French astronomer and an inventor.
High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television, either analog or digital.
Although the start of the history of film is not clearly defined, the commercial, public screening of ten of Lumière brothers' short films in Paris on 28 December 1895 can be regarded as the breakthrough of projected cinematographic motion pictures.
A home movie is a short amateur film or video typically made just to preserve a visual record of family activities, a vacation, or a special event, and intended for viewing at home by family and friends.
Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas.
Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
John Charles Dykstra, A.S.C. (born June 3, 1947) is an American special effects artist, pioneer in the development of the use of computers in filmmaking and recipient of three Academy Awards, among many other awards and prizes.
Kinemacolor was the first successful color motion picture process, used commercially from 1908 to 1914.
The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device.
Kodachrome is a brand name for a non-substantive, color reversal film introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1935.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
A latent image is an invisible image produced by the exposure to light of a photosensitive material such as photographic film.
Leica Camera AG is a German company that manufactures cameras, lenses, binoculars, rifle scopes and ophthalmic lenses.
The Leica Standard, Model E was the fourth version of the original 35 mm Leica camera to be launched from Ernst Leitz in Wetzlar, Germany.
This list of film formats catalogues formats developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures, ranging from the Chronophotographe format from 1888, to mid-20th century formats such as the 1953 CinemaScope format, to more recent formats such as the 1992 IMAX HD format.
This is a list of motion picture films.
In art, craft, and engineering, masking is the use of materials to protect areas from change, or to focus change on other areas.
In the picture framing industry, a mat (or mount in British English) is a thin, flat piece of paper-based material included within a picture frame, which serves as additional decoration and to perform several other, more practical functions, such as separating the art from the glass.
Mattes are used in photography and special effects filmmaking to combine two or more image elements into a single, final image.
A motion picture film scanner is a device used in digital filmmaking to scan original film for storage as high-resolution digital intermediate files.
The Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC, also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908 and terminated seven years later in 1915 after conflicts within the industry, was a trust of all the major USA film companies and local foreign-branches (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig Polyscope, Lubin Manufacturing, Kalem Company, Star Film Paris, American Pathé), the leading film distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film stock, Eastman Kodak.
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.
A movie theater/theatre (American English), cinema (British English) or cinema hall (Indian English) is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.
Multicolor is a subtractive natural color motion picture process.
Negative pulldown is the manner in which an image is exposed on a film stock, described in the number of film perforations spanned by an individual frame.
A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
An optical printer is a device consisting of one or more film projectors mechanically linked to a movie camera.
The original camera negative (OCN) is the film in a traditional film-based movie camera which captures the original image.
Oskar Barnack (Nuthe-Urstromtal, November 1, 1879 – Bad Nauheim, January 16, 1936) was an inventor and German photographer who built, in 1913, the first 35 mm camera called Ur-Leica at Ernst Leitz Optische Werke (the Leitz factory) in Wetzlar.
Panavision is an American motion picture equipment company specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California.
Paramount Pictures Corporation (also known simply as Paramount) is an American film studio based in Hollywood, California, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
Photographic emulsion is a light-sensitive colloid used in film-based photography.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Photographic processing or development is the chemical means by which photographic film or paper is treated after photographic exposure to produce a negative or positive image.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
The Prizma Color system was a color motion picture process, invented in 1913 by William Van Doren Kelley and Charles Raleigh.
Rear projection (also known as process photography) is part of many in-camera effects cinematic techniques in film production for combining foreground performances with pre-filmed backgrounds.
In engineering, redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or multi-threaded computer processing.
A reel is an object around which lengths of another material (usually long and flexible) are wound for storage.
In photography, reversal film is a type of photographic film that produces a positive image on a transparent base.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
Shane is a 1953 American Technicolor Western film from Paramount Pictures,Variety film review; April 15, 1953, page 6.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A silver halide (or silver salt) is one of the chemical compounds that can form between the element silver and one of the halogens.
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) (rarely), founded in 1916 as the Society of Motion Picture Engineers or SMPE, is a global professional association, of engineers, technologists, and executives working in the media and entertainment industry.
is a cinema sound system developed by Sony, from which compressed digital sound information is recorded on both outer edges of the 35 mm film release print.
Sound-on-disc is a class of sound film processes using a phonograph or other disc to record or play back sound in sync with a motion picture.
Sound-on-film is a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same strip of film carrying the picture.
Star Wars (later retitled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope) is a 1977 American epic space opera film written and directed by George Lucas.
Still photography is the practice of making non-moving photographs, as distinct from motion picture photography (cinematography).
Super 35 (originally known as Superscope 235) is a motion picture film format that uses exactly the same film stock as standard 35 mm film, but puts a larger image frame on that stock by using the negative space normally reserved for the optical analog sound track.
Tabular-grain film is a type of photographic film that includes nearly all color films, T-MAX films from Kodak (with Kodak's T-grain emulsion), Delta films from Ilford Photo and the Fujifilm Neopan films.
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating from 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades.
Technirama is a screen process that has been used by some film production houses as an alternative to CinemaScope.
Techniscope or 2-perf is a 35 mm motion picture camera film format introduced by Technicolor Italia in 1960.
Telecine is the process of transferring motion picture film into video and is performed in a color suite.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
The Robe is a 1953 American Biblical epic film that tells the story of a Roman military tribune who commands the unit that is responsible for the Crucifixion of Jesus.
The Toll of the Sea (1922) is an American silent drama film, directed by Chester M. Franklin, produced by the Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, released by Metro Pictures, and featuring Anna May Wong in her first leading role.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
Thunder Bay is a 1953 American adventure film distributed by Universal International, produced by Aaron Rosenberg, directed by Anthony Mann, and stars James Stewart, Joanne Dru, Gilbert Roland, and Dan Duryea.
A timecode (alternatively, time code) is a sequence of numeric codes generated at regular intervals by a timing synchronization system.
A trust or corporate trust is a large grouping of business interests with significant market power, which may be embodied as a corporation or as a group of corporations that cooperate with one another in various ways.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
VistaVision is a higher resolution, widescreen variant of the 35 mm motion picture film format which was created by engineers at Paramount Pictures in 1954.
William Kennedy-Laurie Dickson (3 August 1860 – 28 September 1935) was a Scottish inventor who devised an early motion picture camera under the employment of Thomas Edison (post-dating the work of Louis Le Prince).
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
120 is a popular film format for still photography introduced by Kodak for their Brownie No.
135 is photographic film in a film format used for still photography.
16 mm film is a historically popular and economical gauge of film.
17.5 mm film was a film gauge for as many of eight types of motion picture film stock, generally created by splitting unperforated 35 mm film.
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, doing business as 20th Century Fox, is an American film studio currently owned by 21st Century Fox.
28 mm film was introduced by the Pathé Film Company in 1912 under the name Pathé Kok.
A three-dimensional stereoscopic film (also known as three-dimensional sangu, 3D film or S3D film) is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception, hence adding a third dimension.
70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge for motion picture photography, with higher resolution than the standard 35 mm motion picture film format.
8 mm film is a motion picture film format in which the film strip is eight millimeters wide.
9.5 mm film is an amateur film format introduced by Pathé Frères in 1922 as part of the Pathé Baby amateur film system.