43 relations: Adolf Büchler, Alexandria, Antiochus III the Great, Apocrypha, Armenian Apostolic Church, Battle of Raphia, Bible, Bible of Kralice, Biblical apocrypha, Biblical canon, Books of the Bible, Caligula, Canons of the Apostles, Catholic Church, Chivalric romance, Cleopatra II of Egypt, Deuterocanonical books, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eleazar (2 Maccabees), Execution by elephant, Faiyum, Hellenistic period, Hippodrome, Jerusalem, Jews, Josephus, Letter of Aristeas, Maccabees, Martyr, Moravian Church, MP3, Pope Sergius I, Protestantism, Pseudepigrapha, Ptolemy IV Philopator, Ptolemy VIII Physcon, Quinisext Council, Second Temple, Stephen L. Harris, Woman with seven sons, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees.
Adolf Büchler (also Adolph) (October 18, 1867, at Priekopa, Hungary (now Slovakia) – 1939) was an Austro-Hungarian rabbi, historian and theologian.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle fought on 22 June 217 BC near modern Rafah between the forces of Ptolemy IV Philopator, king and pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire during the Syrian Wars.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bible of Kralice, also called the Kralice Bible (Bible kralická), was the first complete translation of the Bible from the original languages into the Czech language.
The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture.
Different religious groups include different books in their biblical canons, in varying orders, and sometimes divide or combine books.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles is a 4th century Syrian Christian text.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Cleopatra II (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα; c. 185 BC – 116/115 BC) was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt who ruled from 175 to 116 BC with two successive brother-husbands and her daughter—often in rivalry with her brother Ptolemy VIII.
The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") is a term adopted in the 16th century by the Roman Catholic Church to denote those books and passages of the Christian Old Testament, as defined in 1546 by the Council of Trent, that were not found in the Hebrew Bible.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eleazar was a Jewish man whose story is portrayed in 2 Maccabees 6.
Execution by elephant was a common method of capital punishment in South and Southeast Asia, particularly in India, where Asian elephants were used to crush, dismember or torture captives in public executions.
Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The hippodrome (ἱππόδρομος) was an ancient Grecian stadium for horse racing and chariot racing.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Letter of Aristeas or Letter to Philocrates is a Hellenistic work of the 2nd century BCE, assigned by Biblical scholars to the Pseudepigrapha.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum (Latin for "Unity of the Brethren"), in German known as Brüdergemeine (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the fifteenth century and the Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská) established in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.
Pope Sergius I (8 September 701) was Pope from December 15, 687 to his death in 701.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Father"; 245/4–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs "Ptolemy the Benefactor"; c. 182 BC – June 26, 116 BC), nicknamed Physcon (Φύσκων "the Fat"), was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
The Quinisext Council (often called the Council in Trullo, Trullan Council, or the Penthekte Synod) was a church council held in 692 at Constantinople under Justinian II.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
Stephen L. Harris (born 1937) is Professor Emeritus of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento.
The woman with seven sons was a Jewish martyr described in 2 Maccabees 7 and other sources.
1 Maccabees is a book of the Bible written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom by the Hasmonean dynasty, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC.
2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book which focuses on the Maccabean Revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes and concludes with the defeat of the Seleucid empire general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the hard work.
The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion.