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3rd century

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The 3rd century was the period from 201 to 300 A.D. or C.E. In this century, the Roman Empire saw a crisis, marking the beginning of Late Antiquity. [1]

191 relations: Adena culture, Aemilius Papinianus, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Ammonius Saccas, Anatolia, Andhra Pradesh, Antipope, Ardashir I, Artabanus V of Parthia, Aurelian, Bantu expansion, Baths of Caracalla, Battle of Hormozdgan, Battle of Red Cliffs, Battle of Wuzhang Plains, Battle of Xingshi, Buddhism, Byzantine Empire, Cao Cao, Cao Pi, Cao Rui, Cao Wei, Cao Zhi, Caracalla, Carthage, Cassius Dio, Cassius Longinus (philosopher), Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter, Catechetical School of Alexandria, Censorinus, Chen Shou, Chernyakhov culture, China, Citizenship, Claudius Aelianus, Claudius Gothicus, Clement of Alexandria, Cleveland Museum of Art, Commodus, Compass, Constantius Chlorus, Constitutio Antoniniana, Coptic period, Crisis of the Third Century, Cyprian, Deng Ai, Dexippus, Diocletian, Diogenes Laërtius, Diophantus, ..., Eastern Wu, Elagabalus, Emperor Wu of Jin, Fu Xuan, Funan, Gaius Julius Solinus, Gallic Empire, Gallienus, Gothiscandza, Goths, Guan Yu, Gupta (king), Gupta Empire, Han dynasty, Heliodorus of Emesa, Herodian, Hippolytus of Rome, Hopewell tradition, Huangfu Mi, Iamblichus, India, Indian subcontinent, Iran, Japan, Ji Kang, Jin dynasty (265–420), Julia Domna, Julia Maesa, Julius Paulus Prudentissimus, Jurist, Khmer people, Kofun period, Korea, Kushan Empire, Lady Triệu, Land mine, Late antiquity, Liu Bei, Liu Hui, Liu Ling (poet), Liu Qubei, Ma Jun, Magerius Mosaic, Maize, Mani (prophet), Manichaeism, Marius Maximus, Maximinus Thrax, Maya civilization, Mediterranean Sea, Mexico, Military, Monarchy, Nagarjuna, Nagarjunakonda, National Museum, New Delhi, North America, Odaenathus, Ohio River, Origen, Palmyrene Empire, Pappus of Alexandria, Parthian Empire, Pei Xiu, Philip the Arab, Plotinus, Pope Cornelius, Porphyry (philosopher), Postumus, Probus (emperor), Repeating crossbow, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Rome, Ruan Ji, Ruan Xian, Sarnath, Sasanian Empire, Sasanian family tree, Septimius Severus, Severan dynasty, Severus Alexander, Sextus Julius Africanus, Shan Tao (Taoist), Shapur I, Shu Han, Sima Shi, Sima Yi, Sima Zhao, Sky lantern, South-pointing chariot, Southern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sun Quan, Tertullian, Tetricus I, Three Kingdoms, Three Kingdoms of Korea, Ukraine, Valerian (emperor), Villa Torlonia (Rome), Wang Bi, Wang Rong (Jin dynasty), War of the Eight Princes, Wheelbarrow, Wooden ox, Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms), Xiang Xiu, Xiongnu, Zenobia, Zhang Fei, Zhao Yun, Zhong Hui, Zhuge Liang, Zuo Si, 1st millennium in North American history, 201, 208, 211, 212, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 232, 234, 235, 244, 250, 258, 260, 263, 266, 280, 284, 291, 300, 305, 306, 538. Expand index (141 more) »

Adena culture

The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period.

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Aemilius Papinianus

Aemilius Papinianus (Αιμίλιος Παπινιανός) (142–212), also known as Papinian, was a celebrated Roman jurist, magister libellorum, attorney general (advocatus fisci) and, after the death of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus in 205, praetorian prefect.

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Alexander of Aphrodisias

Alexander of Aphrodisias (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς; fl. 200 AD) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle.

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Ammonius Saccas

Ammonius Saccas (Ἀμμώνιος Σακκᾶς; fl. 3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher from Alexandria who was often referred to as one of the founders of Neoplatonism.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Antipope

An antipope (antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the one who is generally seen as the legitimately elected Pope, makes a significantly accepted competing claim to be the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church.

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Ardashir I

Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.

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Artabanus V of Parthia

Artabanus V of Parthia, also known as Ardavan V (Parthian: 𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓), ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 208 to 224.

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Aurelian

Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.

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Bantu expansion

The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.

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Baths of Caracalla

The Baths of Caracalla (Terme di Caracalla) in Rome, Italy, were the city's second largest Roman public baths, or thermae, likely built between AD 212 (or 211) and 216/217, during the reigns of emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla.

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Battle of Hormozdgan

The Battle of Hormozdgan was the climactic battle between the Parthian and the Sasanian Empires that took place on April 28, 224.

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Battle of Red Cliffs

The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle fought at the end of the Han dynasty, about twelve years prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history.

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Battle of Wuzhang Plains

The Battle of Wuzhang Plains was fought between the contending states of Cao Wei and Shu Han in 234 during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Battle of Xingshi

The Battle of Xingshi was fought between the states of Cao Wei and Shu Han in 244 during the Three Kingdoms period in China.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cao Cao

Cao Cao (– 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty.

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Cao Pi

Cao Pi (– 29 June 226), courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Cao Rui

Cao Rui (204 or 206 – 22 January 239), courtesy name Yuanzhong, was the second emperor of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period.

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Cao Wei

Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Cao Zhi

Cao Zhi (192 – 27 December 232), courtesy name Zijian, was a prince of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China, and an accomplished poet in his time.

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Caracalla

Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.

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Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.

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Cassius Longinus (philosopher)

Cassius Longinus (Κάσσιος Λογγῖνος; c. 213 – 273 AD) was a rhetorician and philosophical critic.

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Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter

The Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter are ancient catacombs situated on the 3rd mile of the ancient Via Labicana, today Via Casilina in Rome, Italy, near the church of Santi Marcellino e Pietro ad Duas Lauros.

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Catechetical School of Alexandria

The Catechetical School of Alexandria was a school of Christian theologians and priests in Alexandria.

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Censorinus

Censorinus was a Roman grammarian and miscellaneous writer from the 3rd century AD.

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Chen Shou

Chen Shou (233–297), courtesy name Chengzuo, was an official and writer who lived during the Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.

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Chernyakhov culture

The Chernyakhov culture, or Sântana de Mureș culture, is an archaeological culture that flourished between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD in a wide area of Eastern Europe, specifically in what is now Ukraine, Romania, Moldova and parts of Belarus.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Citizenship

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

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Claudius Aelianus

Claudius Aelianus (Κλαύδιος Αἰλιανός; c. 175c. 235 AD), commonly Aelian, born at Praeneste, was a Roman author and teacher of rhetoric who flourished under Septimius Severus and probably outlived Elagabalus, who died in 222.

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Claudius Gothicus

Claudius Gothicus (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus;Jones, pg. 209 May 10, 210 – January 270), also known as Claudius II, was Roman emperor from 268 to 270.

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Clement of Alexandria

Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.

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Cleveland Museum of Art

The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA) is an art museum in Cleveland, Ohio, located in the Wade Park District, in the University Circle neighborhood on the city's east side.

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Commodus

Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.

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Compass

A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).

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Constantius Chlorus

Constantius I (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus;Martindale, pg. 227 31 March 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306.

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Constitutio Antoniniana

The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin for: "Constitution of Antoninus") (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.

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Coptic period

The "Coptic period" is an informal designation for Late Roman Egypt (3rd−4th centuries) and Byzantine Egypt (4th−7th centuries).

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Crisis of the Third Century

The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.

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Cyprian

Saint Cyprian (Thaschus Cæcilius Cyprianus; 200 – September 14, 258 AD) was bishop of Carthage and a notable Early Christian writer of Berber descent, many of whose Latin works are extant.

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Deng Ai

Deng Ai (197 – March 264), courtesy name Shizai, was a military general of the state of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Dexippus

Publius Herennius Dexippus (Δέξιππος; c. 210 – 273), Greek historian, statesman and general, was an hereditary priest of the Eleusinian family of the Kerykes, and held the offices of archon basileus and eponymous in Athens.

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Diocletian

Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

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Diogenes Laërtius

Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.

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Diophantus

Diophantus of Alexandria (Διόφαντος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; born probably sometime between AD 201 and 215; died around 84 years old, probably sometime between AD 285 and 299) was an Alexandrian Hellenistic mathematician, who was the author of a series of books called Arithmetica, many of which are now lost.

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Eastern Wu

Wu (222–280), commonly known as Dong Wu (Eastern Wu) or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Elagabalus

Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – 11 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222.

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Emperor Wu of Jin

Emperor Wu of Jin, (236 – 16 May 290), personal name Sima Yan, courtesy name Anshi (安世), was the grandson of Sima Yi and son of Sima Zhao.

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Fu Xuan

Fu Xuan (217–278), courtesy name Xiuyi, was a Chinese official, scholar and poet who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period and later under the Jin dynasty.

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Funan

Funan, (ហ្វូណន - Fonon), (Phù Nam) or Nokor Phnom (នគរភ្នំ) was the name given by Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an ancient Indianised state—or, rather a loose network of states (Mandala)—located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.

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Gaius Julius Solinus

Gaius Julius Solinus, Latin grammarian and compiler, probably flourished in the early 3rd century.

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Gallic Empire

"Gallic Empire" (Imperium Galliarum) or Gallic Roman Empire are two names for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274.

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Gallienus

Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – 268), also known as Gallien, was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268.

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Gothiscandza

According to a tale related by Jordanes, Gothiscandza was arguably the first settlement of the Goths after their migration from Scandinavia (Scandza) during the first half of the 1st century C.E. Jordanes relates that the East Germanic tribe of Goths were led from Scandza by their king Berig.

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Goths

The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.

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Guan Yu

Guan Yu (died January or February 220), courtesy name Yunchang, was a general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty.

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Gupta (king)

Gupta (fl. late 3rd century CE) was the founder of the Gupta dynasty of northern India.

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Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Heliodorus of Emesa

Heliodorus of Emesa (Ἡλιόδωρος ὁ Ἐμεσηνός) was a Greek writer for whom two ranges of dates are suggested, either about the 250s AD or in the aftermath of Julian's rule, that is shortly after 363.

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Herodian

Herodian or Herodianus (Ἡρωδιανός) of Syria, sometimes referred to as "Herodian of Antioch" (c. 170 – c. 240), was a minor Roman civil servant who wrote a colourful history in Greek titled History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus (τῆς μετὰ Μάρκον βασιλείας ἱστορία) in eight books covering the years 180 to 238.

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Hippolytus of Rome

Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235 AD) was one of the most important 3rd-century theologians in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born.

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Hopewell tradition

The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.

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Huangfu Mi

Huangfu Mi (215–282) was a Chinese scholar and physician who lived through the late Eastern Han dynasty, Three Kingdoms period and early Western Jin dynasty.

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Iamblichus

Iamblichus (Ἰάμβλιχος, c. AD 245 – c. 325), was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Ji Kang

Ji Kang (223–262), sometimes referred to as Xi Kang, courtesy name Shuye, was a Chinese writer, poet, Taoist philosopher, musician and alchemist of the Three Kingdoms period.

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Jin dynasty (265–420)

The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.

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Julia Domna

Julia Domna (AD 160–217) was a Roman empress of Syrian origins, the second wife of Septimius Severus (reigned 193–211), and a powerful figure in the regime of his successor, the emperor Caracalla.

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Julia Maesa

Julia Maesa (7 May before 160 AD - AD) was a 3rd century Augusta of the Roman Empire and a powerful, prominent and influential figure in the empire's politics during the rule of the Severan dynasty.

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Julius Paulus Prudentissimus

Julius Paulus Prudentissimus (Ἰούλιος Παῦλος; fl. 2nd century and 3rd century AD) was one of the most influential and distinguished Roman jurists.

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Jurist

A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).

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Khmer people

Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.

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Kofun period

The is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538 AD, following the Yayoi period.

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.

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Lady Triệu

Lady Triệu (Vietnamese: Bà Triệu, Sino-Vietnamese: 趙嫗 Triệu Ẩu; 225–248) was a female warrior in 3rd century Vietnam who managed, for a time, to successfully resist the Chinese state of Eastern Wu during its occupation of Vietnam.

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Liu Bei

Liu Bei (161 – 10 June 223), courtesy name Xuande, was a warlord in the late Eastern Han dynasty who founded the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period and became its first ruler.

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Liu Hui

Liu Hui was a Chinese mathematician who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China.

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Liu Ling (poet)

Liu Ling, born 221 and died 300 C.E., was a Chinese poet and scholar.

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Liu Qubei

Liu Qubei (pinyin: Liú Qùbēi), (died 272) was a Tiefu Hun (Ch. Xiongnu) chieftain from 260 to 272.

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Ma Jun

Ma Jun (220–265), courtesy name Deheng, was a Chinese mechanical engineer and politician who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Magerius Mosaic

The Magerius Mosaic is a 3rd-century Roman mosaic discovered in 1966 in the Tunisian village of Smirat and presently displayed in the Sousse Archaeological Museum.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Mani (prophet)

Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.

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Manichaeism

Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.

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Marius Maximus

Lucius Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus (more commonly known as Marius Maximus) (c. AD 160 – c. AD 230) was a Roman biographer, writing in Latin, who in the early decades of the 3rd century AD wrote a series of biographies of twelve Emperors, imitating and continuing Suetonius.

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Maximinus Thrax

Maximinus Thrax (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus; c. 173 – May 238), also known as Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238.

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Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Military

A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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Nagarjuna

Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.

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Nagarjunakonda

Nagarjunakonda (IAST: Nāgārjunikoṇḍa, meaning Nagarjuna Hill) is a historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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National Museum, New Delhi

The National Museum in New Delhi, also known as the National Museum of India, is one of the largest museums in India.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Odaenathus

Septimius Udhayna, Latinized as Odaenathus (Palmyrene:, spelled Oḏainaṯ; أذينة; 220 – 267 AD), was the founder king (Mlk) of the Palmyrene Kingdom centered at Palmyra, Syria.

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Ohio River

The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.

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Origen

Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.

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Palmyrene Empire

The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.

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Pappus of Alexandria

Pappus of Alexandria (Πάππος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 290 – c. 350 AD) was one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, known for his Synagoge (Συναγωγή) or Collection (c. 340), and for Pappus's hexagon theorem in projective geometry.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Pei Xiu

Pei Xiu (224–271), courtesy name Jiyan, was a Chinese politician, geographer, writer, and cartographer of the state of Cao Wei during the late Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.

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Philip the Arab

Marcus Julius Philippus (Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus 204 – 249 AD), also known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab (Philippus Arabus, also known as Philip or Philip I), was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249.

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Plotinus

Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.

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Pope Cornelius

Pope Cornelius (died June 253) was the Bishop of Rome from 6 or 13 March 251 to his martyrdom in 253.

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Porphyry (philosopher)

Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphýrios; فرفوريوس, Furfūriyūs; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire.

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Postumus

Marcus Cassianius Latinius PostumusJones & Martindale (1971), p. 720 was a Roman commander of provincial origin who ruled as emperor in the west.

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Probus (emperor)

Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus; c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282.

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Repeating crossbow

The repeating crossbow, also known as the magazine crossbow, or the Zhuge crossbow (previously romanized Chu-ko-nu) due to its association with the Three Kingdoms-era strategist Zhuge Liang (181–234 AD), is a Chinese crossbow that appeared in ancient times.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Ruan Ji

Ruan Ji (210–263) was a poet and musician who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history.

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Ruan Xian

Ruan Xian (fl. 3rd century), courtesy name Zhongrong, was a Chinese scholar who lived in the Six Dynasties period.

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Sarnath

Sarnath is a place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Sasanian family tree

This is a family tree of the Sasanian emperors, their ancestors, and Sasanian princes/princesses.

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Septimius Severus

Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.

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Severan dynasty

The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.

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Severus Alexander

Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.

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Sextus Julius Africanus

Sextus Julius Africanus (c. 160 – c. 240) was a Christian traveler and historian of the late second and early third centuries.

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Shan Tao (Taoist)

Shan Tao (205 – 3 March, 283), courtesy name Juyuan, was one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, a group of Chinese Taoist scholars, writers and musicians who lived in the 3rd century.

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Shapur I

Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.

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Shu Han

Shu or Shu Han (221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Sima Shi

Sima Shi (208 – March 255), courtesy name Ziyuan, was a military general and regent of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Sima Yi

Sima Yi (179 – 7 September 251), courtesy name Zhongda, was a military general, government official and regent of the state of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Sima Zhao

Sima Zhao (211 – 6 September 265), courtesy name Zishang, was a military general, politician and regent of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Sky lantern

A sky lantern, also known as Kongming lantern or Chinese lantern, is a small hot air balloon made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire is suspended.

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South-pointing chariot

The south-pointing chariot (or carriage) was an ancient Chinese two-wheeled vehicle that carried a movable pointer to indicate the south, no matter how the chariot turned.

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Southern Africa

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Sun Quan

Sun Quan (182 – 21 May 252), courtesy name Zhongmou, formally known as Emperor Da of Wu (literally "Great Emperor of Wu"), was the founder of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period.

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Tertullian

Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.

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Tetricus I

Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was the emperor of the Gallic Empire from 271 to 274AD.

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Three Kingdoms

The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).

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Three Kingdoms of Korea

The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (백제), Silla (신라) and Goguryeo (고구려).

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Valerian (emperor)

Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE.

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Villa Torlonia (Rome)

Villa Torlonia is a villa and surrounding gardens in Rome, Italy, formerly belonging to the Torlonia family.

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Wang Bi

Wang Bi (226–249), courtesy name Fusi, was a Chinese neo-Daoist philosopher.

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Wang Rong (Jin dynasty)

Wang Rong (234–305), courtesy name Junchong, was an official and scholar of the Jin dynasty of China.

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War of the Eight Princes

The War of the Eight Princes, Rebellion of the Eight Kings or Rebellion of the Eight Princes was a series of civil wars among kings/princes (Chinese: wáng 王) of the Chinese Jin dynasty from AD 291 to 306.

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Wheelbarrow

A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, usually with just one wheel, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles at the rear, or by a sail to push the ancient wheelbarrow by wind.

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Wooden ox

The wooden ox (木牛流馬; lit. wooden ox and flowing horse) was a single-wheeled cart with two handles (i.e., a wheelbarrow) whose invention within China is sometimes credited to Zhuge Liang while he served Shu Han around the year 230 CE.

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Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms)

Tiefu was a pre-state Xiongnu tribe during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.

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Xiang Xiu

Xiang Xiu is one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove.

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Xiongnu

The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.

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Zenobia

Septimia Zenobia (Palmyrene: (Btzby), pronounced Bat-Zabbai; 240 – c. 274 AD) was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire.

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Zhang Fei

Zhang Fei (died July or August 221), courtesy name Yide, was a military general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Zhao Yun

Zhao Yun (died 229), courtesy name Zilong, was a military general who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Zhong Hui

Zhong Hui (225 – 3 March 264), courtesy name Shiji, was a military general, official and writer of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Zhuge Liang

Zhuge Liang (181–234), courtesy name Kongming, was a Chinese politician, military strategist, writer, engineer and inventor.

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Zuo Si

Zuo Si (250–305), courtesy name Taichong (太沖), was a Chinese writer and poet who lived in the Western Jin dynasty.

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1st millennium in North American history

The 1st millennium in North American prehistory is characterized by the transition of the Middle Woodland Period (Hopewell tradition) to the Late Woodland Period in Eastern North America.

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201

Year 201 (CCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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208

Year 208 (CCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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211

Year 211 (CCXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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212

Year 212 (CCXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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217

Year 217 (CCXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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220

Year 220 (CCXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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222

Year 222 (CCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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224

Year 224 (CCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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230

Year 230 (CCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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232

Year 232 (CCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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234

Year 234 (CCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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235

Year 235 (CCXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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244

Year 244 (CCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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250

Year 250 (CCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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258

Year 258 (CCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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260

Year 260 (CCLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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263

Year 263 (CCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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266

Year 266 (CCLXVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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280

Year 280 (CCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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284

Year 284 (CCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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291

Year 291 (CCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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300

Year 300 (CCC) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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305

Year 305 (CCCV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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306

Year 306 (CCCVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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538

Year 538 (DXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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3 Century, 3rd CE, 3rd Century, 3rd century A.D., 3rd century AD, 3rd century CE, 3rd-century, III Century, III century, Third Century, Third century, Third century CE, Third-century, Year in Review 3rd Century.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3rd_century

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