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4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase

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4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), also known as α-ketoisocaproate dioxygenase (KIC dioxygenase), is an Fe(II)-containing non-heme oxygenase that catalyzes the second reaction in the catabolism of tyrosine - the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate into homogentisate. [1]

37 relations: Acetoacetic acid, Aerobic organism, Alkaptonuria, Amino acid, Aromaticity, Beta sheet, C-terminus, Carbocation, Catabolism, Chemical reaction, Enzyme, Eukaryote, Fumaric acid, Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, Hawkinsinuria, Herbicide, Homogentisic acid, Hydroxylation, Ion, Iron, N-terminus, NIH shift, Nitisinone, Orphan drug, Oxidative decarboxylation, Oxygen, Oxygenase, Phenylpyruvic acid, Plastoquinone, Redox, Tocopherol, Type I tyrosinemia, Tyrosine, Tyrosinemia type III, X-ray crystallography, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid.

Acetoacetic acid

Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.

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Aerobic organism

An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.

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Alkaptonuria

Alkaptonuria is a rare inherited genetic disorder in which the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, which occur in protein.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aromaticity

In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.

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Beta sheet

The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.

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C-terminus

The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).

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Carbocation

A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

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Catabolism

Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Fumaric acid

Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH.

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Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase

Fumarylacetoacetase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FAH gene located on chromosome 15.

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Hawkinsinuria

Hawkinsinuria, also called 4-Alpha-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase deficiency, is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of tyrosine.

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Herbicide

Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Homogentisic acid

Homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) is a phenolic acid usually found in Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree) honey.

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Hydroxylation

Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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N-terminus

The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.

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NIH shift

An NIH shift is a chemical rearrangement where a hydrogen atom on an aromatic ring undergoes an intramolecular migration primarily during a hydroxylation reaction.

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Nitisinone

Nitisinone (INN), also known as NTBC (an abbreviation of its full chemical name) is a medication used to slow the effects of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

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Orphan drug

An orphan drug is a pharmaceutical agent that has been developed specifically to treat a rare medical condition, the condition itself being referred to as an orphan disease.

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Oxidative decarboxylation

Oxidative decarboxylation reactions are oxidation reactions in which a carboxylate group is removed, forming carbon dioxide.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygenase

An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it.

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Phenylpyruvic acid

Phenylpyruvic acid is the organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2C(O)CO2H.

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Plastoquinone

Plastoquinone (PQ) is an isoprenoid quinone molecule involved in the electron transport chain in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Tocopherol

Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.

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Type I tyrosinemia

Type 1 tyrosinemia, also known as hepatorenal tyrosinemia or tyrosinosis, is the most severe form of tyrosinemia, a buildup of too much of the amino acid tyrosine in the blood and tissues due to an inability to metabolize it.

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Tyrosine

Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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Tyrosinemia type III

Tyrosinemia type III is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, encoded by the gene HPD.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor

4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors (HPPD inhbitors) are a class of herbicides that prevent plants by blocking 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, an enzyme in plants that breaks down the amino acid, tyrosine into components that are used by plants to create other molecules that plants need.

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4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid

4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (4-HPPA) is an intermediate in the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.

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Redirects here:

4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating, decarboxylating), Alpha-Ketoisocaproate dioxygenase, EC 1.13.11.27, HPD (gene), KIC dioxygenase, KIC-dioxygenase, Ketoisocaproate dioxygenase, P-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, Α-ketoisocaproate dioxygenase.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate_dioxygenase

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