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4th BRICS summit

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The 2012 BRICS summit was the fourth annual BRICS summit, an international relations conference attended by the heads of state or heads of government of the five member states Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. [1]

82 relations: Afghanistan, Anand Sharma, ASSOCHAM, Balbir Punj, Barack Obama, Bharatiya Janata Party, Brazil, BRICS, Buddhism, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Chen Deming, China, China Tibet Online, Confederation of Indian Industry, Confidence-building measures, Connaught Place, New Delhi, Convertible bond, Dai Bingguo, Delhi Metro, Delhi Police, Dharamshala, Dilma Rousseff, Dmitry Medvedev, European debt crisis, Face (sociological concept), Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, Fernando Damata Pimentel, Flag of Tibet, Government of India, Head of government, Head of state, Hu Jintao, India, India Gate, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Indian Standard Time, International financial institutions, International Monetary Fund, International Security Assistance Force, Iran, Jacob Zuma, Jantar Mantar, New Delhi, Khan Market, Manmohan Singh, Ministry of External Affairs (India), National Security Guard, Nazism, NBC, NDTV, ..., Nelumbo nucifera, New Delhi, New Development Bank, Observer Research Foundation, Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration, Peafowl, President of Brazil, President of Russia, President of South Africa, President of the People's Republic of China, Prime Minister of India, Rajya Sabha, Rob Davies (politician), Russia, Self-immolation, Simon Wiesenthal Center, South Africa, South–South cooperation, Syrian Civil War, The Times of India, The Wall Street Journal, Tibetan Youth Congress, Time (magazine), United States Department of State, Western Asia, World Bank Group presidential election, 2012, World War II, Xinhua News Agency, Yang Jiechi, Zee News, 3rd BRICS summit, 5th BRICS summit. Expand index (32 more) »

Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Anand Sharma

Anand Sharma (आनंद शर्मा; born 5 January 1953) is an Indian politician and former Union Cabinet Minister in charge of Commerce and Industry and Textiles in the Government of India.

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ASSOCHAM

The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) is one of the apex trade associations of India.

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Balbir Punj

Balbir Punj (born 1949) is a journalist and columnist from India.

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.

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Bharatiya Janata Party

The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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BRICS

BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chen Deming

Chen Deming (born 1949) is a former the President of Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits of the People's Republic of China.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China Tibet Online

China Tibet Online (CTO) is a multilingual propaganda website dedicated to Tibet-related topics.

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Confederation of Indian Industry

The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) is a business association in India.

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Confidence-building measures

Confidence-building measures (CBMs) or confidence- and security-building measures are in actions taken to reduce fear of attack by both (or more) parties in a situation of tension with or without physical conflict.

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Connaught Place, New Delhi

Connaught Place is one of the largest financial, commercial and business centres in New Delhi, India.

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Convertible bond

In finance, a convertible bond or convertible note or convertible debt (or a convertible debenture if it has a maturity of greater than 10 years) is a type of bond that the holder can convert into a specified number of shares of common stock in the issuing company or cash of equal value.

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Dai Bingguo

Dai Bingguo (born March 31, 1941) is a Chinese politician and professional diplomat.

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Delhi Metro

The Delhi Metro is a metro system serving Delhi and its satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh, Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from the Government of India and the Government of Delhi, built and operates the Delhi Metro. It is the second oldest metro in India after the Kolkata Metro. The Delhi Metro is the world's 10th longest metro system in length and 16th largest in ridership. A member of CoMET, the network consists of seven colour-coded regular lines and the faster Airport Express line, with a total length of serving 208 stations (including 6 on Airport Express line). The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. The power output is supplied by 25-kilovolt, 50-hertz alternating current through overhead catenary. The trains are usually of six and eight coaches length. DMRC operates over 3,000 trips daily, with first trains starting at around 05:00 and last at 23:30. In the financial year 2016–17, the Delhi Metro had an average daily ridership of 2.76 million passengers and served 100 crore (1.0 billion) riders in total during the year. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation was certified by the United Nations in 2011 as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to get "carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions" and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by 630,000 tonnes every year. Planning for the metro started in 1984 when the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system for the city. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) was incorporated in May 1995, construction started in 1998, and the first section, on the Red Line, opened in 2002. The development of the network was divided into phases, Phase I containing 3 lines was completed by 2006, and Phase II in 2011. Phase III is scheduled for completion by 2018 (originally planned for 2016). The Rapid Metro Gurgaon which opened in 2013, whilst linked to Delhi Metro by the Yellow Line is a separate metro system (with a different owner/operator from the Delhi Metro), although tokens from the Delhi Metro can be used on its network.

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Delhi Police

The Delhi Police (DP) is the Law enforcement agency for the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT).

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Dharamshala

Dharamshala (also spelled Dharamsala) is the second winter capital of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and a municipal corporation in Kangra district.

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Dilma Rousseff

Dilma Vana Rousseff (often known mononymously as Dilma; born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th President of Brazil, holding the position from 2011 until her impeachment and removal from office on 31 August 2016, becoming the first democratically-elected female President in the world to be impeached and removed.

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Dmitry Medvedev

Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.

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European debt crisis

The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.

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Face (sociological concept)

The term face idiomatically refers to one's own sense of self-image, dignity or prestige in social contexts.

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Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry

The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) is an association of business organisations in India.

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Fernando Damata Pimentel

Fernando Damata Pimentel (Belo Horizonte; 31 March 1951) is a Brazilian politician and economist.

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Flag of Tibet

The Tibetan flag, also known as the "snow lion flag" (gangs seng dar cha), is the national flag of Tibet, adopted by the 13th Dalai Lama in 1916.

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Government of India

The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Hu Jintao

---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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India Gate

The India Gate (originally called the All India War Memorial) is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath, on the eastern edge of the "ceremonial axis" of New Delhi, India, formerly called Kingsway.

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Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (abbreviated IIT Roorkee or IITR), formerly University of Roorkee and Thomason College of Civil Engineering, is a public engineering university located in Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India.

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Indian Standard Time

Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.

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International financial institutions

An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence are subjects of international law.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Security Assistance Force

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Jacob Zuma

Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018.

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Jantar Mantar, New Delhi

Jantar Mantar is located in the modern city of New Delhi.

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Khan Market

Khan Market (ख़ान बाज़ार, ਖ਼ਾਨ ਬਾਜ਼ਾਰ, خان بازار), established in 1951 and named in honour of Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan (the brother of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan), has been ranked as the costliest retail location in India.

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Manmohan Singh

Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.

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Ministry of External Affairs (India)

The Ministry of External Affairs of India (abbreviated as MEA), also known as the Foreign Ministry, is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of India.

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National Security Guard

The National Security Guard (NSG) is an Indian special forces unit under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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NBC

The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.

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NDTV

New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.

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Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.

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New Delhi

New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.

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New Development Bank

The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).

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Observer Research Foundation

Observer Research Foundation (ORF) is an independent think tank based in India.

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Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration

The Tibetan Parliament in Exile (TPiE), officially the Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration, is the unicameral and highest legislative organ of the Central Tibetan Administration.

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Peafowl

The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.

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President of Brazil

The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.

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President of Russia

The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

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President of South Africa

The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.

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President of the People's Republic of China

The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.

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Prime Minister of India

The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.

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Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.

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Rob Davies (politician)

Robert Haydn Davies (born 12 May 1948) is minister of trade and industry of South Africa.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Self-immolation

Self-immolation is an act of killing oneself as a sacrifice.

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Simon Wiesenthal Center

The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC), with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, United States, was established in 1977 and named for Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South–South cooperation

South–South Cooperation is a term historically used by policymakers and academics to describe the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries, also known as countries of the Global South.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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The Times of India

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Tibetan Youth Congress

The Tibetan Youth Congress (TYC) is an international non-governmental organization that advocates the independence of Tibet from China.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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World Bank Group presidential election, 2012

An indirect presidential election was held on 16 April 2012 to choose a new president of the World Bank Group to replace Robert Zoellick, whose term expired in June.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xinhua News Agency

Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.

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Yang Jiechi

Yang Jiechi (born 1 May 1950) is a high-ranking Chinese politician and diplomat.

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Zee News

Zee News is an Indian news channel launched in 6 July 1999 and is the flagship property of Zee Media Corporation Limited, company and a subsidiary of Essel Group.The channel is owned by Subhash Chandra, an independent member of the Rajya Sabha.

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3rd BRICS summit

The 2011 BRICS summit took place in Sanya on the island of Hainan, China, on 14 April 2011.

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5th BRICS summit

The 2013 BRICS summit was the fifth annual BRICS summit, an international relations conference attended by the head of states or heads of government of the five member states Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

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Redirects here:

2012 BRICS summit.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4th_BRICS_summit

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