216 relations: Aelia Eudoxia, Alaric I, Albia Dominica, Ambrose, Ammianus Marcellinus, Ammonius Hermiae, Anno Domini, Arbogast (general), Arcadius, Arian controversy, Augustine of Hippo, Augustus, Aurelius Victor, Ausonius, Baekje, Basil of Caesarea, Bassianus (senator), Battle of Adrianople, Battle of Canhe Slope, Battle of Fei River, Book of Steps, British Museum, Byzantium, Caesar (title), Caesarea, Calocaerus, Cappadocia, Catacombs of Rome, Chak Tok Ich'aak I, Chandragupta I, Chandragupta II, Christianity, Claudian, Claudius Silvanus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus, Common Era, Constans, Constantina, Constantine II (emperor), Constantine the Great, Constantinian shift, Constantinople, Constantius Chlorus, Constantius Gallus, Constantius II, Crispus, Dalmatius, Danube, Dao'an, ..., Deacon, Decentius, Diocletian, Domitius Alexander, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, El Perú (Maya site), Ephrem the Syrian, Eugenius, Eugenius (Antioch), Eusebius, Eutropius (consul), Eutropius (historian), Ezana of Axum, Faltonia Betitia Proba, Faxian, Firmus (4th-century usurper), First Council of Constantinople, First Council of Nicaea, Flavius Bauto, Flavius Severianus, Former Qin, Fu Jian (317–355), Fu Jian (337–385), Gainas, Galerius, Ge Hong, Germanic peoples, Gildo, Gildonic War, Godigisel, Goguryeo, Gothic language, Gratian, Gregory of Nazianzus, Guo Xiang, Gupta Empire, Hannibalianus, Hippo Regius, Honorius (emperor), Huns, Hymn, Hypatia, Iamblichus, India, January 16, January 8, Jerome, John Chrysostom, Jovian (emperor), Julian (emperor), Julian calendar, Justina (empress), Juvencus, Kama Sutra, King of Kings, Kingdom of Aksum, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Kush, Kingdom of Pontus, Kumārajīva, Kutai, Lactantius, Licinius, Licinius II, List of Augustae, Magister militum, Magnentius, Magnus Maximus, Marcellus (usurper), Martinian (emperor), Maxentius, Maximian, Maximinus II, Mediterranean Sea, Mesrop Mashtots, Milan, Mildenhall Treasure, Moment magnitude scale, Mopsuestia, National Palace Museum, Nazianzus, Nepotianus, New Rome, Nicomedia, Noba, Old St. Peter's Basilica, Paganism, Power behind the throne, Praetorian prefecture of the East, Proclus, Procopius (usurper), Prudentius, Publilius Optatianus Porfirius, Quintus Smyrnaeus, Rhetoric, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Rufinus (consul), Sallustius, Salutius, Samudragupta, Sasanian Empire, Shapur II, Silla, Six Dynasties, Siyaj K'ak', Spearthrower Owl, State religion, Stilicho, Stirrup, Sun Sheng (Jin dynasty), Syriac literature, Taipei, Taiwan, Teotihuacan, Themistius, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodorus (usurper), Theodosius I, Theodosius II, Theology, Three Kingdoms of Korea, Tikal, Trier, Trinity, Uaxactun, Ulfilas, Valens, Valentinian I, Valentinian II, Valentinianus Galates, Valentinus (rebel), Valerius Romulus, Valerius Severus, Valerius Valens, Vandals, Varronianus (son of Jovian), Vetranio, Victor (emperor), Visigoths, Wang Xianzhi (calligrapher), Wang Xizhi, Wei Shuo, Western Roman Empire, Xie An, Yax Nuun Ahiin I, 284, 301, 306, 325, 328, 335, 337, 350, 365, 365 Crete earthquake, 376, 378, 380, 381, 383, 395, 400, 423, 439, 450. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
Aelia Eudoxia (died 6 October 404) was a Roman Empress consort by marriage to the Roman Emperor Arcadius.
Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
Albia Dominica (Also referred to as Dominica, Albia Domnica, Domnica, or Domnica Augusta; c. 337 – after 378) was a Roman Augusta, wife to Emperor Valens.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
Ammonius Hermiae (Ἀμμώνιος ὁ Ἑρμείου; AD) was a Greek philosopher, and the son of the Neoplatonist philosophers Hermias and Aedesia.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Flavius Arbogastes (died September 8, 394), or Arbogast, was a Frankish general in the Roman Empire.
Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius Augustus; Ἀρκάδιος; 1 January 377 – 1 May 408) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 395 to 408.
The Arian controversy was a series of Christian theological disputes that arose between Arius and Athanasius of Alexandria, two Christian theologians from Alexandria, Egypt.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Sextus Aurelius Victor (c. 320 – c. 390) was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire.
Decimus or Decimius Magnus Ausonius (– c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France.
Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
Bassianus (died 316 AD) was a Roman senator and a member of the Constantinian dynasty.
The Battle of Adrianople (9 August 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between an Eastern Roman army led by the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (largely Thervings as well as Greutungs, non-Gothic Alans, and various local rebels) led by Fritigern.
Battle of Canhe Slope (參合陂之戰) refers to a battle in 395 where the Chinese/Xianbei state Later Yan, then ruling over northern and central China, had launched a punitive campaign against its former vassal Northern Wei, also of Xianbei extraction.
The Battle of Fei River or “Feishui” was a battle in 383, where Fu Jiān of the Di Former Qin Empire was decisively defeated by the numerically inferior Jin (Han Chinese-led) army of Eastern Jin.
The Book of Steps (ܟܬܒܐ ܕܡܣ̈ܩܬܐ, Kṯāḇâ ḏ-Masqāṯâ; also known by the Latin name Liber Graduum) is an anonymous Syriac treatise on spiritual direction, probably written in the late fourth century AD (or possibly early fifth century).
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
Calocaerus (–334 AD) was a Roman usurper against Emperor Constantine I, who, in 334 AD, staged a short lived revolt in Cyprus.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
The Catacombs of Rome (Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs, underground burial places under Rome, Italy, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
Chak Tok Ich'aak IThe ruler's name, when transcribed, is CHAK-TOK-ICH'A:K, translated "Great Misty? Claw", Martin & Grube 2008, p.28.
Chandragupta I was a king of the Gupta Empire around 319 CE.
Chandragupta II (also known as Chandragupta Vikramaditya) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta Empire in India.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Claudius Claudianus, usually known in English as Claudian (c. 370 – c. 404 AD), was a Latin poet associated with the court of the emperor Honorius at Mediolanum (Milan), and particularly with the general Stilicho.
Claudius Silvanus (died 7 September 355) was a Roman general of Frankish descent, usurper in Gaul against Emperor Constantius II for 28 days in AD 355.
Codex Sinaiticus (Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, קודקס סינאיטיקוס; Shelfmarks and references: London, Brit. Libr., Additional Manuscripts 43725; Gregory-Aland nº א [Aleph] or 01, [Soden δ 2]) or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible.
The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. B or 03 Gregory-Aland, δ 1 von Soden) is regarded as the oldest extant manuscript of the Greek Bible (Old and New Testament), one of the four great uncial codices.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Constans (Flavius Julius Constans Augustus;Jones, p. 220 Κῶνστας Αʹ; c. 323 – 350) or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350.
Constantina (also named Constantia and Constantiana; b. after 307/before 317 – d. 354), and later known as Saint Constance, was the eldest daughter of Roman emperor Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta, daughter of Emperor Maximian.
Constantine II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus;Jones, pg. 223 January/February 316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinian shift is a term used by some theologians and historians of antiquity to describe the political and theological aspects and outcomes of the 4th-century process of Constantine's integration of the Imperial government with the Church that began with the First Council of Nicaea.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Constantius I (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus;Martindale, pg. 227 31 March 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306.
Flavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (ca. 325/326–354), commonly known as Constantius Gallus, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Roman Empire (351–354).
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.
Flavius Julius Crispus (died 326), also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire.
Flavius Dalmatius (died 337),Potter, David. (2008) Emperors of Rome: Imperial Rome from Julius Caesar to the last emperor.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Dao'an (312–385) was a Buddhist monk of the fourth century, originating from what is now Hebei.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
Magnus Decentius (died 18 August 353) was a usurper of the Western Roman Empire against emperor Constantius II.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Lucius Domitius Alexander (died c. 311), probably born in Phrygia, was vicarius of Africa when Emperor Maxentius ordered him to send his son as hostage to Rome.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
El Perú (also known as Waka'), is a pre-Columbian Maya archeological site occupied during the Preclassic and Classic cultural chronology periods (roughly 500 BC to 800 AD).
Ephrem the Syrian (ܡܪܝ ܐܦܪܝܡ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Mār Aprêm Sûryāyâ; Greek: Ἐφραίμ ὁ Σῦρος; Ephraem Syrus, also known as St. Ephraem (Ephrem, Ephraim); c. 306 – 373) was a Syriac Christian deacon and a prolific Syriac-language hymnographer and theologian of the 4th century.
Flavius Eugenius (died 6 September 394) was a usurper in the Western Roman Empire (392–394) against Emperor Theodosius I. Though himself a Christian, he was the last Emperor to support Roman polytheism.
Eugenius (died 303/304) was a Roman usurper in Syria during the Tetrarchy.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Eutropius (died 399) was a fourth-century Eastern Roman official.
Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century AD.
‘Ezana of Axum (ዔዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 CE) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan.
Faltonia Betitia Proba (c. AD 306/315 – c. 353/366) was a Latin Roman Christian poet, perhaps the earliest female Christian poet whose work survives.
Faxian (337 – c. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka between 399-412 to acquire Buddhist texts.
Firmus (died 375) was a Roman usurper under Valentinian I. Firmus was the son of the Moorish (Berber) prince Nubel, a powerful Roman military officer, as well as a wealthy Christian.
The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
Flavius Bauto (died c. 385) was a Romanised Frank who served as a magister militum of the Western Roman Empire.
Flavius Severianus (died 313) was the son of the Roman Emperor Flavius Valerius Severus.
The Former Qin (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in eastern Asia, mainly China.
Fú Jiàn (317–355), originally named Pú Jiàn (蒲健, name changed 350), courtesy name Jianye (建業), formally Emperor Jingming of (Former) Qin ((前)秦景明帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Di state Former Qin.
Fú Jiān (337–385), courtesy name Yonggu (永固) or Wenyu (文玉), formally Emperor Xuanzhao of (Former) Qin ((前)秦宣昭帝), was an emperor (who, however, used the title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang) during his reign) of the Chinese/Di state Former Qin, under whose rule (assisted by his able prime minister Wang Meng) the Former Qin state reached its greatest glory—destroying Former Yan, Former Liang, and Dai and seizing Jin's Yi Province (modern Sichuan and Chongqing), posturing to destroy Jin as well to unite China, until he was repelled at the Battle of Fei River in 383.
Gainas was a Gothic leader who served the Eastern Roman Empire as magister militum during the reigns of Theodosius I and Arcadius.
Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
Ge Hong (葛洪; b. 283 - d. 343 or 363) was an Eastern Jin Dynasty scholar, and the author of Essays on Chinese Characters.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gildo (died 398) was a Roman Berber general in the province of Mauretania.
The Gildonic War was a rebellion in the year 398 led by Comes Gildo against Roman Emperor Honorius.
Godigisel (359–406) was King of the Hasdingi Vandals until his death in 406.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; Γρατιανός; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383.
Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.
Guo Xiang (died 312 AD) is credited with the first and most important revision of the text known as the Zhuangzi which, along with the Tao Te Ching, forms the textual and philosophical basis of the Taoist school of thought.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Flavius Hannibalianus (also Hanniballianus; died September 337) was a member of the Constantinian dynasty, which ruled over the Roman Empire in the 4th century.
Hippo Regius (also known as Hippo or Hippone) is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba, in Algeria.
Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423) was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
Hypatia (born 350–370; died 415 AD) was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Iamblichus (Ἰάμβλιχος, c. AD 245 – c. 325), was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.
Jovian (Flavius Jovianus Augustus; Ἰοβιανός; 331 – 17 February 364) was Roman Emperor from 363 to 364.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Justina (c. 340 – c. 388) was the second wife of the Roman Emperor Valentinian I (reigned 364–375) and the mother of Valentinian II (reigned 375–392), Galla, Grata and Justa.
Gaius Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus, known as Juvencus or Juvenk, was a Roman Spanish Christian and composer of Latin poetry in the 4th century.
The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र) is an ancient Indian Hindu text written by Vātsyāyana.
The genitive phrase King of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs or Holy of Holies), but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah), Hellenistic and Christian traditions.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.
Kumārajīva (कुमारजीव,, 344–413 CE) was a Buddhist monk, scholar, and translator from the Kingdom of Kucha.
Kutai is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on the island of Borneo and is also the name of the native people of the region, who have their own language of the same name and their own rich history.
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.
Licinius I (Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. c. 263 – 325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324.
Licinius II or Licinius the Younger (Classical Latin pronunciation lɪˈkɪ.ni.ʊs; full name: Valerius Licinianus Licinius; c. 315 – c. 326) was the son of Roman emperor Licinius.
Augusta (plural Augustae; αὐγούστα) was a Roman imperial honorific title given to empresses and honoured women of the imperial families.
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.
Magnentius (Latin: Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus; r. 303 – August 11, 353) was an usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353.
Magnus Maximus (Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, Macsen Wledig) (August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.
Marcellus (died 366) was an officer of the Roman Empire, supporter of usurper Procopius and usurper himself for a short time.
Martinian (in full Latin form: Sextus Marcius Martinianus), who died in 325, was Roman Emperor from July to September 18, 324.
Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus; c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312.
Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus; c. 250 – c. July 310) was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305.
Maximinus II (Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus Daia Augustus; 20 November c. 270 – July or August 313), also known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց Mesrop Maštoc'; Mesrobes Mastosius; 362February 17, 440 AD), was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian, statesman and hymnologist.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The Mildenhall Treasure is a large hoard of 34 masterpieces of Roman silver tableware from the 4th century AD, and by far the most valuable Roman objects artistically and by weight of bullion in Britain.
The moment magnitude scale (MMS; denoted as Mw or M) is one of many seismic magnitude scales used to measure the size of earthquakes.
Mopsuestia (Μοψουεστία Mopsou(h)estia; Byzantine: Mamista, Manistra; Arabic: al-Maṣṣīṣah; Armenian: Msis, Mises, Mam(u)estia; Frankish: Mamistra) is an ancient city in Cilicia Campestris on the Pyramus River (now Ceyhan River) located approximately east of ancient Antiochia in Cilicia (present-day Adana, southern Turkey).
The National Palace Museum, located in Taipei and Taibao, Taiwan, has a permanent collection of nearly 700,000 pieces of ancient Chinese imperial artifacts and artworks, making it one of the largest of its type in the world.
Nazianzus (Ναζιανζός, Nazianzos) was a small town in the late Roman province of Cappadocia Tertia.
Julius Nepotianus (died June 30, 350), sometimes known in English as Nepotian, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty who reigned as a short-lived usurper of the Roman Empire.
New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Nea Romē; Latin: Nova Roma) has often been used to describe the city founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD as his new imperial capital at the city on the European coast of the Bosphorus strait, then known as Byzantium, which he enlarged and named after himself as Constantinople.
Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.
Noba is a term found in a number of historical sources discussing ancient and Medieval Nubia.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The phrase "power behind the throne" refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of a high-ranking office, such as a head of state.
The praetorian prefecture of the East or of Oriens (praefectura praetorio Orientis, ἐπαρχότης/ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων τῆς ἀνατολῆς) was one of four large praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.
Proclus Lycaeus (8 February 412 – 17 April 485 AD), called the Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος, Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers (see Damascius).
Procopius (c. 325/326 – 27 May 366) was a Roman usurper against Valens, and a member of the Constantinian dynasty.
Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was a Roman Christian poet, born in the Roman province of Tarraconensis (now Northern Spain) in 348.
Publilius Optatianus Porfirius (fl. 4th century) was a Latin poet, possibly a native of Africa.
Quintus Smyrnaeus or Quintus of Smyrna, also known as Kointos Smyrnaios (Κόϊντος Σμυρναῖος), was a Greek epic poet whose Posthomerica, following "after Homer" continues the narration of the Trojan War.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Flavius Rufinus (– November 27, 395) was a 4th-century Byzantine statesman of Gaulish extraction who served as Praetorian prefect of the East for the emperor Theodosius I, as well as for his son Arcadius, under whom Rufinus was the actual power behind the throne.
Sallustius or Sallust (Σαλούστιος Saloustios) was a 4th-century writer, a friend of the Roman Emperor Julian.
Saturninius Secundus Salutius was a career Roman official who was a native of Gaul.
Samudragupta (CE) was the second ruler of the Gupta Empire and the son and successor of Chandragupta I. His rule was one of expansion marked first by the conquest of his immediate neighbours and then by campaigns to the east and the south where chiefdoms and kingdoms were subdued and forced to pay tribute to him.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Shapur II (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩 Šāpuhr), also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire.
Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula.
Six Dynasties (Chinese: 六朝; Pinyin: Liù Cháo; 220 or 222–589) is a collective term for six Chinese dynasties in China during the periods of the Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD), Jin dynasty (265–420), and Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589).
Siyaj K'ak' (alternative spelling: Siyah K'ak'), also known as Fire is Born (formerly nicknamed "Smoking Frog"), was a prominent political figure mentioned in the glyphs of Classic Period (250-800 C.E.) Maya civilization monuments, principally Tikal (which he conquered on January 16, 378), as well as Uaxactun and the city of Copan.
Atlatl Cauac, translated as "Spearthrower Owl" (364 – 439 AD) is the name commonly given to a Mesoamerican personage from the Early Classic period, who is identified in Maya inscriptions and iconography.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico; c. 359 – 22 August 408) was a high-ranking general (magister militum) in the Roman army who became, for a time, the most powerful man in the Western Roman Empire.
A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap, often called a stirrup leather.
Sun Sheng (ca. 302–373), courtesy name Anguo, was a Jin dynasty historian.
Syriac literature is the literature written in Classical Syriac, the literary and liturgical language in Syriac Christianity.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
Themistius (Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent), was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher.
Theodore the Interpreter (c. 350 – 428) was bishop of Mopsuestia (as Theodore II) from 392 to 428 AD.
Theodorus was a Roman usurper against Emperor Valens according to Ammianus Marcellinus.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (백제), Silla (신라) and Goguryeo (고구려).
Tikal (Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is the ruin of an ancient city, which was likely to have been called Yax Mutal, found in a rainforest in Guatemala.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Uaxactun (pronounced) is an ancient sacred place of the Maya civilization, located in the Petén Basin region of the Maya lowlands, in the present-day department of Petén, Guatemala.
Ulfilas (–383), also known as Ulphilas and Orphila, all Latinized forms of the Gothic Wulfila, literally "Little Wolf", was a Goth of Cappadocian Greek descent who served as a bishop and missionary, is credited with the translation of the Bible into the Gothic Bible, and participated in the Arian controversy.
Valens (Flavius Julius Valens Augustus; Οὐάλης; 328 – 9 August 378) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; Οὐαλεντινιανός; 3 July 32117 November 375), also known as Valentinian the Great, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375.
Valentinian II (Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; 37115 May 392), was Roman Emperor from AD 375 to 392.
Valentinianus Galates (January 18, AD 366 – c. 370) was the only son of the emperor Valens.
Valentinus (century, died 369), often anglicized to Valentine, was a Roman criminal and rebel put down after Count Theodosius's arrival in Britain in 369.
Valerius Romulus, also Marcus Aurelius Romulus (c. 295 – 309) was the son of the Caesar and later usurper Maxentius and of Valeria Maximilla, daughter of Emperor Galerius.
Valerius Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus; died September 307), also Severus II, was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307.
Aurelius Valerius Valens (died March 1, 317) was Roman Emperor from late 316 to March 1, 317.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Varronianus (363 – 380) was the son of the emperor Jovian.
Vetranio (Flavius Vetranio Augustus; died c. 356), sometimes incorrectly referred to as Vetriano, was a Roman soldier and statesman, a native of the province of Moesia (in modern Serbia).
Victor (Latin: Flavius Victor Augustus; Unknown – August 388AD) was a Western Roman Emperor from either 383/384 or 387 to August 388.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Wang Xianzhi (344–386), courtesy name Zijing (子敬), was a famous Chinese calligrapher of the Eastern Jin dynasty.
Wang Xizhi (303361) was a Chinese writer and official who lived during the Jin Dynasty (265–420), best known for his mastery of Chinese calligraphy.
Wei Shuo (272–349), courtesy name Mouyi (茂猗), sobriquet He'nan (和南), commonly addressed just as Lady Wei (衛夫人), was a Chinese calligrapher of Eastern Jin, who established consequential rules about the regular script.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Xie An (謝安) (320–385), courtesy name Anshi (安石), formally Duke Wenjing of Luling (廬陵文靖公), was a Jin Dynasty (265-420) statesman who, despite his lack of military ability, led Jin through a major crisis—attacks by Former Qin.
Yax Nuun Ahiin I, also known as Curl Snout and Curl Nose, (died June 17, 404?), was an ajaw of the Maya city of Tikal.
Year 284 (CCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 301 (CCCI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 306 (CCCVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 325 (CCCXXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
Year 328 (CCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 335 (CCCXXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 337 (CCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 350 (CCCL) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 365 (CCCLXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The 365 Crete earthquake occurred at about sunrise on 21 July 365 in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an assumed epicentre near Crete.
Year 376 (CCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 378 (CCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 380 (CCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 381 (CCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 383 (CCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 395 (CCCXCV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 400 (CD) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 423 (CDXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 439 (CDXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 450 (CDL) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
4 century, 4th CE, 4th Century, 4th Century AD, 4th cent., 4th century A.D., 4th century AD, 4th century CE, 4th-century, Fourth Century, Fourth century, Fourth century AD, Fourth century CE, IV Century, IV century, Year in Review 4th Century.