263 relations: Acetylcholine, Adatanserin, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aggression, Agonist, Alnespirone, Alpha-Ethyltryptamine, Alpha-Methyltryptamine, Alprenolol, Alzheimer's disease, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Analgesic, Anorexia (symptom), Antagonist, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antihypertensive drug, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Aripiprazole, Asenapine, Atypical antipsychotic, Autoradiograph, Autoreceptor, Axon, Bacoside, Basal ganglia, Bay R 1531, Befiradol, Behavioral addiction, Binospirone, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, BMY-7,378, Brain, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Brexpiprazole, Bufotenin, Buspirone, Cannabidiol, Cariprazine, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Chemical synapse, Clozapine, Corticosterone, Cortisol, Cyanopindolol, Cyproheptadine, ..., Dendrite, Depression (mood), Diabetes mellitus, Dietary supplement, Dihydroergotamine, Diisopropyltryptamine, Dipropyltryptamine, Dopamine, Dorsal raphe nucleus, Dotarizine, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug, Ebalzotan, Edinger–Westphal nucleus, Eltoprazine, EMDT, Endogeny (biology), Enzyme inhibitor, Eptapirone, Erection, Ergotamine, Etoperidone, F-15,599, Fenfluramine, Flesinoxan, Flibanserin, Flopropione, G protein–coupled receptor, GABBR2, Gene, Gepirone, Gi alpha subunit, Ginkgo biloba, Glossary of French expressions in English, Glutamic acid, GPCR oligomer, Growth hormone, Haloperidol, Heart rate, Heat, Heat transfer, Heteroreceptor, Hippocampus, Hormone, Human, Human brain, Human sexual activity, Hypoventilation, Impulsivity, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Iodocyanopindolol, Ipsapirone, Iris sphincter muscle, Isamoltane, Lamotrigine, Learning, Lecozotan, Lesopitron, Ligand, Lisuride, Locus coeruleus, LPAR1, LPAR3, Lurasidone, LY-293284, Lysergic acid diethylamide, MDAI, MDMA, Medication, Mefway (18F), Memory, Mental disorder, Mescaline, Methylphenidate, Methysergide, Metitepine, Miosis, MMAI, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine releasing agent, MPPF, Mydriasis, Naluzotan, NAN-190, Nausea, NBUMP, Nebivolol, Nefazodone, Neocortex, Nerve, Neuromodulation (medicine), Neurotransmitter, NK1 receptor antagonist, Norepinephrine, Olanzapine, Opioid, Osemozotan, Oxprenolol, Oxytocin, Parkinson's disease, Partial agonist, Peripheral, Perospirone, Piclozotan, Pindobind, Pindolol, Polymorphism (biology), Positron emission tomography, Precursor (chemistry), Prefrontal cortex, Primate, Prolactin, Propranolol, Protein–protein interaction, Psilocin, Psilocybin, Quetiapine, Radioligand, Raphe nuclei, Rapid eye movement sleep, Rauwolscine, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Religious experience, Renin, Repinotan, Risperidone, Robalzotan, Rodent, Rostral ventrolateral medulla, Rs6294, Rs6295, RU-24,969, S-15535, S1PR1, S1PR3, Sarizotan, SB-649,915, Schizophrenia, Secretion, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Septum pellucidum, Serenic, Serotonergic, Serotonin, Serotonin releasing agent, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sexual arousal, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Skin, Sleep, Social relation, Soma (biology), Spiperone, Spiramide, Spiroxatrine, Striatum, Substance P, Sunepitron, Sympatholytic, Synapse, Synonymous substitution, Tachykinin receptor 1, Tandospirone, Tetracyclic antidepressant, Thalamus, Thermoregulation, Tiospirone, Trazodone, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine, Trimethoxyamphetamine, Tritium, Tryptophan, U-92,016-A, UH-301, Urapidil, Vagus nerve, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Vilazodone, Vomiting, Vortioxetine, WAY-100135, WAY-100635, Xaliproden, Xylamidine, Yohimbine, Zalospirone, Ziprasidone, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-T-2, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, 4C-T-2, 5-Carboxamidotryptamine, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1 receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, 5-MeO-2-TMT, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-MeO-MiPT, 5-Methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine, 5-Methoxytryptamine, 8-OH-DPAT. Expand index (213 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adatanserin (WY-50,324, SEB-324) is a mixed 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist and 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alnespirone (S-20,499) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist of the azapirone chemical class.
α-Ethyltryptamine (αET, AET), also known as etryptamine (INN, BAN, USAN), is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogenic drug of the tryptamine class.
α-Methyltryptamine (abbreviated as αMT, AMT) is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class.
Alprenolol, or alfeprol, alpheprol, and alprenololum (Gubernal, Regletin, Yobir, Apllobal, Aptine, Aptol Duriles), is a non-selective beta blocker as well as a 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of angina pectoris.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
Asenapine, sold under the trade names Saphris and Sycrest among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and acute mania associated with bipolar disorder.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Bacosides are a class of chemical compounds isolated from Bacopa monnieri.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Bay R 1531 is a tricyclic tryptamine derivative which acts as a selective serotonin receptor 5-HT1A agonist.
Befiradol (F-13,640; NLX-112) is a very potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.
Binospirone (MDL-73,005-EF) is a drug which acts as a partial agonist at 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors but as an antagonist at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
BMY-7,378 is a 5-HT1A receptor weak partial agonist/antagonist and α1D-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Brexpiprazole, sold under the brand name Rexulti, is an atypical antipsychotic.
Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT, bufotenine) is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid constituent of cannabis.
Cariprazine, sold under the brand names Vraylar in the United States and Reagila in Europe, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cyanopindolol is a drug related to pindolol which acts as both a β1 adrenoceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist.
Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dihydroergotamine (DHE) is an ergot alkaloid used to treat migraines.
Diisopropyltryptamine (also known as N,N-diisopropyltryptamine or DiPT) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the tryptamine family that has a unique effect.
N,N-Dipropyltryptamine (DPT, also known as "The Light") is a psychedelic drug belonging to the tryptamine family, first reported in 1973.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dorsal raphe nucleus is located on the midline of the brainstem and is part of the raphe nucleus, consisting of the rostral and caudal subdivisions.
Dotarizine is a drug used in the treatment of migraine, which acts as a calcium channel blocker, and also as an antagonist at the 5HT2A receptor, and to a lesser extent at the 5HT1A and 5HT2C receptors.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Ebalzotan (NAE-086) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist.
The Edinger–Westphal nucleus (accessory oculomotor nucleus) is the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle.
Eltoprazine (DU-28,853) is a drug of the phenylpiperazine class which is a serenic or antiaggressive agent.
2-Ethyl-5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (EMDT) is a tryptamine derivative which is used in scientific research.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Eptapirone (F-11,440) is a very potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist of the azapirone family.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Etoperidone, associated with several brand names, is an atypical antidepressant which was developed in the 1970s and either is no longer marketed or was never marketed.
F-15,599, also known as NLX-101, is a very potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist.
Fenfluramine, formerly sold under the brand name Pondimin among others, is an appetite suppressant which was used to treat obesity and is now no longer marketed.
Flesinoxan (DU-29,373) is a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor partial/near-full agonist of the phenylpiperazine class.
Flibanserin, sold under the trade name Addyi, is a medication approved for the treatment of pre-menopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).
Flopropione (Compacsul, Cospanon, Ecapron, Pellegal, Argobyl, Floveton, Saritron, Spamorin, Labrodax, Tryalon, Mirulevatin, Padeskin, Profenon) is a spasmolytic or antispasmodic agent.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2 (GABAB2) is a G-protein coupled receptor subunit encoded by the GABBR2 gene in humans.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gepirone is an antidepressant and anxiolytic drug of the azapirone group that was synthesized by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1986 and has been under development for the treatment of depression but has yet to be marketed.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.
Around 45% of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
A GPCR oligomer is a protein complex that consists of a small number (ὀλίγοι oligoi "a few", μέρος méros "part, piece, component") of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
A heteroreceptor is a receptor regulating the synthesis and/or the release of mediators other than its own ligand.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
Iodocyanopindolol (INN) is a drug related to pindolol which acts as both a β1 adrenoreceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist.
Ipsapirone is a selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist of the piperazine and azapirone chemical classes.
The iris sphincter muscle (pupillary sphincter, pupillary constrictor, circular muscle of iris, circular fibers) is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris.
Isamoltane (CGP-361A) is a drug used in scientific research.
Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Lecozotan is an investigational drug by Wyeth tested for improvement of cognitive functions of Alzheimer's disease patients.
Lesopitron (E-4424) is a selective full agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor which is structurally related to the azapirones.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lisuride, sold under the brand names Dopergin, Proclacam, and Revanil, is an antiparkinson agent of the iso-ergoline class, chemically related to the dopaminergic ergoline Parkinson's drugs.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 also known as LPA1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LPAR1 gene.
Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 also known as LPA3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LPAR3 gene.
Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the U.S. It has been an FDA approved treatment for schizophrenia since 2010 and for treating depressive episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder since 2013.
LY-293284 is a research chemical developed by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and used for scientific studies.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane) is a drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mefway is a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist used in medical research, usually in the form of mefway (18F) as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Methysergide (1-methyl-D-lysergic acid butanolamide or UML-491) also known as methysergide maleate, is an ergot derived prescription drug used for the prophylaxis of difficult to treat migraine and cluster headaches.
Metitepine (developmental code names Ro 8-6837 (maleate), VUFB-6276 (mesylate)), also known as methiothepin, is a drug described as a "psychotropic agent" of the tricyclic group which was never marketed.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
5-Methoxy-6-methyl-2-aminoindane (MMAI), is a drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
MPPF, with the full name 2'-methoxyphenyl-(N-2'-pyridinyl)-p-fluoro-benzamidoethyipiperazine, is a compound that binds to the serotonin-1A receptor.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Naluzotan (INN, USAN; PRX-00023) is a serotonergic drug of the phenylpiperazine class that was under investigation by EPIX Pharmaceuticals Inc for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.
NAN-190 is a drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
NBUMP is a highly selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist (Ki.
Nebivolol is a β1 receptor blocker with nitric oxide-potentiating vasodilatory effect used in treatment of hypertension and, in Europe, also for left ventricular failure.
Nefazodone, sold formerly under the brand names Serzone, Dutonin, and Nefadar among others, is an atypical antidepressant which was first marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1994 but has since largely been discontinued.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Neuromodulation is "the alteration of nerve activity through targeted delivery of a stimulus, such as electrical stimulation or chemical agents, to specific neurological sites in the body".
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonists are a novel class of medications that possesses unique antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antiemetic properties.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Osemozotan (MKC-242) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist with some functional selectivity, acting as a full agonist at presynaptic and a partial agonist at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.
Oxprenolol (brand names Trasacor, Trasicor, Coretal, Laracor, Slow-Pren, Captol, Corbeton, Slow-Trasicor, Tevacor, Trasitensin, Trasidex) is a non-selective beta blocker with some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
Perospirone (Lullan) is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone family.
Piclozotan (SUN-N4057) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, which has neuroprotective effects in animal studies.
Pindobind is a compound developed by researchers associated with Stanford University, identified as a central nervous system depressant, which generated a response in animals reducing offensive actions such as chasing, while also notably reducing tendencies of the test animal to evade when stimulated to do so.
Pindolol, sold under the brand name Visken among others, is a beta blocker which is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
A radioligand is a radioactive biochemical substance (in particular, a ligand that is radiolabeled) that is used for diagnosis or for research-oriented study of the receptor systems of the body.
The raphe nuclei (ῥαφή "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Rauwolscine, also known as isoyohimbine, α-yohimbine, and corynanthidine, is an alkaloid found in various species within the genera Rauwolfia and Pausinystalia (formerly known as Corynanthe).
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
Repinotan (BAYx3702), an aminomethylchroman derivative, is a selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist with high potency and efficacy.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Robalzotan (NAD-299, AZD-7371) is a selective antagonist at the 5-HT1A receptor.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), also known as the pressor area of the medulla, is a brain region that is responsible for basal and reflex control of sympathetic activity associated with cardiovascular function.
Rs6294, also called G294A, is a gene variation—a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)— in the HTR1A gene.
rs6295, also called C(-1019)G, is a gene variation—a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)—in the HTR1A gene.
RU-24,969 is a drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
S-15535 is a phenylpiperazine drug which is a potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor ligand that acts as an agonist and antagonist (weak partial agonist) at the presynaptic and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, respectively.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P receptor 1 or S1P1), also known as endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S1PR1 gene.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 also known as S1PR3 is a human gene which encodes a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the lipid signaling molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P).
Sarizotan (EMD-128,130) is a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist, which has antipsychotic effects, and has also shown efficacy in reducing dyskinesias resulting from long-term anti-Parkinsonian treatment with levodopa.
SB-649,915 is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonist which is being investigated for its antidepressant effects.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
The septum pellucidum (translucent wall) is a thin, triangular, vertical double membrane separating the anterior horns of the left and right lateral ventricles of the brain.
A serenic, or antiaggressive agent, is a type of drug which reduces the capacity for irritability and aggression.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
Spiperone (Spiroperidol; brand name: Spiropitan (JP)) is a typical antipsychotic and research chemical belonging to the butyrophenone chemical class.
Spiramide (developmental code name AMI-193) is an experimental antipsychotic that acts as a selective 5-HT2A, 5-HT1A, and D2 receptor antagonist.
Spiroxatrine is a drug which acts as a selective antagonist at both the 5-HT1A receptor and the α2C adrenergic receptor.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.
Sunepitron (CP-93,393) is a combined 5-HT1A receptor agonist and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
A sympatholytic (or sympathoplegic) drug is a medication that opposes the downstream effects of postganglionic nerve firing in effector organs innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
A synonymous substitution (often called a silent substitution though they are not always silent) is the evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified.
The tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) also known as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) or substance P receptor (SPR) is a G protein coupled receptor found in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Tandospirone (brand name Sediel) is an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug used in China and Japan, where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma.
Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs) are a class of antidepressants that were first introduced starting in the 1970s.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Tiospirone (BMY-13,859), also sometimes called tiaspirone or tiosperone, is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone class.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
3-Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) is a recreational drug of the piperazine chemical class.
TMAs, also known as trimethoxyamphetamines, are a family of isomeric psychedelic hallucinogenic drugs.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
U-92,016-A is a psychoactive drug and research chemical used in scientific studies.
UH-301 is a drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
Urapidil is a sympatholytic antihypertensive drug.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vilazodone (United States trade name Viibryd) is a serotonergic antidepressant developed by Merck KGaA and licensed by Clinical Data, a biotech company purchased by Forest Laboratories in 2011.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Vortioxetine is an antidepressant medication that is prescribed to treat depression.
WAY-100135 is a serotonergic drug of the phenylpiperazine family which is used in scientific research.
WAY-100635 is a piperazine drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
Xaliproden (codenamed SR57746) is a drug which acts as a 5HT1A agonist.
Xylamidine is a drug which acts as an antagonist at the 5HT2A receptor, and to a lesser extent at the 5HT1A receptor.
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.
Zalospirone (WY-47,846) is a selective 5-HT1A partial agonist of the azapirone chemical class.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET, DOE, Hecate) is a psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) is a psychedelic drug and a substituted amphetamine.
2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family.
2C-E is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family.
2C-T-2 is a psychedelic and entactogenic phenethylamine of the 2C family.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthio-α-ethylphenethylamine (4C-T-2) is a synthetic drug of the phenethylamine chemical class.
5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
5-Methoxy-2,N,N-trimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-2,N,N-TMT, 5-MeO-TMT) is a psychoactive drug of the tryptamine chemical class which acts as a psychedelic.
5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic of the tryptamine class.
5-MeO-MiPT is a psychedelic and hallucinogenic drug, used by some as an entheogen.
5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DiPT), sometimes called "Foxy", is a psychedelic tryptamine.
5-Methoxytryptamine (5-MT), also known as mexamine, is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.
8-OH-DPAT is a research chemical of the aminotetralin chemical class which was developed in the 1980s and has been widely used to study the function of the 5-HT1A receptor.