99 relations: Agonist, Alosetron, Alpha-Methyltryptamine, Alzheimer's disease, Amygdala, Anesthetic, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antimalarial medication, Antipsychotic, AS-8112, Batanopride, Biomarker, Bipolar disorder, Brainstem, Bufotenin, Calcium, Cell membrane, Central nervous system, Cereulide, Chemotherapy, Chloroform, Chlorophenylbiguanide, Chloroquine, CHRNA7, Chromosome, Chromosome 11, Clozapine, Cys-loop receptor, Duodenum, Epilepsy, Ethanol, Extracellular, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Granisetron, Halothane, HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D, HTR3E, Ibogaine, Indole, Ion, Ion channel, Isoflurane, Lamotrigine, Ligand-gated ion channel, ..., Mefloquine, Memantine, Menthol, Messenger RNA, Metoclopramide, Mianserin, Mirtazapine, Mosapride, Nervous system, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Olanzapine, Ondansetron, Pathophysiology, Peripheral nervous system, Phenylbiguanide, Polymorphism (biology), Potassium, Prokinetic agent, Quetiapine, Quinine, Quipazine, Radiation therapy, Receptor antagonist, Renzapride, RS-56812, Serotonin, Sodium, Springer Science+Business Media, SR-57227, Stomach, Thujone, Transmembrane protein, Tropisetron, Varenicline, Visual cortex, Vomiting, Vortioxetine, YM-31636, Zacopride, 2-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1 receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT3 antagonist, 5-HT4 receptor, 5-HT5A receptor, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (49 more) » « Shrink index
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alosetron (original brand name: Lotronex; originator: GSK) is a 5-HT3 antagonist used for the management of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in women only.
α-Methyltryptamine (abbreviated as αMT, AMT) is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
AS-8112 is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective antagonist at the dopamine receptor subtypes D2 and D3, and the serotonin receptor 5-HT3.
Batanopride (BMY-25,801) is an antiemetic drug of the benzamide class which acts as a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT, bufotenine) is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cereulide is a toxin produced by Bacillus cereus.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
meta-Chlorophenylbiguanide (1-(3-Chlorophenylbiguanide, m-CPBG) is an allosteric agonist and modulator of the 5-HT3 receptor and an antagonist of the α2A-adrenergic receptor. It has anxiogenic, emetic and hypothermic effects in animal studies.
Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7, also known as nAChRα7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA7 gene.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
The Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily is composed of nicotinic acetylcholine, GABAA, GABAA-ρ, glycine, 5-HT3 receptors, and zinc-activated ion channel that are composed of five protein subunits that form a pentameric arrangement around a central pore.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy.
Halothane, sold under the brandname Fluothane among others, is a general anesthetic.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR3A gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3B, also known as HTR3B, is a human gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR3C gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR3D gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR3E gene.
Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Isoflurane, sold under the trade name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic.
Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria.
Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as a potential agent to treat diabetes; the NMDA activity was discovered in the 1980s.
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
Mianserin, sold under the brand name Tolvon among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used in the treatment of depression in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
Mosapride is a gastroprokinetic agent that acts as a selective 5HT4 agonist.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Phenylbiguanide (PBG) is a 5-HT3 agonist used to study the role of 5-HT3 receptors in the central nervous system.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A gastroprokinetic agent, gastrokinetic, or prokinetic, is a type of drug which enhances gastrointestinal motility by increasing the frequency of contractions in the small intestine or making them stronger, but without disrupting their rhythm.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
Quipazine is a piperazine drug used in scientific research.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Renzapride is a gastroprokinetic agent and antiemetic which acts as a full 5-HT4 full agonist and 5-HT3 antagonist.
RS-56812 is a potent and selective partial agonist at the 5HT3 receptor.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
SR-57227 is a potent and selective agonist at the 5HT3 receptor, with high selectivity over other serotonin receptor subtypes and good blood-brain barrier penetration.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.
Tropisetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, although it has been used experimentally as an analgesic in cases of fibromyalgia.
Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Vortioxetine is an antidepressant medication that is prescribed to treat depression.
YM-31636 is a potent and selective 5-HT3 agonist.
Zacoprideis a potent antagonist at the 5-HT3 receptor and an agonist at the 5-HT4 receptor.
2-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2-Methylserotonin, 2-Methyl-5-HT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin which acts as a moderately selective full agonist at the 5-HT3 receptor.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT).
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT3 antagonists, informally known as "setrons", are a class of drugs that act as receptor antagonists at the 5-HT3 receptor, a subtype of serotonin receptor found in terminals of the vagus nerve and in certain areas of the brain.
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR4 gene.
5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.