233 relations: A-372159, Acetylcholine, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Agomelatine, Agonist, AL-38022A, Almotriptan, Alosetron, Alprenolol, Amitriptyline, Analgesic, Anorectic, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antihypertensive drug, Antimigraine drug, Antipsychotic, Anxiolytic, AR-A000002, Aripiprazole, AS-19 (drug), Asenapine, Atypical antipsychotic, Autoreceptor, Benzylpiperazine, BIMU8, Blood vessel, BMY-7,378, BRL-15,572, BRL-54443, Bufotenin, Buspirone, BW-723C86, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cell membrane, Central nervous system, CGS-12066A, Cinitapride, Cisapride, Clomipramine, Cloning, Clozapine, Cognition, Cortisol, CP-135807, CP-93129, CP-94253, Cyanopindolol, ..., Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyproheptadine, Dazopride, Depolarization, Diglyceride, Dihydroergotamine, Dolasetron, Dopamine, E-55888, EGIS-12,233, Eletriptan, Eltoprazine, EMD-386088, EMDT, Empathogen–entactogen, Eplivanserin, Ergometrine, Ergotamine, Etoperidone, F-15,599, Fenfluramine, Flesinoxan, Fluoxetine, Frovatriptan, G protein–coupled receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gastrointestinal tract, Gepirone, Gi alpha subunit, Glutamic acid, Gq alpha subunit, GR-127935, Granisetron, Gs alpha subunit, Hallucinogen, Haloperidol, Heteroreceptor, Hydroxyzine, Hypnotic, Iloperidone, Imipramine, Inositol trisphosphate, Intracellular, Iodocyanopindolol, Ion channel, Ipsapirone, Isamoltane, Ketanserin, Lasmiditan, Latrepirdine, Lecozotan, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligand-gated ion channel, Lisuride, Lorcaserin, LY-334370, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Lysine, MDMA, Mefway (18F), Memantine, Mescaline, Metergoline, Methylphenidate, Methysergide, Metitepine, Metoclopramide, Mianserin, Migraine, Mirtazapine, Mood (psychology), Mosapride, MS-245, Myristicin, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, NAN-190, Naratriptan, Nebivolol, Nefazodone, Nematode, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nootropic, Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, Norepinephrine, Norfenfluramine, Olanzapine, Ondansetron, Orexigenic, Oxprenolol, Oxytocin, Paroxetine, Partial agonist, Peripheral nervous system, Piboserod, Pieris rapae, Pimavanserin, Pindolol, Pizotifen, Platelet, PNU-22394, Potassium, Prokinetic agent, Prolactin, Propranolol, Prucalopride, Pseudogene, Psilocin, Psilocybin, Psychedelic drug, Quetiapine, Quipazine, Rauwolscine, Receptor antagonist, Renzapride, Risperidone, Ritanserin, Rizatriptan, Ro 04-6790, Ro60-0175, RS-127445, RS-56812, RS-67,333, RU-24,969, SB-216641, SB-258585, SB-269970, SB-271046, SB-357134, SB-399885, SB-699551, Second messenger system, Serotonin, Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin syndrome, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium, Substance P, Sumatriptan, Tandospirone, Tegaserod, Thermoregulation, Tramadol, Trazodone, Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine, Triptan, Tropisetron, Valerenic acid, Vasopressin, Vilazodone, Vortioxetine, WAY-100135, WAY-100635, YM-348, Yohimbine, Zacopride, Ziprasidone, Zolmitriptan, 1-(2-Diphenyl)piperazine, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, 2-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, 25I-NBOMe, 2C-B, 5-Carboxamidotryptamine, 5-HT1 receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT1E receptor, 5-HT1F receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-HT4 receptor, 5-HT5A receptor, 5-HT5B receptor, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-Methoxytryptamine, 8-OH-DPAT. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
A-372159 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective partial agonist for the 5HT2C receptor, with more than 100x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2B receptor and a Ki of 3nM.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Agomelatine (brand names Valdoxan, Melitor, Thymanax) is an atypical antidepressant developed by the pharmaceutical company Servier.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
AL-38022A is an indazole derivative drug which is one of a range of similar drugs developed for scientific research and with some possible clinical applications.
Almotriptan (trade name Axert and others) is a triptan drug discovered and developed by Almirall for the treatment of heavy migraine headache.
Alosetron (original brand name: Lotronex; originator: GSK) is a 5-HT3 antagonist used for the management of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in women only.
Alprenolol, or alfeprol, alpheprol, and alprenololum (Gubernal, Regletin, Yobir, Apllobal, Aptine, Aptol Duriles), is a non-selective beta blocker as well as a 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of angina pectoris.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
An antimigraine drug is a medication intended to reduce the effects or intensity of migraine headache.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
AR-A000002 is a drug which is one of the first compounds developed to act as a selective antagonist for the serotonin receptor 5-HT1B, with approximately 10x selectivity for 5-HT1B over the closely related 5-HT1D receptor.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
AS-19 is a substance which acts as a potent agonist at the 5HT7 receptor, with an IC50 of 0.83nM.
Asenapine, sold under the trade names Saphris and Sycrest among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and acute mania associated with bipolar disorder.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
Benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a recreational drug with euphoriant and stimulant properties. The effects produced by BZP are comparable to those produced by amphetamine. Adverse effects have been reported following its use including acute psychosis, renal toxicity and seizures. No deaths have been reported following a sole ingestion of BZP, although there have been at least two deaths from the combination of BZP and MDMA. Its sale is banned in several countries, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Romania and other parts of Europe.
BIMU-8 is a drug which acts as a 5-HT4 receptor selective agonist.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
BMY-7,378 is a 5-HT1A receptor weak partial agonist/antagonist and α1D-adrenergic receptor antagonist.
BRL-15,572 is a drug which acts as a selective antagonist for the serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT1D, with around 60x selectivity over other related receptors.
BRL-54443 is a drug which acts as a selective agonist for the 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F serotonin receptor subtypes.
Bufotenin (5-HO-DMT, bufotenine) is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
BW-723C86 is a tryptamine derivative drug which acts as a 5-HT2B receptor agonist.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
CGS-12066A is a drug which acts as a potent and selective agonist for the 5-HT1B receptor with lower affinity for the three 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.
Cinitapride (trade names Cintapro, Pemix) is a gastroprokinetic agent and antiulcer agent of the benzamide class which is marketed in India, Mexico, Pakistan and Spain.
Cisapride is a gastroprokinetic agent, a drug that increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
CP-135807 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective agonist for the 5-HT1D serotonin receptor, and is used to study the function of this receptor subtype.
CP-93129 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective serotonin 5-HT1B receptor agonist, with approximately 150x and 200x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT1D and 5-HT1A receptors.
CP-94253 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective serotonin 5-HT1B receptor agonist, with approximately 25x and 40x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT1D and 5-HT1A receptors.
Cyanopindolol is a drug related to pindolol which acts as both a β1 adrenoceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.
Dazopride (AHR-5531) is an antiemetic and gastroprokinetic agent of the benzamide class which was never marketed.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Dihydroergotamine (DHE) is an ergot alkaloid used to treat migraines.
Dolasetron (trade name Anzemet) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
E-55888 is a drug developed by Esteve, which acts as a potent and selective full agonist at the 5HT7 serotonin receptor, and is used for investigating the role of 5-HT7 receptors in the perception of pain.
EGIS-12,233 is a drug with applications in scientific research, acting as a potent and selective antagonist for both the 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 serotonin receptor subtypes, with good selectivity over other receptors.
Eletriptan (trade name Relpax, used in the form of eletriptan hydrobromide) is a second generation triptan drug intended for treatment of migraine headaches.
Eltoprazine (DU-28,853) is a drug of the phenylpiperazine class which is a serenic or antiaggressive agent.
EMD-386088 is an indole derivative which is used in scientific research.
2-Ethyl-5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (EMDT) is a tryptamine derivative which is used in scientific research.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
Eplivanserin (SR-46,349; planned trade name Ciltyri) was an experimental drug for the treatment of insomnia which was being developed by Sanofi Aventis.
Ergometrine also known as ergonovine, is a medication used to cause contractions of the uterus to treat heavy vaginal bleeding after childbirth.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Etoperidone, associated with several brand names, is an atypical antidepressant which was developed in the 1970s and either is no longer marketed or was never marketed.
F-15,599, also known as NLX-101, is a very potent and highly selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist.
Fenfluramine, formerly sold under the brand name Pondimin among others, is an appetite suppressant which was used to treat obesity and is now no longer marketed.
Flesinoxan (DU-29,373) is a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor partial/near-full agonist of the phenylpiperazine class.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Frovatriptan (trade name Frova) is a triptan drug developed by Vernalis for the treatment of migraine headaches and for short term prevention of menstrual migraine.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gepirone is an antidepressant and anxiolytic drug of the azapirone group that was synthesized by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1986 and has been under development for the treatment of depression but has yet to be marketed.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
GR-127935 is a drug which acts as a selective antagonist at the serotonin receptors 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D.
Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
A heteroreceptor is a receptor regulating the synthesis and/or the release of mediators other than its own ligand.
Hydroxyzine, sold under the brand names Atarax and Vistaril among others, is a first-generation antihistamine.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Iloperidone, also known as Fanapt, Fanapta, and previously known as Zomaril, is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Iodocyanopindolol (INN) is a drug related to pindolol which acts as both a β1 adrenoreceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Ipsapirone is a selective 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist of the piperazine and azapirone chemical classes.
Isamoltane (CGP-361A) is a drug used in scientific research.
Ketanserin (INN, USAN, BAN) (brand name Sufrexal; former developmental code name R41468) is a drug used clinically as an antihypertensive agent and in scientific research to study the serotonin system; specifically, the 5-HT2 receptor family.
Lasmiditan (COL-144) is an investigational drug for the treatment of acute migraine.
Latrepirdine (INN, also known as dimebolin and sold as Dimebon), is an antihistamine drug which has been used clinically in Russia since 1983.
Lecozotan is an investigational drug by Wyeth tested for improvement of cognitive functions of Alzheimer's disease patients.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Lisuride, sold under the brand names Dopergin, Proclacam, and Revanil, is an antiparkinson agent of the iso-ergoline class, chemically related to the dopaminergic ergoline Parkinson's drugs.
Lorcaserin, currently marketed under the trade name Belviq and previously Lorqess during development, is a weight-loss drug developed by Arena Pharmaceuticals.
LY-334370 is a selective 5-HT1F receptor agonist which was under development by Eli Lilly and Company for the treatment of migraine headaches.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Mefway is a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist used in medical research, usually in the form of mefway (18F) as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer.
Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as a potential agent to treat diabetes; the NMDA activity was discovered in the 1980s.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Metergoline is a psychoactive drug of the ergoline chemical class which acts as a ligand for various serotonin and dopamine receptors.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Methysergide (1-methyl-D-lysergic acid butanolamide or UML-491) also known as methysergide maleate, is an ergot derived prescription drug used for the prophylaxis of difficult to treat migraine and cluster headaches.
Metitepine (developmental code names Ro 8-6837 (maleate), VUFB-6276 (mesylate)), also known as methiothepin, is a drug described as a "psychotropic agent" of the tricyclic group which was never marketed.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
Mianserin, sold under the brand name Tolvon among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used in the treatment of depression in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Mosapride is a gastroprokinetic agent that acts as a selective 5HT4 agonist.
MS-245 is a tryptamine derivative which is used in scientific research.
Myristicin is a phenylpropene, a natural organic compound present in small amounts in the essential oil of nutmeg and to a lesser extent in other spices such as parsley and dill.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
NAN-190 is a drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
Naratriptan (trade names include Amerge and Naramig) is a triptan drug marketed by GlaxoSmithKline and is used for the treatment of migraine headaches.
Nebivolol is a β1 receptor blocker with nitric oxide-potentiating vasodilatory effect used in treatment of hypertension and, in Europe, also for left ventricular failure.
Nefazodone, sold formerly under the brand names Serzone, Dutonin, and Nefadar among others, is an atypical antidepressant which was first marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1994 but has since largely been discontinued.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) are a class of psychiatric drugs used primarily as antidepressants.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Norfenfluramine, or 3-trifluoromethylamphetamine, is a never-marketed drug of the amphetamine family which behaves as a serotonin and norepinephrine releasing agent and potent 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C agonist.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
An orexigenic, or appetite stimulant, is a drug, hormone, or compound that increases appetite and may induce hyperphagia.
Oxprenolol (brand names Trasacor, Trasicor, Coretal, Laracor, Slow-Pren, Captol, Corbeton, Slow-Trasicor, Tevacor, Trasitensin, Trasidex) is a non-selective beta blocker with some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Piboserod is a selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist which was marketed and manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) under the trade name Serlipet for the management of atrial fibrillation and irritable bowel syndrome.
Pieris rapae, the small white, is a small- to medium-sized butterfly species of the whites-and-yellows family Pieridae.
Pimavanserin, sold under the brand name Nuplazid, is an atypical antipsychotic which is approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease psychosis and is also under development for the treatment of schizophrenia, agitation, and major depressive disorder.
Pindolol, sold under the brand name Visken among others, is a beta blocker which is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris.
Pizotifen (INN) or pizotyline (USAN), trade name Sandomigran, is a benzocycloheptene-based drug used as a medicine, primarily as a preventative to reduce the frequency of recurrent migraine headaches.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
PNU-22394 is a drug which acts as an agonist at serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, with strongest binding affinity for 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C and slightly weaker at 5-HT2B, although it is only a full agonist at 5-HT2C, but partial agonist at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A gastroprokinetic agent, gastrokinetic, or prokinetic, is a type of drug which enhances gastrointestinal motility by increasing the frequency of contractions in the small intestine or making them stronger, but without disrupting their rhythm.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Prucalopride, brand name Resolor among others, is a drug acting as a selective, high affinity 5-HT4 receptor agonist which targets the impaired motility associated with chronic constipation, thus normalizing bowel movements.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Quipazine is a piperazine drug used in scientific research.
Rauwolscine, also known as isoyohimbine, α-yohimbine, and corynanthidine, is an alkaloid found in various species within the genera Rauwolfia and Pausinystalia (formerly known as Corynanthe).
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Renzapride is a gastroprokinetic agent and antiemetic which acts as a full 5-HT4 full agonist and 5-HT3 antagonist.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Ritanserin (INN, USAN, BAN) is a serotonin receptor antagonist which was never marketed for clinical use but has been used in scientific research.
Rizatriptan (trade name Maxalt) is a 5-HT1 receptor agonist of the triptan class of drugs developed by Merck & Co. for the treatment of migraine headaches.
Ro 04-6790 is a drug, developed by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has applications in scientific research.
Ro60-0175 is a drug developed by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has applications in scientific research.
RS-127445 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist at the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor, with around 1000x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.
RS-56812 is a potent and selective partial agonist at the 5HT3 receptor.
RS-67,333 is a drug which has been investigated as a potential rapid-acting antidepressant, nootropic, and treatment for Alzheimer's disease.
RU-24,969 is a drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
SB-216641 is a drug which is a selective antagonist for the serotonin receptor 5-HT1B, with around 25x selectivity over the closely related 5-HT1D receptor.
SB-258585 is a drug which is used in scientific research.
SB-269970 is a drug and research chemical developed by GlaxoSmithKline used in scientific studies.
SB-271046 is a drug which is used in scientific research.
SB-357134 is a drug which is used in scientific research.
SB-399885 is a drug which is used in scientific research.
SB-699551 is a drug which was the first compound developed to act as a selective antagonist for the serotonin receptor 5-HT5A, with selectivity of around 100x over other serotonin receptor subtypes.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs) are a class of drugs used mainly as antidepressants, but also as anxiolytics and hypnotics.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.
Sumatriptan is a medication used for the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches.
Tandospirone (brand name Sediel) is an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug used in China and Japan, where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma.
Tegaserod is a 5-HT4 agonist manufactured by Novartis and sold under the names Zelnorm and Zelmac for the management of irritable bowel syndrome and constipation.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
3-Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) is a recreational drug of the piperazine chemical class.
Triptans are a family of tryptamine-based drugs used as abortive medication in the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches.
Tropisetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, although it has been used experimentally as an analgesic in cases of fibromyalgia.
Valerenic acid is a sesquiterpenoid constituent of the essential oil of the Valerian plant.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vilazodone (United States trade name Viibryd) is a serotonergic antidepressant developed by Merck KGaA and licensed by Clinical Data, a biotech company purchased by Forest Laboratories in 2011.
Vortioxetine is an antidepressant medication that is prescribed to treat depression.
WAY-100135 is a serotonergic drug of the phenylpiperazine family which is used in scientific research.
WAY-100635 is a piperazine drug and research chemical widely used in scientific studies.
YM-348 is an indazole derivative drug which acts as a potent and selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist, with an EC50 of 1nM and 15x selectivity over 5-HT2A, although it only has moderate selectivity of 3x over the closely related 5-HT2B receptor.
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.
Zacoprideis a potent antagonist at the 5-HT3 receptor and an agonist at the 5-HT4 receptor.
Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder.
Zolmitriptan is a selective serotonin receptor agonist of the 1B and 1D subtypes.
1-(2-Diphenyl)piperazine, also known as RA-7, is a drug which acts as a potent and selective agonist at the 5HT7 serotonin receptor.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM; known on the street as STP, standing for "Serenity, Tranquility and Peace") is a psychedelic and a substituted amphetamine.
2-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (2-Methylserotonin, 2-Methyl-5-HT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin which acts as a moderately selective full agonist at the 5-HT3 receptor.
25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5, also shortened to "25I") is a psychedelic hallucinogen that is used in biochemistry research for mapping the brains usage of the type 2A serotonin receptor and later also has been used for recreational purpose.
2C-B or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family.
5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitter serotonin.
The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT).
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 1E receptor (5-HT1E) is a highly expressed human G-protein coupled receptor that belongs to the 5-HT1 receptor family (Gi-coupled serotonin receptor).
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1F, also known as HTR1F is a 5-HT1 receptor protein and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR4 gene.
5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene.
5-HT5B receptor is a 5-HT receptor protein and the gene which encodes it.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic of the tryptamine class.
5-Methoxytryptamine (5-MT), also known as mexamine, is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.
8-OH-DPAT is a research chemical of the aminotetralin chemical class which was developed in the 1980s and has been widely used to study the function of the 5-HT1A receptor.
5-HT receptor 4, 5-HT receptors, 5-HT1 like, 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor, 5-carboxytryptamine, 5-ct, 5-ht receptor, 5HT receptor, 5HT-3 receptor, 5HT-4 receptor, 5ht receptor, 5ht-receptor, 5ht-receptors, 5ht4, 5htr, Receptors, serotonin, Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, Serotonin r, Serotonin receptor, Serotonin receptors.