85 relations: Albedo, American Astronomical Society, Angular diameter, Apparent magnitude, Asteroid spectral types, Astronomical unit, Boiling point, California Institute of Technology, Chad Trujillo, Charon (moon), Chinigchinix, Classical Kuiper belt object, Constellation, Cryovolcano, Crystal, Day, Deep Ecliptic Survey, Degree (angle), Diameter, Distant minor planet, Dwarf planet, Earth, Erik Ian Asphaug, Eris (dwarf planet), Ethane, Haumea, Herschel Space Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Icarus (journal), Ice, Infrared, International Astronomical Union, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Julian day, Julian year (astronomy), Jupiter, Kuiper belt, Limb darkening, Los Angeles, Makemake, Mars, Meteoroid, Methane, Michael E. Brown, Minor Planet Center, Minor planet designation, Minor-planet moon, Minute and second of arc, Moon, ..., Moons of Uranus, National Geographic Society – Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, Nature (journal), Neptune, New Horizons, Ocean, Ophiuchus, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital resonance, Pacific Time Zone, Palomar Observatory, Perihelion and aphelion, Phase angle (astronomy), Planetary nomenclature, Pluto, Point spread function, Precovery, Provisional designation in astronomy, Radioactive decay, Retrograde and prograde motion, Samuel Oschin telescope, Solar System, Spitzer Space Telescope, Springer Science+Business Media, Sun, Tongva, Trans-Neptunian object, Trigonometric functions, Universal Time, Zenith, (307261) 2002 MS4, 20000 Varuna, 28978 Ixion, 50000 Quaoar. Expand index (35 more) » « Shrink index
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC.
The angular diameter, angular size, apparent diameter, or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
An asteroid spectral type is assigned to asteroids based on their emission spectrum, color, and sometimes albedo (reflectivity).
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Chadwick A. "Chad" Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is an American astronomer, discoverer of minor planets and the co-discoverer of Eris, the most massive dwarf planet known in the Solar System.
Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.
Chingichngish (also spelled Chinigchinix, Chinigchinich, Changitchnish, etc.) also known as Quaoar (also Qua-o-ar, Kwawar, etc.) and by other names including Ouiamot, Tobet and Saor is the name of an important figure in the mythology of the Mission Indians of coastal Southern California, a group of Takic-speaking peoples, today divided into the Payomkowishum (Luiseño), Tongva (Gabrieliño and Fernandeño), and Acjachemem (Juaneño) peoples.
A classical Kuiper belt object, also called a cubewano ("QB1-o"), is a low-eccentricity Kuiper belt object (KBO) that orbits beyond Neptune and is not controlled by an orbital resonance with Neptune.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
A cryovolcano (sometimes informally called an ice volcano) is a type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).
The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) is a project to find Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), using the facilities of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.
The term distant minor planet is used by the International Astronomical Union's Minor Planet Center to refer collectively to those minor planets found in the outer Solar System that are not commonly thought of as "asteroids".
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Erik Ian Asphaug (born October 19, 1961 in Oslo, Norway) is a Norwegian American planetary science professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Haumea, minor-planet designation 136108 Haumea, is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.
In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of SI seconds each.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
Limb darkening is an optical effect seen in stars (including the Sun), where the center part of the disk appears brighter than the edge or limb of the image.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Makemake (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter approximately two thirds that of Pluto.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Michael E. Brown (born June 5, 1965) is an American astronomer, who has been professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) since 2003.
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.
A formal minor planet designation is, in its final form, a number–name combination given to a minor planet (asteroid, centaur, trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet but not comet).
A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Uranus is the seventh planet of the Solar System; it has 27 known moons, all of which are named after characters from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.
The National Geographic Society – Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (NGS-POSS) was a major astronomical survey, that took almost 2,000 photographic plates of the night sky.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ophiuchus is a large constellation straddling the celestial equator.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.
The Pacific Time Zone (PT) is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, and western Mexico.
Palomar Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in San Diego County, California, United States, southeast of Los Angeles, California, in the Palomar Mountain Range.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
Phase angle in astronomical observations is the angle between the light incident onto an observed object and the light reflected from the object.
Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is a system of uniquely identifying features on the surface of a planet or natural satellite so that the features can be easily located, described, and discussed.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
The point spread function (PSF) describes the response of an imaging system to a point source or point object.
In astronomy, precovery (short for pre-discovery recovery) is the process of finding the image of an object in old archived images or photographic plates for the purpose of calculating a more accurate orbit.
Provisional designation in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).
The Samuel Oschin telescope, also called the Oschin Schmidt, is a Schmidt camera at the Palomar Observatory in northern San Diego County, California.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The Tongva are Native Americans who inhabited the Los Angeles Basin and the Southern Channel Islands, an area covering approximately.
A trans-Neptunian object (TNO, also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.
Universal Time (UT) is a time standard based on Earth's rotation.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
is a large classical Kuiper belt object, the second-largest known object in the Solar System without a name, after.
20000 Varuna, provisional designation, is a large classical Kuiper belt object.
28978 Ixion, provisional designation, is a plutino (an object that has a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune).
50000 Quaoar, provisional designation, is a non-resonant trans-Neptunian object (cubewano) and possibly a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System.