107 relations: Abbottabad, Action of Khan Baghdadi, Agansing Rai, Ashoka Chakra (military decoration), Battle of Atgram, Battle of Gazipur, Battle of Krithia, Battle of Monte Cassino, Battle of Peiwar Kotal, Battle of Sari Bair, Battle of Sittang Bridge, Battle of Sylhet, Battle of the Admin Box, Bishnupur, Manipur, Brigadier, British Commonwealth Occupation Force, British Indian Army, Burma Campaign, Burma Campaign 1944–45, Buthidaung, Caldari, Chindits, Company (military unit), Dalbir Singh, Far East, Gaje Ghale, Gallipoli, Gallipoli Campaign, Gorkha regiments (India), Gurkha, Guy Boisragon, Hazara, Pakistan, Hunza Valley, Ian Cardozo, Imphal, India, Indian Army, Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War, Indian Peace Keeping Force, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Infantry, Italian Campaign (World War II), Japan, John Cook (VC), John Manners Smith, Kargil War, Kashmir conflict, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, ..., Kirti Chakra, Kukri, Landing at Cape Helles, Landing at Suvla Bay, Lieutenant general, Maha Vir Chakra, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Meghalaya, Mesopotamian campaign, Middle East, Military Cross, Military history of the North-West Frontier, Mogaung, Monte San Bartolo, Myanmar, Nepal, Netrabahadur Thapa, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Operation Bison (Jammu & Kashmir 1948), Pakistan, Punjab, Punjab Irregular Force, Raid on the Suez Canal, Regiment, Rocca d'Arce, Royal Gurkha Rifles, Second Anglo-Afghan War, Sehjra, Sena Medal, Shillong, Sinai and Palestine Campaign, Sino-Indian War, Sittaung River, Srinivas Kumar Sinha, St. Luke's Church, Abbottabad, Stockade, Sub-units of the Frontier Force Regiment, Sylhet, Thaman Gurung, The Irrawaddy, Third Anglo-Afghan War, Tokyo, Victoria Cross, Vir Chakra, World War I, World War II, Yenangyaung, Zorawar Chand Bakhshi, 13th Lancers, 15th Indian Division, 17th Indian Infantry Brigade, 17th Infantry Division (India), 1st (Peshawar) Division, 2nd (Rawalpindi) Division, 42nd Indian Brigade, 7th Indian Infantry Division, 8th Infantry Division (India). Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
Abbottabad (Urdu, ایبٹ آباد) is the capital city of Abbottabad District in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Action of Khan Baghdadi was an engagement during the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I.
Agansing Rai (24 April 1920 – 27 May 2000) was a Nepalese Gurkha recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Ashoka Chakra (alternative spelling: Ashok Chakra) is India's highest peacetime military decoration awarded for valour, courageous action or self-sacrifice away from the battlefield.
The Battle of Atgram Complex, fought on 21 November 1971 between the 5 Gorkha Rifles of the Indian Army and the 31st Punjab regiment of the Pakistan Army, was one of the first large-scale military engagements preceding the formal initiation of hostilities in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
The Battle of Gazipur was a military engagement on 4 and 5 December 1971, during the Bangladesh liberation war.
During the Gallipoli campaign in 1915, several battles were fought near the village of Krithia which is from the Greek "Krithari" which means Barley.
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Peiwar Kotal was fought on 28–29 November 1878 between British forces under Sir Frederick Roberts and Afghan forces under Karim Khan, during the opening stages of the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
The Battle of Sari Bair (Sarı Bayır Harekâtı), also known as the August Offensive (Ağustos Taarruzları), was the final attempt made by the British in August 1915 to seize control of the Gallipoli peninsula from the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
The Battle of Sittang Bridge was part of the Burma campaign during the Second World War.
The Battle of Sylhet was a major battle fought between the advancing Mitro Bahini and the Pakistani defences at Sylhet during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The Battle of the Admin Box (sometimes referred to as the Battle of Ngakyedauk or the Battle of Sinzweya) took place on the southern front of the Burma Campaign from 5 to 23 February 1944, in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II.
Bishnupur is a town in Bishnupur district in the state of Manipur, India.
Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.
The British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF) was the joint Australian, British, Indian and New Zealand military forces in occupied Japan, from 21 February 1946 until the end of occupation in 1952.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily by British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of Imperial Japan, who were assisted to some degree by Thailand, the Burmese Independence Army and the Indian National Army.
Buthidaung is a town in Rakhine State, in the westernmost part of Myanmar (Burma).
Caldari is a frazione of the municipality of Ortona in the Province of Chieti in Abruzzo, Italy.
The Chindits, known officially as the Long Range Penetration Groups, were special operations units of the British and Indian armies, which saw action in 1943–1944, during the Burma Campaign of World War II.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
Dalbir Singh Suhag, PVSM, UYSM, AVSM, VSM, ADC (born 28 December 1954) was the 26th Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) of the Indian Army, who assumed office on 31 July 2014, following the retirement of General Bikram Singh.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
Gaje Ghale (गजे घले) VC (1 August 1918 – 28 March 2000) was a Nepalese Gurkha recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Since the independence of India in 1947, as per the terms of the Britain–India–Nepal Tripartite Agreement, six Gorkha regiments, formerly part of the British Indian Army, became part of the Indian Army and have served ever since.
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.
Brigadier Guy Hudleston Boisragon VC (5 November 1864 – 14 July 1931) was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Hazara (Hindko/ہزارہ, هزاره) is a region in the North-Eastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Hunza (Burushaski: ہنزو, Wakhi, and ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.
Major General Ian Cardozo, AVSM, SM is a former Indian Army General.
Imphal is the capital city of the Indian state of Manipur.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War was the deployment of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka intended to perform a peacekeeping role.
Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Major John Cook VC (28 August 1843 – 19 December 1879) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Lieutenant Colonel John Manners Smith VC CIE CVO (30 August 1864 – 6 January 1920) was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Kirti Chakra is an Indian military decoration awarded for valour, courageous action or self-sacrifice away from the field of battle.
The kukri or khukuri (खुकुरी khukuri) is a Nepalese knife with an inwardly curved blade, similar to a machete, used as both a tool and as a weapon in Nepal.
The landing at Cape Helles (Turkish: Seddülbahir Çıkarması) was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula by British and French forces on 25 April 1915 during the First World War.
The landing at Suvla Bay was an amphibious landing made at Suvla on the Aegean coast of Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire as part of the August Offensive, the final British attempt to break the deadlock of the Battle of Gallipoli.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) (literally great warrior medal) is the second highest military decoration in India, after the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
Meghalaya is a state in Northeast India.
The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from Britain, Australia and the British Indian, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Military Cross (MC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Armed Forces, and used to be awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries.
The North-West Frontier (present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) region of the British Indian Empire was the most difficult area to conquer in South Asia, strategically and militarily.
Mogaung (မိုးကောင်း; Shan: Mong Kawng) is a town in Kachin State, Myanmar.
Monte San Bartolo is a mountain located in the Marche region of Italy.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Netrabahadur Thapa VC (नेत्रबहादुर थापा 8 January 1916 – 26 June 1944) was a Nepalese Gurkha recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Operation Bison is the codename of the assault and capture of Zoji La, Dras and Kargil district in Ladakh by the Indian Army during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Punjab Irregular Force (PIF) was created in 1851 to protect the NW frontier of British India.
The Raid on the Suez Canal, also known as Actions on the Suez Canal, took place between 26 January and 4 February 1915 after a German-led Ottoman Army force advanced from Southern Palestine to attack the British Empire-protected Suez Canal, before the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Substantial Ottoman forces crossed the Sinai peninsula, but their attack failed mainly because of strongly held defences and alert defenders.
A regiment is a military unit.
Rocca d'Arce is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Frosinone in the Italian region Lazio, located about southeast of Rome and about southeast of Frosinone.
The Royal Gurkha Rifles (RGR) is a rifle regiment of the British Army, forming part of the Brigade of Gurkhas.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
Sehjra (سیہجرہ) is a town and Union Council of Kasur District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
This article is about the Sena Medal, an Indian Military decoration. 'SM' redirects here The Sena Medal is awarded to members of the Indian army, of all ranks, "for such individual acts of exceptional devotion to duty or courage as have special significance for the Army." Awards may be made posthumously and a bar is authorized for subsequent awards of the Sena Medal.
Shillong (Khasi: Shillong) is a hill station in the northeastern part of India and the capital of Meghalaya, which means "The Abode of Clouds" and is one of the smallest states in India.
The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire, supported by the German Empire.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
The Sittaung (စစ်တောင်းမြစ်; formerly, the Sittang or Sittoung) is a river in south central Myanmar in Bago Division.
Lieutenant General Srinivas Kumar Sinha, PVSM (1926–2016) was an Indian Army General who served as the Vice Chief of Army Staff.
St Luke's Church, Abbottabad is an Anglican church dedicated to St. Luke, now under the jurisdiction of the Peshawar Diocese of the Church of Pakistan.
A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened as a defensive wall.
The Frontier Force Regiment consists of battalions with their own history.
Sylhet (সিলেট, ꠍꠤꠟꠐ), also known as Jalalabad, the spiritual capital; is a metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh.
Thaman Gurung VC (2 October 1924 – 10 November 1944) was a Nepalese Gurkha recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
The Irrawaddy is a website by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG), founded in 1990 by Burmese exiles living in Thailand.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
Vir Chakra is an Indian gallantry award presented for acts of bravery on the battlefield.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yenangyaung (ရေနံချောင်း; literally "stream of oil") is a city in Myanmar, Magway Division.
Lieutenant General Zorawar Chand Bakshi (Z.C. Bakshi) PVSM, MVC, VrC, VSM (21 October 1921 – 24 May 2018) was a General of the Indian Army, most known as one of the commanders of Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (Operation Ablaze).
The 13th Lancers is an armoured regiment of Pakistan Army.
The 15th Indian Division was an infantry division of the British Indian Army that saw active service in the First World War.
The 17th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the Indian Army during World War II.
The 17th Infantry Division is a formation of the Indian Army.
The 1st (Peshawar) Division was a Regular Division of the British Indian Army, formed as a result of the Kitchener reforms of the Indian Army in 1903.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 2nd (Rawalpindi) Division was a regular army division of the British Indian Army.
The 42nd Indian Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Indian Army that saw active service with the Indian Army during the First World War.
The 7th Indian Infantry Division was a war-formed infantry division, part of the Indian Army during World War II that saw service in the Burma Campaign.
The 8th Mountain Division was raised as the 8th Indian Infantry division of the British Indian Army.