498 relations: Acarnania, Achaemenid Empire, Achaeus of Eretria, Acropolis, Acropolis of Athens, Aedile, Aegina, Aequi, Aeschylus, Agatharchus, Agesilaus II, Ajatashatru, Alcibiades, Alexander, Alexander I of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Ambracia, Amphipolis, Amyntas I of Macedon, Anaxagoras, Anchor, Ancient Corinth, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Rome, Andocides, Antigone (Sophocles play), Anzio, Apulia, Archidamus II, Argos, Aristagoras, Aristides, Aristophanes, Artabanus of Persia, Artaxerxes I of Persia, Artaxerxes II of Persia, Aspasia, Astylos of Croton, Athena, Athenian coup of 411 BC, Athenian democracy, Athens, Atom, Babylon, Bacchylides, Battle of Amphipolis, Battle of Arginusae, Battle of Artemisium, ..., Battle of Coronea (447 BC), Battle of Cumae, Battle of Cyzicus, Battle of Himera (480 BC), Battle of Lade, Battle of Lake Regillus, Battle of Mantinea (418 BC), Battle of Marathon, Battle of Mount Algidus, Battle of Mycale, Battle of 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Acarnania (Ακαρνανία) is a region of west-central Greece that lies along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Achaeus of Eretria (Ἀχαιός ὁ Ἐρετριεύς; born 484 BC in Euboea) was a Greek playwright author of tragedies and satyr plays, variously said to have written 24, 30, or 44 plays, of which 19 titles are known: Adrastus, Aethon, Alcmeon, Alphesiboea, Athla, Azanes, Cycnus, Eumenides, Hephaestus, Iris, Linus, Moirai (Fates), Momus, Oedipus, Omphale, Philoctetes, Phrixus, Pirithous, and Theseus.
An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.
The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.
Aedile (aedīlis, from aedes, "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
Location of the Aequi (Equi) in central Italy, 5th century BC. The Aequi (Αἴκουοι and Αἴκοι) were an Italic tribe on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains to the east Latium in central of Italy who appear in the early history of ancient Rome.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
Agatharchus or Agatharch (Ancient Greek: Ἀγάθαρχος) was a self-taught painter from Samos who lived in the 5th century BC.
Agesilaus II (Ἀγησίλαος Agesilaos; c. 444 – c. 360 BC), was a Eurypontid king of the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, ruling from 398 to about 360 BC, during most of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "as good as though commander and king of all Greece," and was for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's deeds and fortunes.
Ajatashatru (Pali: Ajātasattu; Kunika; or early 4th century BCE) was a king of the Haryanka dynasty of Magadha in North India.
Alcibiades, son of Cleinias, from the deme of Scambonidae (Greek: Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnídēs; c. 450–404 BC), was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general.
Alexander is a common male given name, and a less common surname.
Alexander I of Macedon (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών), known with the title Philhellene (Greek: φιλέλλην, "lover of the Greeks"), was the ruler of the ancient Kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his death in 454 BC.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ambracia (Ἀμβρακία, occasionally Ἀμπρακία, Ampracia), was a city of ancient Greece on the site of modern Arta.
Amphipolis (Αμφίπολη - Amfipoli; Ἀμφίπολις, Amphípolis) is best known for being a magnificent ancient Greek polis (city), and later a Roman city, whose impressive remains can still be seen.
Amyntas I (Greek: Ἀμύντας Aʹ; 498 BC) was a king of Macedon.
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andocides (Ἀνδοκίδης, Andokides; c. 440 – c. 390 BC) was a logographer (speech writer) in Ancient Greece.
Antigone (Ἀντιγόνη) is a tragedy by Sophocles written in or before 441 BC.
Anzio is a city and comune on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about south of Rome.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Archidamus II (Ἀρχίδαμος Β΄) was a Eurypontid king of Sparta who reigned from approximately 476 BC to 427 BC.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Aristagoras (Ἀρισταγόρας ὁ Μιλήσιος), d. 497/496 BC, was the leader of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC and a key player during the early years of the Ionian Revolt against the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Aristides (Ἀριστείδης, Aristeides; 530–468 BC) was an ancient Athenian statesman.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Artabanus of Persia (or Artabanus the Hyrcanian; Ἀρτάβανος) was a Persian political figure during the Achaemenid dynasty who was reportedly Regent of Persia for a few months (465 BC – 464 BC).
Artaxerxes I (اردشیر یکم., 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, "whose rule (xšaça R. Schmitt.. Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012.; Artaxérxēs) was the fifth King of Persia from 465 BC to 424 BC. He was the third son of Xerxes I. He may have been the "Artasyrus" mentioned by Herodotus as being a Satrap of the royal satrapy of Bactria. In Greek sources he is also surnamed "long-handed" (μακρόχειρ Macrocheir; Longimanus), allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left.
Artaxerxes II Mnemon (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, meaning "whose reign is through truth") was the Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm (King of Kings) of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC.
Aspasia (Ἀσπασία; c. 470 BCD. Nails, The People of Plato, Hackett Publishing pp 58–59 – c. 400 BC)A.E. Taylor, Plato: The Man and his Work, 41 was an influential immigrant to Classical-era Athens who was the lover and partner of the statesman Pericles.
Astylos of Croton (Ἄστυλος/Ἀστύαλος ὁ Κροτωνιάτης) was an athlete from ancient Croton who starred in the Olympic Games of the 5th century BC.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
The Athenian coup of 411 BC was the result of a revolution that took place during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bacchylides (Βακχυλίδης, Bakkhylídēs; c. 518 – c. 451 BC) was a Greek lyric poet.
The Battle of Amphipolis (Μάχη της Αμφίπολης) was fought in 422 BC during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta.
The naval Battle of Arginusae took place in 406 BC during the Peloponnesian War near the city of Canae in the Arginusae islands, east of the island of Lesbos.
The Battle of Artemisium, or Battle of Artemision, was a series of naval engagements over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The Battle of Coronea (also known as the First Battle of Coronea) took place between the Athenian-led Delian League and the Boeotian League in 447 BC during the First Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Cumae was a naval battle in 474 BC between the combined navies of Syracuse and Cumae against the Etruscans.
The naval Battle of Cyzicus took place in 410 BC during the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Himera (480 BC), supposedly fought on the same day as the more famous Battle of Salamis, or at the same time as the Battle of Thermopylae, saw the Greek forces of Gelon, King of Syracuse, and Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum, defeat the Carthaginian force of Hamilcar the Magonid, ending a Carthaginian bid to restore the deposed tyrant of Himera.
For war between the navy of Rhodes and the navy of Macedon in 201 BC, see Battle of Lade (201 BC). The Battle of Lade (Ναυμαχία τῆς Λάδης, Naumachia tēs Ladēs) was a naval battle which occurred during the Ionian Revolt, in 494 BC.
The Battle of Lake Regillus was a legendary Roman victory over the Latin League shortly after the establishment of the Roman Republic and as part of a wider Latin War.
The First Battle of Mantinea of 418 BC was a significant engagement in the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.
The Battle of Mount Algidus was fought in 458 BC, between the Roman Republic and the Aequi, near Mount Algidus in Latium.
The Battle of Mycale (Μάχη τῆς Μυκάλης; Machē tēs Mykalēs) was one of the two major battles that ended the second Persian invasion of Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars.
The Battle of Naupactus was a naval battle in the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, was a Spartan naval victory in the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Oenophyta took place between Athens and the Boeotian city-states in 457 BC during the First Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Olpae was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC, between armies led by Athens and Sparta.
The Battle of Piraeus was fought in 403 BC between Athenian exiles who had defeated the government of the Thirty Tyrants and occupied Piraeus and a Spartan force sent to combat them.
The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
This article describes the battle immediately prior to the Peloponnesian War in 432 BC.
The naval Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War at the peninsula of Pylos, on the present-day Bay of Navarino in Messenia, and was an Athenian victory over Sparta.
The Battle of Rhium (429 BC) or the battle of Chalcis was a naval battle in the Peloponnesian War between an Athenian fleet commanded by Phormio and a Peloponnesian fleet composed of contingents from various states, each with its own commander.
The Battle of Salamis (Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachia tēs Salaminos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.
The Battle of Sybota (Σύβοτα) took place in 433 BC between Corcyra (modern Corfu) and Corinth, and was, according to Thucydides, the largest naval battle between Greek city states until that time.
There was a later battle at Tanagra during the Peloponnesian War; see Battle of Tanagra (426 BC). The Battle of Tanagra took place in 457 BC between Athens and Sparta during the First Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of the Eurymedon was a double battle, taking place both on water and land, between the Delian League of Athens and her Allies, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I. It took place in either 469 or 466 BC, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Eurymedon River (now the Köprüçay) in Pamphylia, Asia Minor.
The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought in 326 BC between Alexander the Great and King Porus of the Paurava kingdom on the banks of the river Jhelum (known to the Greeks as Hydaspes) in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent (modern-day Punjab, Pakistan).
The Battle of Thermopylae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
Bel (from Akkadian bēlu), signifying "lord" or "master", is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in the Mesopotamian religion of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
The Berlin Foundry Cup (Erzgießerei-Schale) is a red-figure kylix (drinking cup) from the early 5th century BC.
Betrayal is the breaking or violation of a presumptive contract, trust, or confidence that produces moral and psychological conflict within a relationship amongst individuals, between organizations or between individuals and organizations.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Brasidas (Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Callicrates (Καλλικράτης, Kallikratēs) was an ancient Greek architect active in the middle of the fifth century BC.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Carystus (Κάρυστος, near modern Karystos) was an ancient city-state on Euboea.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
Chalcis (Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, Chalkís) or Chalkida (Modern Χαλκίδα) is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cimon (– 450BC) or Kimon (Κίμων, Kimōn) was an Athenian statesman and general in mid-5th century BC Greece.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus; Italian: Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.
Cleomenes (though some older reference works give the pronunciation with the accent on the next to last syllable, which is closer to the Greek; Greek Κλεομένης Kleomenes; died c. 489 BC) was an Agiad King of Sparta in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC.
Cleon (Κλέων Kleon,; died 422 BC) was an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Conon (Κόνων) (before 444 BC – after 394 BC) was an Athenian general at the end of the Peloponnesian War, who led the Athenian naval forces when they were defeated by a Peloponnesian fleet in the crucial Battle of Aegospotami; later he contributed significantly to the restoration of Athens' political and military power.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Corioli was a town in ancient times in the territory of the Volsci in central Italy, in Latium adiectum.
Cratinus (Κρατῖνος; 519 BC – 422 BC) was an Athenian comic poet of the Old Comedy.
Critias (Κριτίας, Kritias; c. 460 – 403 BCE) was an ancient Athenian political figure and author.
Cumae ((Kumē) or Κύμαι or Κύμα; Cuma) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general.
Dandes of Argos (Δάνδης Ἀργεῖος, transcr. Dandḗs Argeíos, "Dandes Argive") was an ancient Greek athlete listed by Eusebius of Caesarea as a victor in the stadion race of the 77th Olympiad (472 BC).
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Darius II (Old Persian: Dārayavahuš), was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 404 or 405 BC.
The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin for "ten men") were any of several 10-man commissions established by the Roman Republic.
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the amount of members numbering between 150 to 330under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
The island of Delos (Δήλος; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece.
Demaratus (Δημάρατος) was a king of Sparta from around 510 until 491 BC, 15th of the Eurypontid line, successor to his father Ariston.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης, died 413 BC), son of Alcisthenes, was an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War.
Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.
Diagoras "the Atheist" of Melos (Διαγόρας ὁ Μήλιος) was a Greek poet and sophist of the 5th century BC.
Diagoras of Rhodes (Διαγόρας ὁ Ῥόδιος) was an ancient Greek boxer from the 5th century BC, who was celebrated for his own victories, as well as the victories of his sons and grandsons.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
The Dionysia was a large festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central events of which were the theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and, from 487 BC, comedies.
Dionysius I or Dionysius the Elder (Διονύσιος ὁ Πρεσβύτερος; c. 432367 BC) was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse, in what is now Sicily, southern Italy.
The dithyramb (διθύραμβος, dithyrambos) was an ancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god: Plato, in The Laws, while discussing various kinds of music mentions "the birth of Dionysos, called, I think, the dithyramb." Plato also remarks in the Republic that dithyrambs are the clearest example of poetry in which the poet is the only speaker.
Douris or Duris (Δοῦρις, Douris) was an ancient Athenian red-figure vase-painter and potter active to 460 BCE.
Ducetius (died 440 BCE) was a Hellenized leader of the Sicels and founder of a united Sicilian state and numerous cities.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
Ephialtes (Ἐφιάλτης, Ephialtēs) was an ancient Athenian politician and an early leader of the democratic movement there.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.
Euphronios (Εὐφρόνιος; c. 535 – after 470 BC) was an ancient Greek vase painter and potter, active in Athens in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
Ezra (עזרא,; fl. 480–440 BCE), also called Ezra the Scribe and Ezra the Priest in the Book of Ezra, was a Jewish scribe and a priest.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fan Li from the Spring and Autumn period, was a prominent Chinese statesman, military strategist, diplomat, economist, philanthropist, Taoist, founder of Chuism (楚学), and the founding father of Chinese commercial business.
A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures.
Fifth-century Athens is the Greek city-state of Athens in the time from 480 BC-404 BC.
The First Buddhist council was a gathering of senior monks of the Buddhist order convened just after Gautama Buddha's death in ca.
Fuchai (reigned 495–473), sometimes also written Fucha, was the last king of the state of Wu during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history.
Gaius, sometimes spelled Gajus, Cajus, Caius, was a common Latin praenomen; see Gaius (praenomen).
Gaius Marcius (Caius Martius) Coriolanus was a Roman general who is said to have lived in the 5th century BC.
Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala was a 5th-century BC politician of ancient Rome, considered by many later writers to have been a hero.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gela (Γέλα), is a city and comune in the Autonomous Region of Sicily, the largest for area and population in the island's southern coast.
Gelo (Greek: Γέλων Gelon, gen.: Γέλωνος; died 478 BC), son of Deinomenes, was a 5th-century BC ruler of Gela and Syracuse and first of the Deinomenid rulers.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Gorgias (Γοργίας; c. 485 – c. 380 BC) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
Goujian (reigned 496–465 BC) was the king of the Kingdom of Yue (present-day northern Zhejiang) near the end of the Spring and Autumn period.
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.
The Great Learning or Daxue was one of the "Four Books" in Confucianism.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
Greek literature dates from ancient Greek literature, beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature of today.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hamilcar (Punic-Phoenician 𐤇𐤌𐤋𐤒𐤓𐤕 ḥmlqrt, Canaanite Hebrew אחי-מלקרת, meaning brother of Melqart, a Tyrian god) was a common name in the Punic culture.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The helots (εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia, the territory controlled by Sparta.
Heraclea, also Heracleia or Herakleia (Ἡράκλεια), was an ancient city of Magna Graecia.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
A herma (ἑρμῆς, pl. ἑρμαῖ hermai), commonly in English herm, is a sculpture with a head, and perhaps a torso, above a plain, usually squared lower section, on which male genitals may also be carved at the appropriate height.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hieron I (Ἱέρων Α΄; usually Latinized Hiero) was the son of Deinomenes, the brother of Gelon and tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily from 478 to 467 BC.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hippias of Elis (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἠλεῖος; late 5th century BC) was a Greek sophist, and a contemporary of Socrates.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hippocrates (Ἱπποκράτης; died 491 BC) (not to be confused with Hippocrates of Cos) was the second tyrant of Gela and ruled from 498 BC to 491 BC.
Hippodamus of Miletus (Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, Hippodamos ho Milesios; 498 – 408 BC), was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher, who is considered to be "the father of European urban planning", the namesake of the "Hippodamian Plan" (grid plan) of city layout.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.
The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence.
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.
The history of Taranto dates back to the 8th century BC when it was founded as a Greek colony, known as Taras.
The History of the Peloponnesian War (Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
The Iapygians (Ἰάπυγες, Ĭāpyges; Iapyges, Iapygii) were an Indo-European people who inhabited Apulia in classical antiquity.
Ictinus (Ἰκτῖνος, Iktinos) was an architect active in the mid 5th century BC.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.
The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
The is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between 14,000–300 BCE, recently refined to about 1000 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
King Ai of Zhou was the twenty-ninth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the seventeenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Kao of Zhou was the thirty first king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the nineteenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Weilie of Zhou, or King Weilieh of Chou, was the thirty-second king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twentieth of Eastern Zhou.
King Yuan of Zhou was the twenty-seventh king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the fifteenth of Eastern Zhou.
King Zhending of Zhou, or King Chenting of Chou, was the twenty-eighth king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the sixteenth of Eastern Zhou.
Kresilas (Κρησίλας Krēsílas; c. 480 – c. 410 BC) was a Greek sculptor in the Classical period (5th century BC), from Kydonia.
Kritios (Κριτίος) was an Athenian sculptor, probably a pupil of Antenor, working in the early 5th century BCE, whose manner is on the cusp of the Late Archaic and the Severe style of Early Classicism in Attica.
La Venta is a pre-Columbian archaeological site of the Olmec civilization located in the present-day Mexican state of Tabasco.
The Lacus Curtius ("Lake of Curtius"), Livius.org was a mysterious pit or pool in the ground in the Forum Romanum.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lefkada (Λευκάδα, Lefkáda), also known as Lefkas or Leukas (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λευκάς, Leukás, modern pronunciation Lefkás) and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
Lentini (Sicilian: Lintini), historically Leontini or Leontinoi (Λεοντῖνοι), is a town and comune in the Province of Syracuse, South East of Sicily (Southern Italy).
Leonidas I (or; Doric Λεωνίδας, Leōnídas; Ionic and Attic Greek: Λεωνίδης, Leōnídēs; "son of the lion"; died 11 August 480 BC) was a warrior king of the Greek city-state of Sparta.
Leotychidas (also Leotychides, Latychidas; Λεωτυχίδας; c. 545 BC–c. 469 BC) was a ruler of Sparta in 491–476 BC.
Li Kui (455–395 BC) was an ancient Chinese government minister and court advisor to Marquis Wen (r. 403–387 BC) in the state of Wei.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lu Ban (–444BC).
Lucius Quinctius or Quintius Cincinnatus (– BC) was a Roman patrician, statesman, and military leader of the early Republic who became a legendary figure of Roman virtues—particularly Roman manliness and civic virtue—by the time of the Empire.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Lysander (died 395 BC, Λύσανδρος, Lýsandros) was a Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont which defeated the Athenians at Aegospotami in 405 BC.
Lysias (Λυσίας; c. 445 BC – c. 380 BC) was a logographer (speech writer) in Ancient Greece.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathṓn) is a town in Greece and the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians.
Marcus Curtius is a mythological young Roman who offered himself to the gods of Hades.
Marcus Furius Camillus (c. 446 – 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent.
Mardonius (Μαρδόνιος Mardonios, Old Persian: Marduniya, literally: "the mild one"; died 479 BC) was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC who died at the Battle of Plataea.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
Marquess Wen of Wei (Wèi Wén Hóu; died 396 BCE) was the first Marquess to rule the State of Wei during the Warring States period of Chinese history (475–220 BCE).
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
The Maya calendar is a system of calendars used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and in many modern communities in the Guatemalan highlands, Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.
Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.
Mercury (Latin: Mercurius) is a major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon.
Messenian Wars refers to the wars between Messenia and Sparta in the 8th and 7th centuries BC as well as the 4th century BC.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
Milos or Melos (Modern Greek: Μήλος; Μῆλος Melos) is a volcanic Greek island in the Aegean Sea, just north of the Sea of Crete.
Miltiades (Μιλτιάδης; c. 550 – 489 BC), also known as Miltiades the Younger, was an Athenian citizen known mostly for his role in the Battle of Marathon, as well as for his downfall afterwards.
Mnesikles (Μνησικλῆς; Latin transliteration: Mnesicles) was an ancient Athenian architect active in the mid 5th century BC, the age of Pericles.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Morgantina is an archaeological site in east central Sicily, southern Italy.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
Myron of Eleutherae (Μύρων), working c. 480 BC - 440 BC, was an Athenian sculptor from the mid-5th century BC.
Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη) is a city founded in the 11th century BC.
Naxos (Greek: Νάξος) is a Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades.
Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Nicias (Νικίας Nikias; c. 470–413 BC), was an Athenian politician and general during the period of the Peloponnesian War.
Nirukta (निरुक्त) means "explained, interpreted" and refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.
Oedipus Rex, also known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus (Οἰδίπους Τύραννος IPA), or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 BC.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled.
The Oresteia (Ὀρέστεια) is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus in the 5th century BC, concerning the murder of Agamemnon by Clytaemnestra, the murder of Clytaemnestra by Orestes, the trial of Orestes, the end of the curse on the House of Atreus and pacification of the Erinyes.
Ostracism (ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years.
Paeonius (Παιώνιος Paionios) of Mende, Chalkidiki was a Greek sculptor of the late 5th century BC.
Pankration (παγκράτιον) was a sporting event introduced into the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and was an empty-hand submission sport with scarcely any rules.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
Parrhasius of Ephesus (Παρράσιος) was one of the greatest painters of Ancient Greece.
The Parthenon (Παρθενών; Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
Pataliputra (IAST), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Pauravas or Paurav Rashtra was an ancient Indian kingdom in the northwest Indian subcontinent (present-day Pakistan and India).
Pausanias (Παυσανίας; died c. 470 BC) was a Spartan regent, general, and war leader for the Greeks who was suspected of conspiring with the Persian king, Xerxes I, during the Greco-Persian Wars.
Pausanias (Greek: Παυσανίας) was the Agiad King of Sparta from 445 BC to 426 BC and then from 408 BC to 395 BC.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
The Peace of Callias is a purported treaty established around 449 BC between the Delian League (led by Athens) and Persia, ending the Greco-Persian Wars.
The Peace of Nicias, also known as the Fifty-Year Peace, was a peace treaty signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in March 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War.
Peliades is the earliest known tragedy by Euripides; he entered it into the Dionysia of 455 BC but did not win.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
Perdiccas II (Περδίκκας Β΄) was a king of Macedonia from about 448 BC to about 413 BC.
Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.
Pheidippides (Φειδιππίδης) or Philippides (Φιλιππίδης) is the central figure in the story that inspired a modern sporting event, the marathon race.
Phidias or Pheidias (Φειδίας, Pheidias; 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philoxenus of Cythera (Φιλόξενος ὁ Κυθήριος; c. 435 – 380 BC) was a Greek dithyrambic poet, an exponent of the "new music.".
Phlegm (φλέγμα "inflammation, humour caused by heat") is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammals.
Phormio (Φορμίων Phormion, gen.: Φορμίωνος), the son of Asopius, was an Athenian general and admiral before and during the Peloponnesian War.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
The Plague of Athens (Λοιμός των Αθηνών) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach.
Plataea or Plataeae (Πλαταιαί) was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
Pleistarchus or Plistarch (Πλείσταρχος Pleistarkhos; died 458 BC) was the Agiad King of Sparta from 480 to 458 BC.
Pleistoanax (Πλειστοάναξ; reigned 458–409 BC) was an Agiad king of Sparta.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Polydamas of Skotoussa (Greek: Πολυδάμας (gen.: -ντος) ὁ Σκοτουσσαῖος), son of Nicias, was a Thessalian pankratiast, and victor in the 93rd Olympiad (408 BC).
Polygnotus (Πολύγνωτος Polygnotos) was an ancient Greek painter from the middle of the 5th century BC.
Polykleitos was an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the 5th century BCE.
Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Potidaea (Ποτίδαια, Potidaia) was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point of the peninsula of Pallene, the westernmost of three peninsulas at the southern end of Chalcidice in northern Greece.
Prodicus of Ceos (Πρόδικος ὁ Κεῖος, Pródikos ho Keios; c. 465 BC – c. 395 BC) was a Greek philosopher, and part of the first generation of Sophists.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qufu is a city in southwestern Shandong Province, China.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move rapidly on foot.
The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Segesta (Egesta; Siggésta) was one of the major cities of the Elymian people, one of the three indigenous peoples of Sicily.
Selinunte (Σελινοῦς, Selinous; Selinūs) was an ancient Greek city on the south-western coast of Sicily in Italy.
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
Shear legs, also known as sheers, shears, or sheer legs, are a form of two-legged lifting device.
The Sicels (Siculi; Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily during the Iron Age.
The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian military expedition to Sicily, which took place during the period from 415 BC to 413 BC (during the Peloponnesian War).
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Simonides of Ceos (Σιμωνίδης ὁ Κεῖος; c. 556 – 468 BC) was a Greek lyric poet, born at Ioulis on Ceos.
Sitalces (Sitalkes) (Ancient Greek: Σιτάλκης, reigned 431 – 424 BC) was one of the great kings of the Thracian Odrysian state.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the position of the apparent position of the sun in relative to the stars.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Sphacteria (Σφακτηρία - Sfaktiria, in 19th century context also Sphagia) is a small island at the entrance to the bay of Pylos in the Peloponnese, Greece.
Spurius Maelius (died 439 BC) was a wealthy Roman plebeian who was slain because he was suspected of intending to make himself king.
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about tall, made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia, Greece, and erected in the Temple of Zeus there.
A straightedge or straight edge is a tool with a straight edge, used for drawing straight lines, or checking their straightness.
Strategos or Strategus, plural strategoi, (στρατηγός, pl.; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Taiyuan (also known as Bīng (并), Jìnyáng (晋阳)) is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
Tegea (Τεγέα) was a settlement in ancient Arcadia, and it is also a former municipality in Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
A temple of Confucius or Confucian temple is a temple for the veneration of Confucius and the sages and philosophers of Confucianism in Chinese folk religion and other East Asian religions.
The Temple of Hephaestus or Hephaisteion (also "Hephesteum"; Ἡφαιστεῖον, Ναός Ηφαίστου) or earlier as the Theseion (also "Theseum"; Θησεῖον, Θησείο), is a well-preserved Greek temple; it remains standing largely as built.
Thasos or Thassos (Θάσος) is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administratively part of the Kavala regional unit.
The Persians (Πέρσαι, Persai, Latinised as Persae) is an ancient Greek tragedy written during the Classical period of Ancient Greece by the Greek tragedian Aeschylus.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Themistocles (Θεμιστοκλῆς Themistoklẽs; "Glory of the Law"; c. 524–459 BC) was an Athenian politician and general.
The Thirty Tyrants (οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι, hoi triákonta týrannoi) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.
The Thirty Years' Peace was a treaty, signed between the ancient Greek city-states Athens and Sparta, in the year 446/445 BCE.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Thrasybulus (Θρασύβουλος, Thrasyboulos; "brave-willed"; c. 440 – 388 BC) was an Athenian general and democratic leader.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
Thurii (Thoúrioi), called also by some Latin writers Thurium (compare Θούριον in Ptolemy), for a time also Copia and Copiae, was a city of Magna Graecia, situated on the Tarentine gulf, within a short distance of the site of Sybaris, whose place it may be considered as having taken.
The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng is an important archaeological site in Leigudun Community (擂鼓墩社区), Nanjiao Subdistrict (南郊街道), Zengdu District, Suizhou (then Sui County), Hubei, China, dated sometime after 433 BC.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
A treasury is either.
A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.
Tribunus plebis, rendered in English as tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people, or plebeian tribune, was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and throughout the history of the Republic, the most important check on the power of the Roman Senate and magistrates.
A trilogy (from Greek τρι- tri-, "three" and -λογία -logia, "discourse") is a set of three works of art that are connected, and that can be seen either as a single work or as three individual works.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
According to Greek tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Veii (also Veius, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy.
Verginia, or Virginia (ca. 465 BC449 BC), was the subject of a story of ancient Rome, related in Livy's Ab Urbe Condita.
The Volsci were an Italic tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Wars of the Delian League (477–449 BC) were a series of campaigns fought between the Delian League of Athens and her allies (and later subjects), and the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
Wei (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period.
Various lists of the Wonders of the World have been compiled from antiquity to the present day, to catalogue the world's most spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures.
Wu (Old Chinese: *) was one of the states during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn period.
Wu Yun (died 484 BC), better known by his courtesy name Zixu, was a general and politician of the Wu kingdom in the Spring and Autumn period (722–481 BC).
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Xenophon of Corinth, son of Thessalus, was a victor at the Olympic Games, both in the foot-race and in the pentathlon, in the 79th Olympiad (464 BC).
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
Xi Shi (Hsi Shih;, literally "(Lady) Shi of the West", 506 BC – ?) was one of the renowned Four Beauties of ancient China.
Ximen Bao was a Chinese hydraulic engineer, philosopher, and politician.
was an early Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pāṇini (fl. 6-5th century BCE, Quote: "Ashtadhyayi, Sanskrit Aṣṭādhyāyī (“Eight Chapters”), Sanskrit treatise on grammar written in the 6th to 5th century BCE by the Indian grammarian Panini."), assumed to have lived in the 7th century BCE.
Yue (Old Chinese: *), also known as Yuyue, was a state in ancient China which existed during the first millennium BC the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of China's Zhou dynasty in the modern provinces of Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Jiangsu.
Zengzi (505–435 BC), born Zeng Shen, courtesy name Ziyu, was an influential Chinese philosopher and disciple of Confucius.
Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
Zeuxis (Ζεῦξις) (of Heraclea) was a painter who flourished during the 5th century BC.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Year 325 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 396 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 400 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 409 BC – 400 BC.
Year 401 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 403 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 404 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 405 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 406 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 407 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 408 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 409 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 410 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This decade witnessed the continuing decline of the Achaemenid Empire, fierce warfare amongst the Greek city-states during the Peloponnesian War, the ongoing Warring States period in Zhou dynasty China, and the closing years of the Olmec civilization (lasting from c. 1200–400 BC) in modern-day Mexico.
Year 411 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 412 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 413 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 414 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 415 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 416 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 418 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 419 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 420 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 429 BC – 420 BC.
Year 421 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 422 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 423 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 424 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 425 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 426 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 427 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 428 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 429 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 430 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 439 BC – 430 BC.
Year 431 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 432 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 433 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 434 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 435 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 438 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 439 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 440 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 449 BC – 440 BC.
Year 441 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 442 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 443 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 445 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 447 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 448 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 449 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 450 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 459 BC – 450 BC.
Year 451 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 453 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 454 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 455 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 457 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 458 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 459 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 460 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 469 BC – 460 BC.
Year 461 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 462 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 464 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
The Sparta earthquake of 464 BC destroyed much of Sparta, a city-state of ancient Greece.
Year 465 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 466 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 468 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 469 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 479 BC – 470 BC.
Year 471 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 472 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 473 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 474 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 475 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 476 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 477 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 478 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 479 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 480 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 489 BC – 480 BC.
Year 481 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 483 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 484 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 485 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 486 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 487 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 488 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 489 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 490 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
This article concerns the period 499 BC – 490 BC.
Year 491 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 492 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 493 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 494 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 495 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 496 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 498 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 499 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC.
The year 500 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.