63 relations: Acetic acid, Acetyl-CoA, Acyl carrier protein, Acyltransferase, Alcohol, Allosteric regulation, Amino acid, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Bacteria, Biosynthesis, Carbon, Carbon–carbon bond, Carbonyl group, Chain transfer, Cytoplasm, Dehydratase, Dehydration, Dimer (chemistry), Double bond, Enzyme, Erythromycin, Fatty acid, Fatty acid synthesis, Gene, Genetic engineering, Glycosyltransferase, Hydroxy group, In vitro, In vivo, Ketoacyl synthase, Macrolide, Malonic acid, Mammal, Methylmalonyl-CoA, Molecule, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Organic compound, Oxidoreductase, Peptide, Pharmaceutical industry, Phosphopantetheine, Polyketide, Polyketide synthase, Prokaryote, Propionyl-CoA, Protein complex, Reagent, Redox, ..., Saturated fat, Serine, Sirolimus, Stereocenter, Stereochemistry, Stereoisomerism, Stereospecificity, Synthase, Thioester, Thioesterase, Unsaturated fat, Upstream and downstream (transduction), Yeast. Expand index (13 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an important component in both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis with the growing chain bound during synthesis as a thiol ester at the distal thiol of a 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety.
Acyltransferase is a type of transferase enzyme that acts upon acyl groups.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Chain transfer is a polymerization reaction by which the activity of a growing polymer chain is transferred to another molecule.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dehydratases are a group of lyase enzymes that form double and triple bonds in a substrate through the removal of water.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Ketoacyl synthases (KSs) catalyze the condensation reaction of acyl-CoA or acyl-acyl ACP with malonyl-CoA to form 3-ketoacyl-CoA or with malonyl-ACP to form 3-ketoacyl-ACP.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Malonic acid (IUPAC systematic name: propanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure CH2(COOH)2.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Methylmalonyl-CoA is the thioester consisting of coenzyme A linked to methylmalonic acid.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Mycobacterium smegmatis is an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Mycobacterium.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant, also called the electron acceptor.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Phosphopantetheine, also known as 4'-Phosphopantetheine, is an essential prosthetic group of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) derived from Coenzyme A. It is also present in formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase.
Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites produced by certain living organisms in order to impart to them some survival advantage.
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are a family of multi-domain enzymes or enzyme complexes that produce polyketides, a large class of secondary metabolites, in bacteria, fungi, plants, and a few animal lineages.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Propionyl-CoA is a coenzyme A derivative of propionic acid.
A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
In chemistry, stereospecificity is the property of a reaction mechanism that leads to different stereoisomeric reaction products from different stereoisomeric reactants, or which operates on only one (or a subset) of the stereoisomers.
In biochemistry, a synthase is an enzyme that catalyses a synthesis process.
In chemistry thioesters are compounds with the functional group R–S–CO–R'.
Thioesterases are enzymes which belong to the esterase family.
An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
In molecular biology, the terms upstream and downstream can refer to the temporal and mechanistic order of cellular and molecular events.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.