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613 commandments

Index 613 commandments

The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b. [1]

221 relations: Abraham ibn Ezra, Acharei Mot, Aggadah, Aharon HaLevi, Altered state of consciousness, Amalek, Ammon, Ancient Egypt, Animal tithe, Ark of the Covenant, Ashkenazi Jews, Barcelona, Bereavement in Judaism, Birkat Hamazon, Blasphemy, Bone, Book of Numbers, Boundary marker, Brit milah, Canaan, Castration, Chadash, Chametz, Childbirth, Chillul Hashem, Cities of Refuge, Confession (Judaism), Consecration, Controversy, Counting of the Omer, Damages, Divination, Edom, Egyptians, Ejaculation, Eliezer ben Jose, Eliezer ben Samuel, Eunuch, Exodus Rabbah, Fear of God, Fish, Forbidden relationships in Judaism, Fortune-telling, Four species, Fowl, Frankincense, Gadol, Gemara, Gematria, Geonim, ..., Get (divorce document), Gleaning, God in Judaism, Haggadah, Halakha, Halizah, Hasidic Judaism, Havdalah, Heave offering, High Priest of Israel, History of ancient Israel and Judah, History of the Jews in Hungary, Homosexuality and Judaism, Honey, Honour thy father and thy mother, Human body, Hungary, I am the Lord thy God, Idolatry, Idolatry in Judaism, Imitation of God, Incantation, Incense, Interfaith marriage in Judaism, Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil, Israel Meir Kagan, Iyar, Jacob, Jacob ben Asher, Jerusalem, Jewish ethics, Jewish mysticism, Jewish philosophy, Jewish prayer, Jewish principles of faith, Jewish views on marriage, Jews, Jubilee (biblical), Judah Loew ben Bezalel, Kashrut, Ketubah, Kiddush, Kiddush Hashem, Kil'ayim (prohibition), Kohen, Kosher animals, Kosher wine, Land of Israel, Lashon hara, Laws and customs of the Land of Israel in Judaism, Levite, Leviticus 18, Lifnei iver, Locust, Love of God, Lulav, Magic (supernatural), Maimonides, Makkot, Mamzer, Maror, Matzo, Menorah (Temple), Mezuzah, Midrash, Midrash halakha, Mikveh, Milk and meat in Jewish law, Minhag, Mishnah, Mishneh Torah, Mishpatim, Mitzvah, Mitzvah goreret mitzvah, Moab, Moloch, Monotheism, Moses, Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, Moses Isserles, Mount Sinai, Murder, Nachmanides, Names of God in Judaism, Nazirite, Negiah, Niddah, Nisan, Numbers Rabbah, Oath, Oppression, Orlah, Parashah, Passover, Passover sacrifice, Payot, Pe'ah, Pidyon haben, Priestly Blessing, Prophecy, Prophet, Rabbi, Rabbinic literature, Rashi, Razor, Red heifer, Repentance in Judaism, Revenge, Rishonim, Rosh Chodesh, Rosh Hashanah, Saadia Gaon, Sanhedrin, Sciatic nerve, Second Temple, Sefer ha-Chinuch, Sefer Hamitzvot, Sefer Torah, Self-sacrifice in Jewish law, Semen, Shabbat, Shatnez, Shavuot, Shechita, Shekel, Shema Yisrael, Shemini Atzeret, Shlomo Ganzfried, Shmita, Shofar, Shulchan Aruch, Simeon ben Azzai, Simeon ben Zemah Duran, Simlai, Slavery, Sotah (Talmud), Sukkah, Sukkot, Superstition, Ta'anit, Tallit, Talmud, Tanakh, Techum shabbat, Tefillin, Temple in Jerusalem, Temple Mount, Ten Commandments, The Exodus, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain, Three Pilgrimage Festivals, Tishrei, Tithe, Torah, Torah study, Tropical year, Tzaraath, Tzedakah, Tzitzit, Vow, Weekly Torah portion, Weighing scale, Weight, Wheat, Witchcraft and divination in the Hebrew Bible, Yeast, Yevamot, Yibbum, Yom Kippur, Zav, Zavah. Expand index (171 more) »

Abraham ibn Ezra

Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra (אַבְרָהָם אִבְּן עֶזְרָא or ראב"ע; ابن عزرا; also known as Abenezra or Aben Ezra, 1089–c.1167) was one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages.

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Acharei Mot

Acharei Mot (also Aharei Mot, or Aharei Mos) (Hebrew for "after the death") is the 29th weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading.

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Aggadah (Aramaic אַגָּדָה: "tales, lore"; pl. aggadot or (Ashkenazi) aggados; also known as aggad or aggadh or agâdâ) refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, particularly as recorded in the Talmud and Midrash.

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Aharon HaLevi

Aharon ben Joseph ha-Levi (אהרון הלוי‎; 1235 – c. 1290), known by his Hebrew acronym Ra'aH, was a medieval rabbi, Talmudic scholar and Halakhist.

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Altered state of consciousness

An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.

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Amalek (عماليق) is a nation described in the Old Testament of the Hebrew Bible.

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Ammon (ʻAmmūn) was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Animal tithe

The animal tithe (מַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה, "Ma'sar Behemah") is a commandment in the Torah requiring the sanctifying a tithe of kosher grazing animals (cattle, sheep, and goats) to God, to be sacrificed as a Korban at the Temple in Jerusalem.

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Ark of the Covenant

The Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Bereavement in Judaism

Bereavement in Judaism is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts.

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Birkat Hamazon

Birkat Hamazon or Birkat Hammazon, known in English as the Grace After Meals (בענטשן; translit. bentshn or "to bless", Yinglish: Benching), is a set of Hebrew blessings that Jewish Halakha ("collective body of Jewish religious laws") prescribes following a meal that includes at least a ke-zayit (olive sized) piece of bread or matzoh made from one or all of wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt.

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Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Book of Numbers

The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.

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Boundary marker

A boundary marker, border marker, boundary stone, or border stone is a robust physical marker that identifies the start of a land boundary or the change in a boundary, especially a change in direction of a boundary.

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Brit milah

The brit milah (בְּרִית מִילָה,; Ashkenazi pronunciation:, "covenant of circumcision"; Yiddish pronunciation: bris) is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel ("circumciser") on the eighth day of the infant's life.

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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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In Judaism, Chadash (or Chodosh) is a concept within Kashrut (the Jewish dietary regulations), based on the Biblical requirement not to eat any grain of the new year (or products made from it) prior to the annual Omer offering on the 16th day of Nisan.

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Chametz (also chometz,, ḥameṣ, ḥameç and other spellings transliterated from חָמֵץ / חמץ) are leavened foods that are forbidden on the Jewish holiday of Passover.

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Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

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Chillul Hashem

In Judaism, a Chillul Hashem (חילול השם) is an act that violates the prohibition in the Torah of desecrating (chillul) the name (Hashem) of God.

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Cities of Refuge

The Cities of Refuge were six Levitical towns in the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah in which the perpetrators of accidental manslaughter could claim the right of asylum.

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Confession (Judaism)

In Judaism, confession (Hebrew וִדּוּי Widduy; Viddui) is a step in the process of atonement during which a Jew admits to committing a sin before God.

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Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious.

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Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of conflicting opinion or point of view.

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Counting of the Omer

Counting of the Omer (Sefirat HaOmer, sometimes abbreviated as Sefira or the Omer) is an important verbal counting of each of the forty-nine days between the Jewish holidays of Passover and Shavuot as stated in the Hebrew Bible:.

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In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.

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Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.

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Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.

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Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.

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Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.

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Eliezer ben Jose

Eliezer ben Jose (Heb. Eliezer ben Yose HaGelili) was a Jewish rabbi who lived in Judea in the 2nd century.

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Eliezer ben Samuel

Eliezer ben Samuel of Metz (died 1175) was a Tosafist and the author of the halachic work Sefer Yereim (Vilna 1892).

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The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.

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Exodus Rabbah

Exodus Rabbah (Hebrew: שמות רבה, Shemot Rabbah) is the midrash to Exodus.

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Fear of God

Fear of God refers to fear or a specific sense of respect, awe, and submission to a deity.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Forbidden relationships in Judaism

Forbidden relationships in Judaism (איסורי ביאה Isurey bi'ah) are those intimate relationships which are forbidden by prohibitions in the Torah and also by rabbinical injunctions.

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*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.

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Four species

The four species (ארבעת המינים, also called arba'a minim) are four plants mentioned in the Torah (Leviticus 23:40) as being relevant to the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.

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Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes).

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Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.

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Gadol or godol (plural: gedolim) (Hebrew "big" or "great") is a term used by religious Jews to refer to the most revered rabbis of the generation.

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The Gemara (also transliterated Gemora, Gemarah, or, less commonly, Gemorra; from Hebrew, from the Aramaic verb gamar, study) is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah.

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Gematria (גמטריא, plural or, gematriot) originated as an Assyro-Babylonian-Greek system of alphanumeric code or cipher later adopted into Jewish culture that assigns numerical value to a word, name, or phrase in the belief that words or phrases with identical numerical values bear some relation to each other or bear some relation to the number itself as it may apply to Nature, a person's age, the calendar year, or the like.

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Geonim (גאונים;; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.

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Get (divorce document)

A get or gett (גט, plural gittin גיטין) is a divorce document in Jewish religious law, which must be presented by a husband to his wife to effectuate their divorce.

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Gleaning is the act of collecting leftover crops from farmers' fields after they have been commercially harvested or on fields where it is not economically profitable to harvest.

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God in Judaism

In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.

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The Haggadah (הַגָּדָה, "telling"; plural: Haggadot) is a Jewish text that sets forth the order of the Passover Seder.

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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Halizah (or Chalitzah; חליצה) is, under the Biblical system of levirate marriage known as Yibbum, the process by which a childless widow and a brother of her deceased husband may avoid the duty to marry.

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Hasidic Judaism

Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.

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Havdalah (Hebrew: הַבְדָּלָה, "separation") is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Sabbath and ushers in the new week.

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Heave offering

A heave offering, or terumah (תְּרוּמָה), plural terumot, is a kind of offering.

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High Priest of Israel

High priest (כהן גדול kohen gadol; with definite article ha'kohen ha'gadol, the high priest; Aramaic kahana rabba) was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE.

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History of ancient Israel and Judah

The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.

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History of the Jews in Hungary

Jews have a long history in the country now known as Hungary, with some records even predating the AD 895 Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin by over 600 years.

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Homosexuality and Judaism

The subject of homosexual behavior and Judaism dates back to the Torah.

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Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.

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Honour thy father and thy mother

"Honour thy father and thy mother" is one of the Ten Commandments in the Hebrew Bible.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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I am the Lord thy God

"I am the thy God" (KJV, also "I am Yahweh your God" NJB, WEB, ’Ānōḵî Yahweh ’ĕlōheḵā) is the opening phrase of the Ten Commandments, which are widely understood as moral imperatives by ancient legal historians and Jewish and Christian biblical scholars.

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Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.

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Idolatry in Judaism

Idolatry in Judaism is prohibited.

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Imitation of God

Imitation of God (imitatio Dei) is the religious precept of Man finding salvation by attempting to realize his concept of supreme being.

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An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.

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Incense is aromatic biotic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned.

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Interfaith marriage in Judaism

Interfaith marriage in Judaism (also called mixed marriage or intermarriage) was historically looked upon with very strong disfavour by Jewish leaders, and it remains a controversial issue among them today.

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Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil

Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil (d.1280) (יצחק בן יוסף מקורבי"ל) was a French rabbi and Tosafist who flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century.

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Israel Meir Kagan

Israel Meir (HaKohen) Kagan (January 26, 1839 – September 15, 1933), known popularly as the Chofetz Chaim (Hebrew: חפץ חיים, Hafetz Chaim), was an influential rabbi of the Musar movement, a Halakhist, posek, and ethicist whose works continue to be widely influential in Jewish life.

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Iyar (אִייָר or אִיָּר, Standard Iyyar Tiberian ʾIyyār; from Akkadian ayyaru, meaning "Rosette; blossom") is the eighth month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the second month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) on the Hebrew calendar.

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Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.

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Jacob ben Asher

Jacob ben Asher, also known as Ba'al ha-Turim as well as Rabbi Yaakov ben Raash (Rabbeinu Asher), was probably born in the Holy Roman Empire at Cologne about 1269 and probably died at Toledo, then in the Kingdom of Castile, about 1343.

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jewish ethics

Jewish ethics is the moral philosophy particular to one or both of the Jewish religion and peoples.

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Jewish mysticism

Academic study of Jewish mysticism, especially since Gershom Scholem's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941), distinguishes between different forms of mysticism across different eras of Jewish history.

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Jewish philosophy

Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.

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Jewish prayer

Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.

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Jewish principles of faith

There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism.

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Jewish views on marriage

In traditional Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jubilee (biblical)

The Jubilee (יובל yōḇel; Yiddish: yoyvl) is the year at the end of seven cycles of shmita (Sabbatical years), and according to Biblical regulations had a special impact on the ownership and management of land in the Land of Israel; there is some debate whether it was the 49th year (the last year of seven sabbatical cycles, referred to as the Sabbath's Sabbath), or whether it was the following (50th) year.

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Judah Loew ben Bezalel

Judah Loew ben Bezalel, alt.

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Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.

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A ketubah (pl. ketubot) is a special type of Jewish prenuptial agreement.

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Kiddush (קידוש), literally, "sanctification," is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat and Jewish holidays.

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Kiddush Hashem

Kiddush HaShem (קידוש השם "sanctification of the Name") is a precept of Judaism.

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Kil'ayim (prohibition)

Kil'ayim (or Klayim) (כלאים, lit. "Mixture," or "Diverse kinds") are the prohibitions in Jewish law about planting certain mixtures of seeds, grafting, mixtures of plants in vineyards, crossbreeding animals, working a team of different kinds of animals together, and mixing wool and linen in garments.

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Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.

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Kosher animals

Kosher animals are animals that comply with the regulations of kashrut and are considered kosher foods.

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Kosher wine

Kosher wine is grape wine produced according to Judaism's religious law, specifically, Jewish dietary laws (kashrut).

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Land of Israel

The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.

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Lashon hara

The Hebrew term lashon hara (or loshon horo) (Hebrew לשון הרע; "evil tongue") is the halakhic term for derogatory speech about another person.

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Laws and customs of the Land of Israel in Judaism

Laws and customs of the Land of Israel in Judaism (מצוות התלויות בארץ; translit. Mitzvot Ha'teluyot Be'aretz) are special Jewish laws that apply only to the Land of Israel.

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A Levite or Levi is a Jewish male whose descent is traced by tradition to Levi.

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Leviticus 18

Leviticus 18 is the eighteenth chapter of the Book of Leviticus in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.

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Lifnei iver

In Judaism, Lifnei Iver (Hebrew: לִפְנֵי עִוֵּר, "Before the Blind") is a prohibition against misleading people by use of a "stumbling block".

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Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase.

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Love of God

Love of God can mean either love for God or love by God.

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Lulav (לולב) is a closed frond of the date palm tree.

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Magic (supernatural)

Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.

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Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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Makkot (Hebrew: מכות, "Lashes") is a book of the Mishnah and Talmud.

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A mamzer (ממזר) is a person born from certain forbidden relationships, or the descendant of such a person, in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish religious law.

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Maror (מָרוֹר mārôr) or Marror refers to the bitter herbs eaten at the Passover Seder in keeping with the biblical commandment "with bitter herbs they shall eat it." (Exodus 12:8).

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Matzo, matzah, or matza (matsah, מַצָּה matsa; plural matzot; matzos of Ashkenazi Hebrew dialect) is an unleavened flatbread that is part of Jewish cuisine and forms an integral element of the Passover festival, during which chametz (leaven and five grains that, per Jewish Law, can be leavened) is forbidden.

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Menorah (Temple)

The menorah (מְנוֹרָה) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem.

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A mezuzah (מְזוּזָה "doorpost"; plural: mezuzot) comprises a piece of parchment called a klaf contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah (and). These verses consist of the Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael, beginning with the phrase: "Hear, O Israel, the (is) our God, the is One".

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In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).

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Midrash halakha

Midrash halakha (הֲלָכָה) was the ancient Judaic rabbinic method of Torah study that expounded upon the traditionally received 613 Mitzvot (commandments) by identifying their sources in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and by interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws' authenticity.

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Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.

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Milk and meat in Jewish law

Mixtures of milk and meat (בשר בחלב, basar bechalav, literally "meat in milk") are prohibited according to Jewish law.

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Minhag (מנהג "custom", pl. מנהגים, minhagim) is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism.

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The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".

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Mishneh Torah

The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").

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Mishpatim (— Hebrew for "laws," the second word of the parashah) is the eighteenth weekly Torah portion (parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the sixth in the Book of Exodus.

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In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.

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Mitzvah goreret mitzvah

The Hebrew phrase mitzvah goreret mitzvah, averah goreret averah (Hebrew: מצווה גוררת מצווה; עברה גוררת עברה.) "one good deed will bring another good deed, one transgression will bring another transgression," (Sayings of the Fathers 4:2) expresses the belief in Judaism that following one commandment leads to another.

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Moab (Moabite: Māʾab;; Μωάβ Mōáb; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Mu'aba, 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 Ma'ba, 𒈠𒀪𒀊 Ma'ab; Egyptian 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 Mu'ibu) is the historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan.

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Moloch is the biblical name of a Canaanite god associated with child sacrifice.

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Moses ben Jacob of Coucy

Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, also known as Moses Mikkotsi (משה בן יעקב מקוצי; Moses Kotsensis), was a French Tosafist and authority on Halakha (Jewish law).

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Moses Isserles

Moses Isserles (משה בן ישראל איסרלישׂ, Mojżesz ben Israel Isserles) (February 22, 1530 / Adar I, 5290 – May 11, 1572 / Iyar), was an eminent Polish Ashkenazic rabbi, talmudist, and posek.

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Mount Sinai

Mount Sinai (Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or lit; ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ or ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ; הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai; Όρος Σινάι; Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions.

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Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.

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Moses ben Nahman (מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān, "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (Ναχμανίδης Nakhmanídēs), and also referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta (literally "Mazel Tov near the Gate", see wikt:ca:astruc), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.

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Names of God in Judaism

The name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the " owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.

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In the Hebrew Bible, a nazirite or nazarite is one who voluntarily took a vow described in.

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Negiah (נגיעה), literally "touch", is the concept in Jewish law (Halakha) that forbids or restricts physical contact with a member of the opposite sex (except for one's spouse, children, siblings, grandchildren, parents, and grandparents).

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Niddah (or nidah; נִדָּה), in Judaism, describes a woman during menstruation, or a woman who has menstruated and not yet completed the associated requirement of immersion in a mikveh (ritual bath).

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Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.

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Numbers Rabbah

Numbers Rabbah (or Bamidbar Rabbah in Hebrew) is a religious text holy to classical Judaism.

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Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon āð, also called plight) is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity.

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Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.

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The prohibition on orlah-fruit (lit. "uncircumcised" fruit) is a command found in the Bible not to eat fruit produced by a tree during the first three years after planting.

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The term parashah (פָּרָשָׁה Pārāšâ "portion", Tiberian, Sephardi, plural: parashot or parashiyot) formally means a section of a biblical book in the Masoretic Text of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).

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Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.

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Passover sacrifice

The Passover sacrifice (קרבן פסח Korban Pesakh), also known as the "sacrifice of Passover", the Paschal Lamb, or the Passover Lamb, is the sacrifice that the Torah mandates Jews and Samaritans to ritually slaughter on the eve of Passover, and eat on the first night of the holiday with bitter herbs and matzo.

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Payot (פֵּאָה), also pronounced pe'ot, peyot; or payos, peyos, peyois, payois in Ashkenazi pronunciation, is the Hebrew word for sidelocks or sidecurls.

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Pe'ah (פֵּאָה, lit. "Corner") is the second tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud.

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Pidyon haben

The pidyon haben (פדיון הבן) or redemption of the first-born son is a mitzvah in Judaism whereby a Jewish firstborn son is "redeemed" by use of silver coins from his birth-state of sanctity, i.e. from being predestined by his firstborn status to serve as a priest.

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Priestly Blessing

The Priestly Blessing or priestly benediction, (ברכת כהנים; translit. birkat kohanim), also known in rabbinic literature as raising of the hands (Hebrew nesiat kapayim), or Dukhanen (Yiddish from the Hebrew word dukhan – platform – because the blessing is given from a raised rostrum), is a Hebrew prayer recited by Kohanim - the Hebrew Priests.

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A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.

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In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.

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In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.

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Rabbinic literature

Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.

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Shlomo Yitzchaki (רבי שלמה יצחקי; Salomon Isaacides; Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (רש"י, RAbbi SHlomo Itzhaki), was a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the ''Tanakh''.

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A razor is a bladed tool primarily used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving.

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Red heifer

The red heifer (פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה; para adumma), also known as the red cow, was a cow brought to the priests as a sacrifice according to the Hebrew Bible, and its ashes were used for the ritual purification of Tum'at HaMet ("the impurity of the dead"), that is, an Israelite who had come into contact with a corpse.

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Repentance in Judaism

Repentance (תשובה, literally, "return", pronounced "tshuva" or "teshuva") is one element of atoning for sin in Judaism.

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Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.

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Rishonim (ראשונים; sing. ראשון, Rishon, "the first ones") were the leading rabbis and poskim who lived approximately during the 11th to 15th centuries, in the era before the writing of the Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew: שׁוּלחָן עָרוּך, "Set Table", a common printed code of Jewish law, 1563 CE) and following the Geonim (589-1038 CE).

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Rosh Chodesh

Rosh Chodesh or Rosh Hodesh (ראש חודש; trans. Beginning of the Month; lit. Head of the Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar, marked by the birth of a new moon.

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Rosh Hashanah

Rosh Hashanah (רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה), literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year" is the Jewish New Year.

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Saadia Gaon

Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.

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The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.

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Sciatic nerve

The sciatic nerve (also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and animals.

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Second Temple

The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.

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Sefer ha-Chinuch

The Sefer ha-Chinuch (ספר החינוך, "Book of Education"), often simply "the Chinuch" is a work which systematically discusses the 613 commandments of the Torah.

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Sefer Hamitzvot

Sefer Hamitzvot ("Book of Commandments", Hebrew: ספר המצוות) is a work by the 12th century rabbi, philosopher and physician Maimonides.

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Sefer Torah

A Sefer Torah (ספר תורה; "Book of Torah" or "Torah scroll"; plural: Sifrei Torah) is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book in Judaism.

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Self-sacrifice in Jewish law

Although rare, there are instances within Jewish law that mandate a Jew to sacrifice his or her own life rather than violate a religious prohibition.

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Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.

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Shatnez (or shaatnez,; Biblical Hebrew Šaʿatnez Shaatnez.ogg) is cloth containing both wool and linen (linsey-woolsey), which Jewish law, derived from the Torah, prohibits wearing.

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Shavuot or Shovuos, in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (שבועות, lit. "Weeks"), is known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek.

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In Judaism, shechita (anglicized:; שחיטה;; also transliterated shehitah, shechitah, shehita) is slaughtering of certain mammals and birds for food according to kashrut.

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Shekel (Akkadian: šiqlu or siqlu; שקל,. shekels or sheqalim) is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency.

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Shema Yisrael

Shema Yisrael (or Sh'ma Yisrael; שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל; "Hear, Israel") are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title (better known as The Shema) of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services.

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Shemini Atzeret

Shemini Atzeret (– "Eighth Assembly"; Sefardic/Israeli pron. shemini atzèret; Ashkenazic pron. shmini-atsères) is a Jewish holiday.

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Shlomo Ganzfried

Shlomo Ganzfried (or Salomo ben Joseph Ganzfried; 1804 in Ungvar – 30 July 1886 in Ungvar) was an Orthodox rabbi and posek best known as author of the work of Halakha (Jewish law), the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew: קיצור שולחן ערוך, "The Abbreviated Shulchan Aruch"), by which title he is also known.

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The sabbath year (shmita שמיטה, literally "release") also called the sabbatical year or shǝvi'it (literally "seventh") is the seventh year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by the Torah for the Land of Israel, and still observed in contemporary Judaism.

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A shofar (pron., from Shofar.ogg) is an ancient musical horn typically made of a ram's horn, used for Jewish religious purposes.

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Shulchan Aruch

The Shulchan Aruch (שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך, literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.

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Simeon ben Azzai

Simeon ben Azzai or simply Ben Azzai (שמעון בן עזאי) was a distinguished tanna of the first third of the 2nd century.

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Simeon ben Zemah Duran

Simeon ben Zemah Duran, also Tzemach Duran (1361–1444), known as Rashbatz or Tashbatz was a Rabbinical authority, student of philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, and especially of medicine, which he practised for a number of years at Palma (de Majorca).

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Rabbi Simlai (רבי שמלאי) was a talmudic sage who lived in Palestine in the 3rd century.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Sotah (Talmud)

Tractate Sotah (שוטה / סוטה) deals with the ordeal of the bitter water—the woman suspected of adultery—as well as other rituals involving speech.

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A or succah (סוכה; plural, סוכות or sukkos or sukkoth, often translated as "booth") is a temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish festival of Sukkot.

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Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת,, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October).

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Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.

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A ta'anit, or taanis (in Ashkenaz pronunciation), or taʿanith in Classical Hebrew is a fast in Judaism in which one abstains from all food and drink, including water.

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A tallit (טַלִּית talit in Modern Hebrew; tālēt in Sephardic Hebrew and Ladino; tallis in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish) (pl. tallitot, talleisim, tallism in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish; ṭālēth/ṭelāyōth in Tiberian Hebrew) is a fringed garment traditionally worn by religious Jews.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Techum shabbat

In Jewish halacha, the techum shabbat (Hebrew: תחום שבת, "Shabbat boundary"), or simply techum, is a limited physical area in which a Jew is permitted to walk on foot on Shabbat and Jewish holidays.

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Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.

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Temple in Jerusalem

The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.

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Temple Mount

The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") and the Al Aqsa Compound is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike.

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Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.

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The Exodus

The exodus is the founding myth of Jews and Samaritans.

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Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain

"Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain" (KJV; also "You shall not make wrongful use of the name of the Lord your God" (NRSV) and variants) is one of the Ten Commandments.

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Three Pilgrimage Festivals

The Three Pilgrimage Festivals, in Hebrew Shalosh Regalim (שלוש רגלים), are three major festivals in Judaism—Pesach (Passover), Shavuot (Weeks or Pentecost), and Sukkot (Tabernacles, Tents or Booths)—when the ancient Israelites living in the Kingdom of Judah would make a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem, as commanded by the Torah.

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Tishrei (or Tishri; תִּשְׁרֵי tishré or tishrí); from Akkadian tašrītu "Beginning", from šurrû "To begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) in the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian. It is an autumn month of 30 days. Tishrei usually occurs in September–October on the Gregorian calendar. In the Hebrew Bible, before the Babylonian Exile, the month is called Ethanim (אֵתָנִים -). Edwin R. Thiele has concluded, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, that the ancient Kingdom of Judah counted years using the civil year starting in Tishrei, while the Kingdom of Israel counted years using the ecclesiastical new year starting in Nisan. Tishrei is the month used for the counting of the epoch year - i.e., the count of the year is incremented on 1 Tishrei.

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A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Torah study

Torah study is the study of the Torah, Hebrew Bible, Talmud, responsa, rabbinic literature and similar works, all of which are Judaism's religious texts.

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Tropical year

A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.

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The Hebrew noun tzaraath (Hebrew צרעת, Romanized Tiberian Hebrew ṣāraʻaṯ and numerous variants of English transliteration, including saraath, tzaraas, tzaraat, tsaraas and tsaraat) describes disfigurative conditions of the skin, hair of the beard and head, clothing made of linen or wool, or stones of homes located in the land of Israel.

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Tzedakah or Ṣ'daqah in Classical Hebrew (צדקה), is a Hebrew word literally meaning "justice" or "righteousness," but commonly used to signify charity Notably, this concept of "charity" is different from the modern Western understanding of "charity," which is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity, as tzedakah is rather an ethical obligation.

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Tzitzit (plural tsitsiyot) are specially knotted ritual fringes, or tassels, worn in antiquity by Israelites and today by observant Jews and Samaritans.

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A vow (Lat. votum, vow, promise; see vote) is a promise or oath.

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Weekly Torah portion

The weekly Torah portion (פָּרָשַׁת הַשָּׁבוּעַ Parashat ha-Shavua), popularly just parashah (or parshah or parsha) and also known as a Sidra (or Sedra) is a section of the Torah (Five Books of Moses) used in Jewish liturgy during a single week.

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Weighing scale

Weighing scales (or weigh scales or scales) are devices to measure weight.

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In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Witchcraft and divination in the Hebrew Bible

Various forms of witchcraft and divination in the Hebrew Bible are mentioned in a generally disapproving tone.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Yevamot (יבמות, "Brother's Widow") is a tractate of the Talmud that deals with, among other concepts, the laws of Yibbum, loosely translated in English as the levirate marriage, and, briefly, with conversion to Judaism.

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Yibbum or levirate marriage in Judaism, is one of the most complex types of marriages mandated by Torah law by which, according to the law, the brother of a man who died without children has an obligation to marry the widow.

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Yom Kippur

Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.

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In Torah terminology, the Hebrew word zav (lit. "flow") is a state of ritual impurity arising from abnormal seminal discharge from the male sexual organ.

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The Hebrew term zavah (Hebrew זבה) is a state of ritual impurity applicable to females arising from vaginal blood discharges not during the usually anticipated menstrual cycle.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/613_commandments

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