97 relations: Action Française, Albert Oustric, Alexandre Stavisky, Anarchism in France, André Tardieu, Anti-communism, Anti-fascism, Antisemitism, Authoritarianism, Éditions Albin Michel, Édouard Daladier, Élysée Palace, Émile Chartier, Bankruptcy, Battle of Cable Street, Battle of France, Bayonne, Benito Mussolini, Bonus Army, Camelots du Roi, Camille Chautemps, Cartel des Gauches, Charles Maurras, Comité de vigilance des intellectuels antifascistes, Communist International, Confédération générale du travail unitaire, Counter-revolutionary, Coup d'état, Croix-de-Feu, Daniel Halévy, Far-right leagues, Fascio, Fascism, François Coty, François de La Rocque, Franc, Freemasonry, French Communist Party, French legislative election, 1932, French Revolution of 1848, French Section of the Workers' International, French Third Republic, Gaston Doumergue, General Confederation of Labour (France), General strike, Great Depression in France, House of Capet, Italian Fascism, Jean Chiappe, Jeunesses Patriotes, ..., John Gunther, Joseph Stalin, Latin Quarter, Paris, Legitimists, Ligue des Patriotes, List of Prime Ministers of France, Louis Barthou, Louis Marin (politician), Marc Bloch, Marcel Bucard, March on Rome, Marthe Hanau, Michel Dobry, Michel Winock, Militarism, Mouvement Franciste, National Assembly (France), Naturalization, Nazism, Palais Bourbon, Parliamentary system, Paul Déroulède, Paul Langevin, Paul Rivet, Petite bourgeoisie, Philippe Pétain, Pierre Taittinger, Place de la Concorde, Political scandal, Popular Front (France), Prefecture of Police, Radical Party (France), René Rémond, Robert Soucy, Seine, Social democracy, Solidarité Française, Sorbonne, Spanish Civil War, State of emergency, Stavisky Affair, Tours Congress, Vichy France, Wall Street Crash of 1929, World War II, Xenophobia, Zeev Sternhell. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
Action française (AF; French Action) is a French right-wing political movement.
Albert Oustric (2 September 1887 – 16 April 1971) was a French entrepreneur and banker.
Serge Alexandre Stavisky (November 20, 1886, Ukraine – January 8, 1934, Chamonix) was a French financier and embezzler whose actions created a political scandal that became known as the Stavisky Affair.
Anarchism in France can trace its roots to thinker Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who grew up during the Restoration and was the first self-described anarchist.
André Pierre Gabriel Amédée Tardieu (22 September 1876 – 15 September 1945) was three times Prime Minister of France (3 November 1929 – 17 February 1930; 2 March – 4 December 1930; 20 February – 10 May 1932) and a dominant figure of French political life in 1929–1932.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Éditions Albin Michel is a French publisher.
Édouard Daladier (18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.
The Élysée Palace (Palais de l'Élysée) is the official residence of the President of France.
Émile-Auguste Chartier (3 March 1868 – 2 June 1951), commonly known as Alain, was a French philosopher, journalist, and pacifist.
Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.
The Battle of Cable Street was a riot that took place in Cable Street, Whitechapel in the East End of London, on Sunday 4 October 1936.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The Bonus Army were the 43,000 marchers—17,000 U.S. World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
The King's Camelots, officially the National Federation of the King's Camelots (Fédération nationale des Camelots du Roi) was a far-right youth organization of the French militant royalist and integralist movement Action Française active from 1908 to 1936.
Camille Chautemps (1 February 1885 – 1 July 1963) was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic, three times President of the Council (Prime Minister).
The Lefts Cartel (Cartel des gauches) was the name of the governmental alliance between the Radical-Socialist Party and the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) after World War I (1914–18), which lasted until the end of the Popular Front (1936–38).
Charles-Marie-Photius Maurras (20 April 1868 – 16 November 1952) was a French author, politician, poet, and critic.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Watchfulness Committee of Antifascist Intellectuals (Comité de vigilance des intellectuels antifascistes, CVIA) was a French political organization created in March 1934, in the wake of the February 6, 1934 riots organized by far right leagues, which had led to the fall of the second Cartel des gauches (Left-Wing Coalition) government.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Confédération générale du travail unitaire, or CGTU (United General Confederation of Labor) was a trade union confederation in France that at first included anarcho-syndicalists and soon became aligned with the French Communist Party.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Croix-de-Feu (Cross of Fire) was a nationalist French league of the Interwar period, led by Colonel François de la Rocque (1885–1946).
Daniel Halévy (12 December 1872 – 4 February 1962) was a French historian.
The far-right leagues (ligues d'extrême droite) were several French far-right movements opposed to parliamentarism, which mainly dedicated themselves to military parades, street brawls, demonstrations and riots.
Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word literally meaning "a bundle" or "a sheaf", and figuratively "league", and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
François Coty (born Joseph Marie François Spoturno; 3 May 1874 – 25 July 1934) was a French perfumer and businessman.
François de La Rocque (6 October 1885 – 28 April 1946) was the leader of the French right-wing league named the Croix de Feu from 1930 to 1936 before he formed the more moderate nationalist Parti Social Français (1936–1940), which can be seen as a precursor of Gaullism.
The franc (₣) is the name of several currency units.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
French legislative elections to elect the 15th legislature of the French Third Republic were held on 1 and 8 May 1932.
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Pierre-Paul-Henri-Gaston Doumergue (1 August 1863 in Aigues-Vives, Gard18 June 1937 in Aigues-Vives) was a French politician of the Third Republic.
The General Confederation of Labour (Confédération générale du travail, CGT) is a national trade union center, the first of the five major French confederations of trade unions.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
The Great Depression affected France from about 1931 through the remainder of the decade.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Jean Baptiste Pascal Eugène Chiappe (Ajaccio, 3 May 1878 – 27 November 1940) was a high-ranking French civil servant.
The Jeunesses Patriotes ("Young Patriots", JP) were a far-right league of France, recruited mostly from university students and financed by industrialists founded in 1924 by Pierre Taittinger.
John Gunther (August 30, 1901 – May 29, 1970) was an American journalist and author.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Latin Quarter of Paris (Quartier latin) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris.
The Legitimists (Légitimistes) are royalists who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession to the French crown of the descendants of the eldest branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution.
The League of Patriots (Ligue des Patriotes) was a French far right league, founded in 1882 by the nationalist poet Paul Déroulède, historian Henri Martin, and Félix Faure.
The Prime Minister of France is the head of the Government of France.
Jean Louis Barthou (25 August 1862 – 9 October 1934) was a French politician of the Third Republic who served as Prime Minister of France for eight months in 1913.
Louis Marin (7 February 1871 – 23 May 1960) was a French politician who was Minister for the Liberated Regions in 1924, Minister of Pensions (Veteran Affairs) in 1926–28 and Minister of Health in 1934.
Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (6 July 1886 – 16 June 1944) was a French historian who cofounded the highly influential Annales School of French social history.
Marcel Bucard (December 7, 1895, Saint-Clair-sur-Epte – March 13, 1946, Fort of Châtillon) was a French Fascist politician.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Marthe Hanau (1890–1935) was a Frenchwoman who successfully defrauded French financial markets in the 1920s and 1930s.
Michel Dobry is a French political scientist.
Michel Winock (born 19 March 1937) is a French historian, specializing in the history of the French Republic, intellectual movements, antisemitism, nationalism and the far right movements of France.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
The Francist Movement (Mouvement Franciste, MF) was a French Fascist and Antisemitic league created by Marcel Bucard in September 1933; it edited the newspaper Le Francisme.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Palais Bourbon is a government building located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine, across from the Place de la Concorde.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Paul Déroulède (2 September 1846 – 30 January 1914) was a French author and politician, one of the founders of the nationalist League of Patriots.
Paul Langevin (23 January 1872 – 19 December 1946) was a prominent French physicist who developed Langevin dynamics and the Langevin equation.
Paul Rivet (7 May 1876, Wasigny, Ardennes – 21 March 1958) was a French ethnologist; he founded the Musée de l'Homme in 1937.
Petite bourgeoisie, also petty bourgeoisie (literally small bourgeoisie), is a French term (sometimes derogatory) referring to a social class comprising semi-autonomous peasantry and small-scale merchants whose politico-economic ideological stance in times of socioeconomic stability is determined by reflecting that of a haute ("high") bourgeoisie, with which the petite bourgeoisie seeks to identify itself and whose bourgeois morality it strives to imitate.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
Pierre-Charles Taittinger (4 October 1887 – 22 January 1965) was the founder of the Taittinger champagne house and chairman of the municipal council of Paris in 1943–1944 during the German occupation of France, in which position he played a role during the Liberation of Paris.
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France.
A political scandal is an action or event regarded as morally or legally wrong and causing general public outrage.
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
In France, a Prefecture of Police (Préfecture de police), headed by the Prefect of Police (Préfet de police), is an agency of the Government of France (and part of the French National Police) which provides the police force for one or some départements.
The Radical Party (Parti radical, also Parti radical valoisien, abbreviated to Rad.) was a liberal and social-liberal political party in France.
René Rémond (30 September 1918 – 14 April 2007) was a French historian, political scientist and political economist.
Robert Soucy (born June 25, 1933) is an American historian, specializing in French fascist movements between 1924 and 1939, French fascist intellectuals Maurice Barrès and Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, European fascism, twentieth-century European intellectual history, and Marcel Proust's aesthetics of reading.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Solidarité Française ("French Solidarity") was a French far right league founded in 1933 by perfume manufacturer François Coty and commanded by Major Jean Renaud, they dressed in blue shirts, black berets, and jackboots, and shouted the slogan "France for the French".
The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The Stavisky Affair was a 1934 financial scandal generated by the actions of embezzler Alexandre Stavisky.
The Tours Congress was the 18th National Congress of the French Section of the Workers' International, or SFIO, which took place in Tours on 25–30 December 1920.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
Zeev Sternhell (זאב שטרנהל, born 10 April 1935) is a Polish-born Israeli historian, political scientist, commentator on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and writer.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
6 February 1934 riots, Coup d'etat on February 6, 1934, Coup d'état on February 6, 1934, Events of 6 February 1934, February 1934 riots, February 6, 1934 crisis, February 6, 1934 far right riots, February 6, 1934 rally, February 6, 1934 riots, February 6, 1934, riots, Putsch of February 6, 1934.