126 relations: Adaptation (eye), Allies of World War II, Austria, Automatgevär m/42, Axis powers, Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod, Ballistic coefficient, Bear, Belgium, Besa machine gun, Bighorn sheep, Blaser, Bolt action, Bolt thrust, Break action, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Bundeswehr, Cannelure, Cartridge (firearms), Chamois, China, Combination gun, Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives, Copper units of pressure, Czechoslovakia, Deer, Density of air, Diameter, Dominican Republic, Egypt, France, Game (hunting), German Empire, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, Germany, Gewehr 1888, Gewehr 98, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hakim Rifle, Heym (gun manufacturer), Hornady, Infantry, International Standard Atmosphere, Interwar period, Iran, Israel, K bullet, Karabiner 98k, List of former German colonies, List of rifle cartridges, ..., Mach number, Machine gun, Mauser, Mauser Jagdwaffen GmbH, Mexico, MG 42, Mouflon, Nitrocellulose, Nitroglycerin, Ottoman Empire, Patrone 88, Percussion cap, Plunging fire, Poland, Poudre B, Proof test, Prvi Partizan, Reichswehr, Remington Arms, Remington Model 700, Republic of China (1912–1949), Rifle, Rim (firearms), Romania, RUAG, SAKO, Sütterlin, Sectional density, Sellier & Bellot, Smokeless powder, Sniper, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Spain, Spitzer (bullet), Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute, Steyr Mannlicher, Supersonic speed, Table of handgun and rifle cartridges, Tetryl, Tracer ammunition, Treaty of Versailles, Tungsten carbide, Turkey, Wehrmacht, West Germany, White phosphorus munitions, Wild boar, World war, World War I, World War II, Yugoslav People's Army, Yugoslav Wars, Yugoslavia, Zastava Arms, Zastava M76, ZB-53, .30-06 Springfield, .303 British, .308 Winchester, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 5.6×57mm, 6.5×55mm Swedish, 6.5×68mm, 6mm Remington, 7.5×55mm Swiss, 7.62×51mm NATO, 7.62×54mmR, 7.92×33mm Kurz, 8 mm caliber, 8×50mmR Lebel, 8×60mm S, 8×68mm S, 9.3×57mm Mauser, 9.3×62mm, 9×19mm Parabellum, 9×57mm Mauser. Expand index (76 more) » « Shrink index
In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of light.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Automatgevär m/42 (Ag m/42, outside of Sweden commonly known as the AG42, AG-42 or Ljungman) is a Swedish semi-automatic rifle which saw limited use by the Swedish Army from 1942 until the 1960s.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Česká zbrojovka a.s. Uherský Brod (ČZUB) (English: Czech Arms Factory) is a Czech firearms manufacturer.
In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Besa machine gun was a British version of the Czechoslovak ZB-53 air-cooled, belt-fed machine gun, which in the Czechoslovak army was marked as the TK vz.
The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep native to North America named for its large horns.
Blaser Jagdwaffen GmbH (pronounced: Blah-zer) is a German firearms manufacturer of high-end shotguns and rifles both for the hunting and tactical market.
Bolt action is a type of firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber are operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon (as most users are right-handed).
Bolt thrust or breech pressure is a term used in internal ballistics and firearms (whether small arms or artillery) that describes the amount of rearward force exerted by the propellant gases on the bolt or breech of a firearm action or breech when a projectile is fired.
Break action is a type of firearm action in which the barrel or barrels are hinged much like a door and rotate perpendicularly to the bore axis to expose the breech and allow loading and unloading of cartridges.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
A cannelure is a groove or channel around ammunition, either bullets or cartridge cases. The cannelure may be pressed into or cast with the bullet or case.
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A combination gun is a hunting firearm that comprises at least one rifled barrel and one smoothbore barrel, that is typically used with shot or some types of shotgun slug.
The Commission internationale permanente pour l'épreuve des armes à feu portatives ("Permanent International Commission for the Proof of Small Arms" – commonly abbreviated as C.I.P.) is an international organisation which sets standards for safety testing of firearms.
Copper units of pressure or CUP, and the related lead units of pressure or LUP, are terms applied to pressure measurements used in the field of internal ballistics for the estimation of chamber pressures in firearms.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere.
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Gewehr 88 (commonly called the Model 1888 commission rifle) was a late 19th-century German bolt action rifle, adopted in 1888.
The Gewehr 98 (abbreviated G98, Gew 98 or M98) is a German bolt-action Mauser rifle firing cartridges from a 5-round internal clip-loaded magazine that was the German service rifle from 1898 to 1935, when it was replaced by the Karabiner 98k, a shorter weapon using the same basic design.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Hakim Rifle is a gas operated semi-automatic rifle.
Heym AG is a German gun manufacturer established in 1865.
Hornady Manufacturing Company is an American manufacturer of ammunition and handloading components, based in Grand Island, Nebraska.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Also: Patrone SmK (Spitzgeschoss mit Kern) 8×57mm IS The K bullet is a 7.92×57mm (8×57mm IS) armor-piercing bullet with a tool steel core designed to be fired from a standard Mauser rifle.
The Karabiner 98 kurz ("carbine 98 short", often abbreviated Kar98k or K98k) is a bolt-action rifle chambered for the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge that was adopted on 21 June 1935 as the standard service rifle by the German Wehrmacht.
This is a list of former German colonies and protectorates (Schutzgebiete) established by the German Empire, Brandenburg-Prussia and the Habsburg Monarchy.
List of rifle cartridges, by category, then by name.
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Mauser, begun as Königliche Waffen Schmieden, is a German arms manufacturer.
Mauser Jagdwaffen GmbH is a German manufacturer of hunting rifles in the Lüke & Ortmeier group.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The MG 42 (shortened from German: Maschinengewehr 42, or "machine gun 42") is a 7.92×57mm Mauser general purpose machine gun designed in Nazi Germany and used extensively by the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS during the second half of World War II.
The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group) is a subspecies group of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis).
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Patrone 88 (cartridge 88) or M/88 is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge.
The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, is a type of single-use ignition device used on muzzleloading firearms that enabled them to fire reliably in any weather conditions.
Plunging fire is a form of indirect fire, gunfire fired at a trajectory such as to fall on its target from above.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Poudre B was the first practical smokeless gunpowder.
A proof test is a form of stress test to demonstrate the fitness of a load-bearing structure.
Prvi Partizan (Први Партизан,; abbr. PPU) is a Serbian manufacturer of ammunition and handloading components, based in Užice, Serbia.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
Remington Arms Company, LLC is an American manufacturer of firearms and ammunition in the United States.
The Remington Model 700 is a series of bolt-action rifles manufactured by Remington Arms since 1962.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.
A rim is an external flange that is machined, cast, molded, stamped or pressed around the bottom of a firearms cartridge.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
RUAG (originally Rüstungs Unternehmen Aktiengesellschaft; Joint Stock Defense Company) is a Swiss technology company, with its headquarters in Bern.
SAKO, Limited (Suojeluskuntain Ase- ja Konepaja Oy, lit "Civil Guard Gun and Machining Works Ltd") is a Finnish firearm and ammunition manufacturer located in Riihimäki, Tavastia Proper in southern Finland.
Sütterlinschrift ("Sütterlin script") is the last widely used form of Kurrent, the historical form of German handwriting that evolved alongside German blackletter (most notably Fraktur) typefaces.
Sectional density is the ratio of an object's mass to its cross-sectional area with respect to a given axis.
Sellier & Bellot is a firearms ammunition manufacturer situated in Vlašim, Czech Republic.
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding their detection capabilities.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The spitzer bullet, also commonly referred to as a spire point bullet, is primarily a small arms ballistics development of the late 19th and early 20th century, driven by military desire for aerodynamic bullet designs that will give a higher degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended ranges.
The Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI, pronounced "Sammy") is an association of American firearms and ammunition manufacturers.
Steyr Mannlicher is a firearms manufacturer based in St. Peter in der Au, Austria.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
Table of selected pistol/submachine gun and rifle/machine gun cartridges by common name.
2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine commonly referred to as tetryl (C7H5N5O8) is an explosive compound used to make detonators and explosive booster charges.
Tracer ammunition (tracers) are bullets or cannon caliber projectiles that are built with a small pyrotechnic charge in their base.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination, and incendiary munitions.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zastava Arms (Застава oружје / Zastava oružje) is a Serbian manufacturer of firearms and artillery, based in Kragujevac, Serbia.
The Zastava M76 is a military semi-automatic sniper/designated marksman rifle developed and manufactured by Zastava Arms.
The ZB-53 was a Czechoslovak machine gun.
The.30-06 Springfield cartridge (pronounced "thirty-aught-six" or "thirty-oh-six"), 7.62×63mm in metric notation and called ".30 Gov't '06" by Winchester, was introduced to the United States Army in 1906 and later standardized; it remained in use until the early 1980s.
The.303 British (designated as the 303 British by the C.I.P. and SAAMI) or 7.7×56mmR, is a calibre (with the bore diameter measured between the lands as is common practice in Europe) rimmed rifle cartridge first developed in Britain as a black-powder round put into service in December 1888 for the Lee–Metford rifle.
The.308 Winchester (pronounced: "three-oh-eight") is a rimless, bottlenecked rifle cartridge and is the commercial cartridge from which the 7.62×51mm NATO round was derived.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 5.6×57mm cartridge was created by RWS in Germany for hunting small deer such as roe deer, and for chamois.
The 6.5×55mm (designated as the 6.5×55 Swedish by the SAAMI and 6,5 × 55 SE by the C.I.P.) is a first-generation smokeless powder rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge.
The 6.5×68mm rebated rim bottlenecked centerfire rifle cartridge (also known as the 6.5×68mm RWS, 6.5×68mm Schüler, or the 6.5×68mm Von Hofe Express) and its sister cartridge the 8×68mm S were developed in the 1930s by August Schüler from the August Schüler Waffenfabrik, Suhl, Germany as magnum hunting cartridges that would just fit and function in standard-sized Mauser 98 bolt-action rifles.
The 6mm Remington rifle cartridge, originally introduced in 1955 by Remington Arms Company as the.244 Remington, is based on a necked down.257 Roberts cartridge using a.24/6mm bullet.
For the 7.5mm Swiss pistol round, see 7.5mm 1882 Ordnance The 7.5×55mm Swiss or GP 11 (or unofficially 7.5×55mm Schmidt–Rubin) is a cartridge developed for the Swiss Army by mechanical engineer Lt.
The 7.62×51mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO countries.
The 7.62×54mmR is a rimmed rifle cartridge developed by the Russian Empire and introduced as a service cartridge in 1891.
The 7.92×33mm Kurz (designated as the 7.92 x 33 kurz by the C.I.P.)Small Arms Review, Vol.
This article lists firearm cartridges which have a bullet in the to caliber range.
The 8×50mmR Lebel (8mm Lebel) (designated as the 8 × 51 R Lebel by the C.I.P.) rifle cartridge was the first smokeless powder cartridge to be made and adopted by any country.
The 8×60mm S (the S means it is intended for 8.2 mm (.323 in) groove diameter bullets) is an uncommon rimless bottlenecked centerfire cartridge of German origin, dating back to the interbellum period between World War I and World War II.
The 8×68mm S rebated rim bottlenecked centerfire rifle cartridge (the S denoting it is intended for 8.2 mm (.323 in) groove diameter bullets) and its necked-down sister cartridge, the 6.5×68mm (no S, or other modifier required), were developed in the 1930s by August Schüler of the August Schüler Waffenfabrik, Suhl, Germany as magnum hunting cartridges that would just fit and function in standard-sized Mauser 98 bolt-action rifles.
The 9.3×57mm was created by necking up the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge.
The 9.3×62mm (also known in the USA as the 9.3×62mm Mauser) is an 'all-around firearms cartridge' suitable for hunting larger species of animals in Africa, Europe, or North America. It was introduced by Otto Bock in 1905. At a typical, its 286 grain standard load balances recoil and power for effective use at up to about 250m (275 yds). The CIP Maximum Average Pressure (MAP) for the 9.3×62mm is 390 MPa (56,500 PSI). The 9.3×62mm was developed around 1905 by Berlin gunmaker Otto Bock, who designed it to fit into the Model 1898 Mauser bolt-action rifle. African hunters and settlers often chose military rifles for their reliability and low cost, but governments fearful of colonial rebellions often banned military-caliber bolt-action magazine rifles and their ammunition. The 9.3×62mm was never a military cartridge and so never had this problem. Like their military counterparts Mausers chambered in 9.3×62mm were relatively inexpensive and quite reliable. Because of these factors 9.3x62 quickly became popular in Africa and usage of the cartridge became widespread. The 9.3×74R is a rimmed 9.3 mm cartridge that evolved from the 9.3×72R black powder cartridge. The energy levels of the 9.3×62 and 9.3×74R cartridges are similar but in developmental terms are distinct as the cartridges are unrelated. The rimmed cartridge is slightly longer, allowing for lower pressure in the case while retaining muzzle velocity.
The 9×19mm Parabellum is a firearms cartridge that was designed by Georg Luger and introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) (German Weapons and Munitions Factory) for their Luger semi-automatic pistol.
The 9×57mm Mauser is a cartridge based on the 7.92×57mm Mauser.
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