140 relations: Abbess, Abbot, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath, Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik, Abu Muslim, Adomnán, Aldhelm, Alemanni, Algeria, Amitābha, Anglo-Saxon architecture, Anno Domini, Ansprand, Arab Muslims, Archbishopric of Salzburg, Aripert II, Armenia, Asti, Balkans, Balochistan, Berbers, Beverley Grammar School, Bishop of Sherborne, British Columbia, Buddhism in Japan, Byzantine Empire, Calendar era, Canada, Catholic Church, Cáin Adomnáin, Celtic Christianity, Central America, Costa Rica, Cunipert, Cusco, Cuthburh, Dál Riata, Dōkyō, Dōshō, Di Renjie, Diquis, Disibod, Doctrine, Ealdorman, East Riding of Yorkshire, Eóganachta, Emir, Emmerich am Rhein, Episcopal principality of Utrecht, ..., Erzurum, Fiannamail ua Dúnchado, Francia, Gaubald, Geraint of Dumnonia, Germany, Godeberta, Gospel Book, Greece, Gregory of Utrecht, Guatemala, Hasan ibn al-Nu'man, Hōryū-ji, Illuminated manuscript, Ine of Wessex, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jasaw Chan K'awiil I, John of Beverley, Kim Daeseong, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of the Lombards, Lady St Mary Church, Wareham, Lanciano, Lindisfarne Gospels, Liutpert, Lombards, Mahdia, Main Hall (Japanese Buddhism), Maya civilization, Miracle of Lanciano, Missionary, Moche culture, Monk, Mount Edziza volcanic complex, Musa bin Nusayr, Nara period, Osgyth, Pannonian Avars, Peloponnese, Pepin of Herstal, Peru, Pope Adrian I, Pope Paul I, Priest, Princess Asuka, Raginpert, Regent, Reineldis, Religion, Rock of Cashel, Roman Catholic Diocese of Eichstätt, Roman Catholic Diocese of Regensburg, Rome, Sahara, Saint, Saint Pirmin, Shia Islam, Sistan, Slavs, Stanford, California, Tang dynasty, Theology, Throne, Thuringia, Tikal, Tikal Temple I, Trade, Tunisia, Turin, Ulama, Umayyad Caliphate, Usurper, Vergilius of Salzburg, Wari’, Wasil ibn Ata, Wessex, Willibald, Willibrord, 619, 629, 630, 702, 748, 767, 772, 774, 795. Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
In Christianity, an abbess (Latin abbatissa, feminine form of abbas, abbot) is the female superior of a community of nuns, which is often an abbey.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Ashʿath (عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن الأشعث), commonly known as Ibn al-Ashʿath after his grandfather, was a distinguished Arab nobleman and general under the early Umayyad Caliphate, most notable for leading a failed rebellion against the Umayyad viceroy of the east, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, in 700–703.
ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān (in Greek sources Ἀβδελᾶς, Abdelas) was an Umayyad prince, the son of Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (r. 685–705), a general and governor of Egypt.
Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani or al-Khurasani (أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني born 718-19 or 723-27, died in 755), born Behzādān Pūr-i Vandād Hormoz (بهزادان پور ونداد هرمزد), was a Persian general in service of the Abbasid dynasty, who led the Abbasid Revolution that toppled the Umayyad dynasty.
Adomnán or Adamnán of Iona (Adamnanus, Adomnanus; 624 – 704), also known as Eunan, was an abbot of Iona Abbey (679–704), hagiographer, statesman, canon jurist, and saint.
Aldhelm (c. 63925 May 709), Abbot of Malmesbury Abbey, Bishop of Sherborne, Latin poet and scholar of Anglo-Saxon literature, was born before the middle of the 7th century.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Amitābha, also known as Amida or Amitāyus, is a celestial buddha according to the scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism.
Anglo-Saxon architecture was a period in the history of architecture in England, and parts of Wales, from the mid-5th century until the Norman Conquest of 1066.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Ansprand (657 – 712) was king of the Lombards briefly in 712.
Arab Muslims are adherents of Islam who identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Arabs.
The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg (Fürsterzbistum Salzburg) was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire.
Aripert II (also spelled Aribert) was the king of the Lombards from 701 to 712.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Asti is a city and comune of 76 164 inhabitants (1-1-2017) located in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, about east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Beverley Grammar School is a boys' comprehensive state secondary academy school in Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
The Bishop of Sherborne is an episcopal title which takes its name from the market town of Sherborne in Dorset, England.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Buddhism in Japan has been practiced since its official introduction in 552 CE according to the Nihon Shoki from Baekje, Korea, by Buddhist monks.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cáin Adomnáin (Law of Adomnán), also known as the Lex Innocentium (Law of Innocents), was promulgated amongst a gathering of Irish, Dál Riatan and Pictish notables at the Synod of Birr in 697.
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Cunincpert (also Cunibert or Cunipert) was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
Saint Cuthburh or Cuthburg (died circa 718) was the first Abbess of Wimborne Minster.
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
was a Japanese monk of the Hossō sect of Buddhism; and he was a political figure in the Nara period.
was a Japanese monk credited with playing an influential role in the founding of Buddhism in Japan.
Di Renjie (630 – August 15, 700), courtesy name Huaiying (懷英), formally Duke Wenhui of Liang (梁文惠公), was an official of Tang and Zhou dynasties, twice serving as chancellor during the reign of Wu Zetian.
The Diquis culture (sometimes spelled Diquís) was a pre-Columbian indigenous culture of Costa Rica that flourished from 700 AD to 1530 AD.
Saint Disibod (619–700) was an Irish monk and hermit, first mentioned in a martyrologium by Hrabanus Maurus (9th century).
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
An ealdorman (from Old English ealdorman, lit. "elder man"; plural: "ealdormen") was a high-ranking royal official and prior magistrate of an Anglo-Saxon shire or group of shires from about the ninth century to the time of King Cnut.
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Yorkshire, is a ceremonial county in the North of England.
The Eóganachta or Eoghanachta were an Irish dynasty centred on Cashel which dominated southern Ireland (namely the Kingdom of Munster) from the 6/7th to the 10th centuries, and following that, in a restricted form, the Kingdom of Desmond, and its offshoot Carbery, to the late 16th century.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Emmerich am Rhein meaning Emmerich on the Rhine (Low Rhenish and Emmerik) is a town and municipality in the northwest of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
The Bishopric of Utrecht (1024–1528) was a civil principality of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, in present Netherlands, which was ruled by the bishops of Utrecht as princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
Fiannamail ua Dúnchado was a king of Dál Riata (modern-day western Scotland and Northern Ireland) at the end of the 8th century.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Gaubald (c. 700 – 23 December 761) was the first bishop of Regensburg after the foundation of the diocese of Regensburg (he had been preceded by a number of episcopi vagantes active in the region).
Geraint (known in Latin as Gerontius) (died 710) was a King of Dumnonia who ruled in the early 8th century.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Saint Godeberta (Godebertha, Godberta) (c. 640 – June 11, c. 700) was a Frankish saint.
The Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels (Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament – normally all four – centering on the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the roots of the Christian faith.
Saint Gregory of Utrecht (700/705 – 770s) was born of a noble family at Trier.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Hasan ibn an-Nu`uman al-Ghasani (حسان بن النعمان الغساني Hasān ibn an-Nu‘umān al-Ghasānī) (d. c. 700), amir (general) of the Umayyad army in North Africa.
is a Buddhist temple that was once one of the powerful Seven Great Temples, in Ikaruga, Nara Prefecture, Japan.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
Ine was King of Wessex from 688 to 726.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jasaw Chan K'awiil IThe ruler's name, when transcribed is ja-sa-wa CHAN-na-K'AWI:L-la, translated "K'awiil that Clears? the Sky", Martin & Grube 2008, p.44.
John of Beverley (died 7 May 721) was an English bishop active in the kingdom of Northumbria.
Kim Daeseong (700–774) was a chief minister of Silla during the reign of King Seongdeok in the Unified Silla period.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.
The parish church of Lady St.
Lanciano (Abruzzese: Langiàne) is a town and comune in the province of Chieti, part of the Abruzzo region of central Italy.
The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript gospel book probably produced around the years 715-720 in the monastery at Lindisfarne, off the coast of Northumberland, which is now in the British Library in London.
Liutpert (or Liutbert) (died 702) was the Lombard king of Italy from 700 and to 702, with interruption.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Mahdia (المهدية) is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse.
Main hall is the term used in English for the building within a Japanese Buddhist temple compound (garan) which enshrines the main object of veneration.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
In Catholicism, the Miracle of Lanciano is a Eucharistic miracle purported to have occurred in the eighth century in the city of Lanciano, Italy.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
The Mount Edziza volcanic complex is a large and potentially active north-south trending complex volcano in Stikine Country, northwestern British Columbia, Canada, located southeast of the small community of Telegraph Creek.
Musa bin Nusayr (موسى بن نصير Mūsá bin Nuṣayr; 640–716) served as a governor and general under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I. He ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya), and directed the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania (Spain, Portugal, Andorra and part of France).
The of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794.
Osgyth (or Osyth) (died c.700 AD) was an English saint.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Pepin II (c. 635 – 16 December 714), commonly known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pope Adrian I (Hadrianus I d. 25 December 795) was Pope from 1 February 772 to his death in 795.
Pope Paul I (Paulus I; 70028 June 767) was Pope from 29 May 757 to his death in 767.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
(died 700) was a Japanese princess during the Asuka Period.
Raginpert (also Raghinpert or Reginbert) was the Duke of Turin and then King of the Lombards briefly in 701.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Reineldis (also Reinhild, Reinaldes, Rainelde among others; c. 630 – c. 700) was a saint of the 7th century, martyred by the Huns.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
The Rock of Cashel (Carraig Phádraig), also known as Cashel of the Kings and St.
The Diocese of Eichstätt is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Bavaria.
The Diocese of Regensburg (Dioecesis Ratisbonensis) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory seated in Regensburg, Germany.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Pirmin (ca. 700 - Hornbach 753), also named Pirminius, was a monk, strongly influenced by Celtic Christianity and Saint Amand.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Stanford is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Clara County, California, United States and is the home of Stanford University.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary, especially the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions; or the seat occupied by a pope or bishop on ceremonial occasions.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Tikal (Tik’al in modern Mayan orthography) is the ruin of an ancient city, which was likely to have been called Yax Mutal, found in a rainforest in Guatemala.
Tikal Temple I is the designation given to one of the major structures at Tikal, one of the largest cities and archaeological sites of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Mesoamerica.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy.
Vergilius of Salzburg (also Virgilius, Feirgil or Fergal) (born c. 700 in Ireland; died 27 November 784 in Salzburg) was an Irish churchman and early astronomer; he served as abbot of Aghaboe, bishop of Ossory and later, bishop of Salzburg.
The Wari', also known as the Pakaa Nova, are an indigenous people of Brazil, living in seven villages in the Amazon rainforest in the state of Rondônia.
Wāṣil ibn ʿAtāʾ (700–748) (واصل بن عطاء) was an important Muslim theologian and jurist of his time, and by many accounts is considered to be the founder of the Muʿtazilite school of Kalam.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
Saint Willibald (born in Wessex c.700 and died c.787 in Eichstätt) was an 8th-century bishop of Eichstätt in Bavaria.
Willibrord (658 – 7 November AD 739) was a Northumbrian missionary saint, known as the "Apostle to the Frisians" in the modern Netherlands.
Year 619 (DCXIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 629 (DCXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 630 (DCXXX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 702 (DCCII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 748 (DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 767 (DCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 772 (DCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 774 (DCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 795 (DCCXCV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.