29 relations: Amir Kubura, Arabic, Army, Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, BBC News, Bosniaks, Bosnian mujahideen, Bosnian War, Brigade, Croatia, Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, Croats, Enver Hadžihasanović, Foreign fighters in the Bosnian War, Islam, Mountain warfare, Mujahideen, Muslim, Operation Neretva '93, Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sefer Halilović, Serbs, Split, Croatia, Territorial Defence Force of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Travnik, Yugoslav Wars, Zagreb, Zenica, 3rd Corps of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Amir Kubura (born 4 March 1964) is a former Bosnian commander of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and officer of the Yugoslav People's Army who was indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and sentenced to two years imprisonment for 'plunder of public or private property'.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
The Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH, Armija Republike Bosne i Hercegovine), often referred to as Bosnian Army, was the military force of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina established by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992 following the outbreak of the Bosnian War.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnian mujahideen (Bosanski mudžahedini), also called El Mudžahid (from مجاهد, mujāhid), were foreign Muslim volunteers who fought on the Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) side during the 1992–95 Bosnian War.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognised geopolitical entity and proto-state in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
Enver Hadžihasanović (born 7 July 1950) is a former Bosnian chief of staff of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and war criminal.
The Bosnian War attracted large numbers of foreign fighters and mercenaries from various countries.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or similarly rough terrain.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Operation Neretva '93 was an Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) operation against the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) in September 1993 on a 200 km long front from Gornji Vakuf to south of Mostar, one of its largest of the year, on areas which were included in the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia.
The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Bosna i Hercegovina / Република Босна и Херцеговина) was the direct legal predecessor to the modern-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sefer Halilović (born 6 January 1952 in Prijepolje, PR Serbia, FPR Yugoslavia) is a former general and commanding officer of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the 1992–95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
The Territorial Defence Force of the Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina (Teritorijalna odbrana Bosne i Hercegovine (TO BiH)) were the first official armed forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina at the beginning of the Bosnian War.
Travnik is a town and municipality and the administrative center of Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zenica is the fourth largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The 3rd Corps of the Bosnian Army was one of five, later seven.