66 relations: Armee-Abteilung A, Armee-Abteilung D, Army, Army group, Army Group Mackensen (Poland), Army Group Mackensen (Serbia), Army of the Niemen, August von Mackensen, Battle of Gumbinnen, Battle of Stallupönen, Battle of Tannenberg, Bruno von Mudra, Curt von Morgen, East Prussia, Eastern Front (World War I), Erich Ludendorff, Estonia, Field army, First Battle of the Masurian Lakes, Friedrich von Scholtz, Günther von Kirchbach, Gdańsk, General of the Artillery (Germany), General of the Cavalry (Germany), General of the Infantry (Germany), Generalleutnant, Generaloberst, German Army (German Empire), Great Retreat (Russian), Helmuth von Moltke the Younger, Hermann von François, Hugo von Kathen, I Corps (German Empire), I Reserve Corps (German Empire), Imperial Castle, Poznań, Königsberg, Landwehr Corps, Lithuania, Max von Fabeck, Maximilian von Prittwitz, Mobilization, Olsztyn, Oskar von Hutier, Otto von Below, Paul von Hindenburg, Poznań, Remus von Woyrsch, Richard von Schubert, Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, Vistula, ..., World War I, World War II, XIV Reserve Corps (German Empire), XVI Corps (German Empire), XVII Corps (German Empire), XX Corps (German Empire), XXIII Reserve Corps (German Empire), XXVII Reserve Corps (German Empire), XXXXI Reserve Corps (German Empire), 12th Army (German Empire), 18th Army (German Empire), 1st Army (Austria-Hungary), 1st Cavalry Division (German Empire), 3rd Reserve Division (German Empire), 8th Army (Wehrmacht), 9th Army (German Empire). Expand index (16 more) » « Shrink index
Armee-Abteilung Falkenhausen / Armee-Abteilung A (Army Detachment A) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It served on the left (southern) wing of the Western Front throughout its existence.
Armee-Abteilung Scholtz / Armee-Abteilung D (Army Detachment D) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It served on the Eastern Front throughout its existence.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
An army group is a military organization consisting of several field armies, which is self-sufficient for indefinite periods.
The Army Group Mackensen (Heeresgruppe Mackensen, HGr.) which operated in Poland between 22 April 1915 and 8 September 1915 during World War I under the command of Field Marshal August von Mackensen, was an army group of the Imperial German Army.
The Army Group Mackensen (German: Heeresgruppe Mackensen) which operated in Serbia between 18 September 1915 and 11 October 1916 during World War I under the command of Field Marshal Mackensen, was an Army Group of the German Army.
The Army of the Niemen (Njemen-Armee) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I.
Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen (6 December 1849 – 8 November 1945), born August Mackensen, was a German field marshal.
The Battle of Gumbinnen, initiated by forces of the German Empire on 20 August 1914, was a German offensive on the Eastern Front during the First World War.
The Battle of Stallupönen, fought between Russian and German armies on August 17, 1914, was the opening battle of World War I on the Eastern Front.
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russia and Germany between the 26th and 30th of August 1914, the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov.
Karl Bruno Julius Mudra, from 1913 von Mudra (1 April 1851 in Bad Muskau – 21 November 1931 in Zippendorf) was a Prussian officer, and later General of Infantry during World War I. He was a recipient of Pour le Mérite with Oak Leaves.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Curt Ernst von Morgenland (1 November 1858 in Neiße – 15 February 1928 in Lübeck) was a Prussian explorer and officer, later General of Infantry during World War I. He was a recipient of Pour le Mérite with Oak Leaves.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group.
The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It pushed the Russian First Army back across its entire front, eventually ejecting it from Germany.
Friedrich von Scholtz (born 24 March 1851 in Flensburg – died 30 April 1927 in Ballenstedt) was a German general, who served as commander of 20th Corps and the 8th Army of the German Empire on the Eastern Front in the First World War and later as commander of Army Group Scholtz on the Macedonian Front.
Günther Emanuel Graf von Kirchbach (9 August 1850 – 6 November 1925) was a German Generaloberst who served during the First World War.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
General der Artillerie (en: General of the artillery) may mean: 1. A rank of three-star general, comparable to modern armed forces OF-8 grade, in the Imperial Army, Reichswehr or Wehrmacht - the second-highest regular rank below Generaloberst.
General of the Cavalry (General der Kavallerie) was a General of the branch OF8-rank in the Imperial Army, the interwar Reichswehr, and the Wehrmacht.
General of the Infantry (General der Infanterie; short: General d. Inf.) is a former rank of German Ground forces (de: Heer).
Generalleutnant, short GenLt, (lieutenant general) is the second highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe).
Generaloberst, in English Colonel General, was, in Germany and Austria-Hungary—the German Reichswehr and Wehrmacht, the Austro-Hungarian Common Army, and the East German National People's Army, as well as the respective police services—the second highest general officer rank, ranking above full general but below general field marshal.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The Great Retreat was a strategic withdrawal from the Galicia-Poland salient conducted by the Imperial Russian Army during September 1915 in World War I. The Russians' critically under-equipped and (at the points of engagement) outnumbered forces suffered great losses in the Central Powers' July–September summer offensive operations, this leading to the Stavka ordering a withdrawal to shorten the front lines and avoid the potential encirclement of large Russian forces in the salient.
Helmuth Johann Ludwig Graf von Moltke (23 May 1848 – 18 June 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Generalfeldmarschall (Field Marshal) Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke and served as the Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914.
Hermann Karl Bruno von François (January 31, 1856 – May 15, 1933) was a German General der Infanterie during World War I, and is best known for his key role in several German victories on the Eastern Front in 1914.
Hugo Karl Gottlieb von Kathen (27 August 1855 – 2 April 1932) was a German infantry general during World War I.
The I Army Corps / I AK (I.) was a corps level command of the Prussian and then the Imperial German Armies from the 19th Century to World War I. It was established with headquarters in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
The I Reserve Corps (I.) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.
The Imperial Castle in Poznań, popularly called Zamek (Zamek Cesarski w Poznaniu, Königliches Residenzschloss Posen), is a palace in Poznań, in Poland.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
The Landwehr Corps (Landwehrkorps) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Herrmann Gustav Karl Max von Fabeck (6 May 1854 – † 16 December 1916) was a Prussian military officer and a German General der Infantarie during World War I. He commanded the 13th Corps in the 5th Army and took part in the Race to the Sea on the Western Front and also commanded the new 11th Army on the Eastern Front.
Maximilian Wilhelm Gustav von Prittwitz und Gaffron (27 November 1848 – 29 March 1917) was an Imperial German general.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
Oskar Emil von Hutier (27 August 1857 – 5 December 1934) was a German general during the First World War.
Otto Ernst Vincent Leo von Below (18 January 1857 – 15 March 1944) was a Prussian general officer in the Imperial German Army during the First World War.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Martin Wilhelm Remus von Woyrsch (4 February 1847 – 6 August 1920) was a Prussian Field Marshal, a member of the Prussian House of Lords from 1908 to 1918, and an Ehrenkommendator or Honorary Commander of the Order of St. John.
Adolf Louis Theodor Richard von Schubert (April 19, 1850 – May 13, 1933) served as a German army commander during the First World War.
The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers' offensive on the Eastern Front in the winter of 1915.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The XIV Reserve Corps (XIV.) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.
The XVI Army Corps / XVI AK (XVI.) was a corps level command of the German Army before and during World War I. It was assigned to the VII Army Inspectorate, which became the 5th Army at the start of the First World War.
The XVII Army Corps / XVII AK (XVII.) was a corps level command of the German Army before and during World War I. As the German Army expanded in the latter part of the 19th century, the XVII Army Corps was set up on 1 April 1890 in Danzig as the Generalkommando (headquarters) for West Prussia.
The XX Army Corps / XX AK (XX.) was a corps level command of the German Army before and during World War I. As the German Army expanded in the latter part of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century, the XX Army Corps was set up on 1 October 1912 in Allenstein as the Generalkommando (headquarters) for the southern part of East Prussia.
The XXIII Reserve Corps (XXIII.) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.
The XXVII Reserve Corps (XXVII.) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.
The XXXXI Reserve Corps (XXXXI.) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.
The 12th Army (12.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I formed in August 1915 by the redesignation of Armee-Gruppe Gallwitz.
The 18th Army (18.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed against France on 27 December 1917 from the former Heeresgruppe Woyrsch command.
The 1st Army (k.u.k. 1.) was a field army-level command in the ground forces of Austria-Hungary during World War I. The army fought in Galicia and Russian Poland in 1914–15 before being briefly dissolved in the summer of 1916.
The 1st Cavalry Division (1. Kavallerie-Division) was a unit of the German Army in World War I. The division was formed on the mobilization of the German Army in August 1914.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 3rd Reserve Division (3. Reserve-Division) was a reserve infantry division of the Imperial German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from reserve infantry units primarily from Pomerania.
The 8th Army (German: 8. Armee Oberkommando) was a World War I and possibly World War II field army.
The 9th Army (9.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed in September 1914 in Breslau to command troops on the southern sector of the Eastern Front.